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Chapter 120 : , , , and Other Dimorphic Fungi Causing Systemic Mycoses

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Abstract:

This chapter covers the dimorphic members of the families Onygenaceae and Ajellomycetaceae, which include , , , and and as well as species. is thermally dimorphic, converting from the mold phase to the yeast phase under appropriate conditions of temperature and nutrition. In the environment and in culture at room temperature, the fungus exists as a mold producing septate hyphae and arthroconidia that usually develop in alternate hyphal cells. Inhalation of conidia is the usual mode of infection leading to blastomycosis. The incubation period has been estimated to be 4 to 6 weeks. Inhalation of arthroconidia is the usual mode of infection leading to coccidioidomycosis in humans. The incubation period is 1 to 3 weeks. Paracoccidioidomycosis predominates in adults, who display 85% to 95% of cases, and in persons in agriculture-related occupations. The disease is more often diagnosed in males than in females. There is a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations of histoplasmosis, ranging from a transient pulmonary infection that subsides without treatment to chronic pulmonary infection or to more widespread disseminated disease. Tissue sections should be stained with periodic acid-Schiff, Grocott-Gomori methenamine silver, or hematoxylin and eosin to permit the detection of the characteristic large thick-walled spherules of species.

Citation: Brandt M, Gomez B, Warnock D. 2011. , , , and Other Dimorphic Fungi Causing Systemic Mycoses, p 1902-1918. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch120

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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Mycelial phase of showing tuberculate macroconidia and microconidia. Lactophenol cotton blue stain. Magnification, ∼×245.

Citation: Brandt M, Gomez B, Warnock D. 2011. , , , and Other Dimorphic Fungi Causing Systemic Mycoses, p 1902-1918. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch120
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

GMS stain showing blastoconidia of . Magnification, ∼×290.

Citation: Brandt M, Gomez B, Warnock D. 2011. , , , and Other Dimorphic Fungi Causing Systemic Mycoses, p 1902-1918. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch120
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

(A) Calcofluor white wet mount of sputum showing blastoconidia of . Original magnification, ×475. (Courtesy of the American Society of Clinical Pathology.) (B) Calcofluor white wet mount of sputum showing blastoconidia of . Magnification, ∼×255.

Citation: Brandt M, Gomez B, Warnock D. 2011. , , , and Other Dimorphic Fungi Causing Systemic Mycoses, p 1902-1918. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch120
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Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Mycelial phase of . Magnification, ∼×240.

Citation: Brandt M, Gomez B, Warnock D. 2011. , , , and Other Dimorphic Fungi Causing Systemic Mycoses, p 1902-1918. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch120
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Image of FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5

Blastoconidia of . GMS stain. Magnification, ∼×290.

Citation: Brandt M, Gomez B, Warnock D. 2011. , , , and Other Dimorphic Fungi Causing Systemic Mycoses, p 1902-1918. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch120
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Image of FIGURE 6
FIGURE 6

Mycelial phase of showing alternating arthroconidia. Lactofuchsin stain. Magnification, ∼×250.

Citation: Brandt M, Gomez B, Warnock D. 2011. , , , and Other Dimorphic Fungi Causing Systemic Mycoses, p 1902-1918. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch120
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Image of FIGURE 7
FIGURE 7

KOH preparation of pus from a lesion showing spherule and endospores. Magnification, ∼×290. (Reprinted from reference with permission).

Citation: Brandt M, Gomez B, Warnock D. 2011. , , , and Other Dimorphic Fungi Causing Systemic Mycoses, p 1902-1918. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch120
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Image of FIGURE 8
FIGURE 8

Wet mount showing blastoconidia of . Magnification, ∼×290

Citation: Brandt M, Gomez B, Warnock D. 2011. , , , and Other Dimorphic Fungi Causing Systemic Mycoses, p 1902-1918. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch120
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Image of FIGURE 9
FIGURE 9

adiaspore in mouse tissue. PAS stain. Magnification, ∼×280.

Citation: Brandt M, Gomez B, Warnock D. 2011. , , , and Other Dimorphic Fungi Causing Systemic Mycoses, p 1902-1918. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch120
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Tables

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TABLE 1

In vitro susceptibilities of dimorphic fungi to antifungal agents

NR, not reported.

Citation: Brandt M, Gomez B, Warnock D. 2011. , , , and Other Dimorphic Fungi Causing Systemic Mycoses, p 1902-1918. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch120

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