1887

Chapter 120 : , , , and Other Dimorphic Fungi Causing Systemic Mycoses

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

, , , and Other Dimorphic Fungi Causing Systemic Mycoses, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap120-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap120-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter covers the dimorphic members of the families Onygenaceae and Ajellomycetaceae, which include , , , and and as well as species. is thermally dimorphic, converting from the mold phase to the yeast phase under appropriate conditions of temperature and nutrition. In the environment and in culture at room temperature, the fungus exists as a mold producing septate hyphae and arthroconidia that usually develop in alternate hyphal cells. Inhalation of conidia is the usual mode of infection leading to blastomycosis. The incubation period has been estimated to be 4 to 6 weeks. Inhalation of arthroconidia is the usual mode of infection leading to coccidioidomycosis in humans. The incubation period is 1 to 3 weeks. Paracoccidioidomycosis predominates in adults, who display 85% to 95% of cases, and in persons in agriculture-related occupations. The disease is more often diagnosed in males than in females. There is a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations of histoplasmosis, ranging from a transient pulmonary infection that subsides without treatment to chronic pulmonary infection or to more widespread disseminated disease. Tissue sections should be stained with periodic acid-Schiff, Grocott-Gomori methenamine silver, or hematoxylin and eosin to permit the detection of the characteristic large thick-walled spherules of species.

Citation: Brandt M, Gomez B, Warnock D. 2011. , , , and Other Dimorphic Fungi Causing Systemic Mycoses, p 1902-1918. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch120

Key Concept Ranking

TaqMan Real-Time PCR Assay
0.4648864
Central Nervous System Diseases
0.4418781
Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha
0.43443614
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
0.41377896
0.4648864
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Mycelial phase of showing tuberculate macroconidia and microconidia. Lactophenol cotton blue stain. Magnification, ∼×245.

Citation: Brandt M, Gomez B, Warnock D. 2011. , , , and Other Dimorphic Fungi Causing Systemic Mycoses, p 1902-1918. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch120
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

GMS stain showing blastoconidia of . Magnification, ∼×290.

Citation: Brandt M, Gomez B, Warnock D. 2011. , , , and Other Dimorphic Fungi Causing Systemic Mycoses, p 1902-1918. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch120
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

(A) Calcofluor white wet mount of sputum showing blastoconidia of . Original magnification, ×475. (Courtesy of the American Society of Clinical Pathology.) (B) Calcofluor white wet mount of sputum showing blastoconidia of . Magnification, ∼×255.

Citation: Brandt M, Gomez B, Warnock D. 2011. , , , and Other Dimorphic Fungi Causing Systemic Mycoses, p 1902-1918. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch120
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Mycelial phase of . Magnification, ∼×240.

Citation: Brandt M, Gomez B, Warnock D. 2011. , , , and Other Dimorphic Fungi Causing Systemic Mycoses, p 1902-1918. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch120
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5

Blastoconidia of . GMS stain. Magnification, ∼×290.

Citation: Brandt M, Gomez B, Warnock D. 2011. , , , and Other Dimorphic Fungi Causing Systemic Mycoses, p 1902-1918. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch120
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 6
FIGURE 6

Mycelial phase of showing alternating arthroconidia. Lactofuchsin stain. Magnification, ∼×250.

Citation: Brandt M, Gomez B, Warnock D. 2011. , , , and Other Dimorphic Fungi Causing Systemic Mycoses, p 1902-1918. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch120
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 7
FIGURE 7

KOH preparation of pus from a lesion showing spherule and endospores. Magnification, ∼×290. (Reprinted from reference with permission).

Citation: Brandt M, Gomez B, Warnock D. 2011. , , , and Other Dimorphic Fungi Causing Systemic Mycoses, p 1902-1918. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch120
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 8
FIGURE 8

Wet mount showing blastoconidia of . Magnification, ∼×290

Citation: Brandt M, Gomez B, Warnock D. 2011. , , , and Other Dimorphic Fungi Causing Systemic Mycoses, p 1902-1918. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch120
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 9
FIGURE 9

adiaspore in mouse tissue. PAS stain. Magnification, ∼×280.

Citation: Brandt M, Gomez B, Warnock D. 2011. , , , and Other Dimorphic Fungi Causing Systemic Mycoses, p 1902-1918. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch120
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555816728.chap120
1. Antoniskis, D.,, R. A. Larsen,, B. Akil,, M. U. Rarik,, and J. M. Leedom. 1990. Seronegative disseminated coccidioidomycosis in patients with HIV infection. AIDS 4: 691 693.
2. Bialek, R.,, A. Ibricevic,, C. Aepinus,, L. K. Najvar,, A. W. Fothergill,, J. Knobloch,, and J. R. Graybill. 2000. Detection of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in tissue samples by a nested PCR assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 2940 2942.
3. Bialek, R.,, A. Feucht,, C. Aepinus,, G. Just-Nubling,, V. J. Robertson,, J. Knobloch,, and R. Hohle. 2002. Evaluation of two nested PCR assays for detection of Histoplasma capsulatum DNA in human tissue. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40: 1644 1647.
4. Bialek, R.,, A. C. Cirera,, T. Herrmann,, C. Aepinus,, V. I. Shearn-Bochsler,, and A. M. Legendre. 2003. Nested PCR assays for detection of Blastomyces dermatitidis DNA in paraffin- imbedded canine tissue. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41: 205 208.
5. Bialek, R.,, J. Kern,, T. Herrmann,, R. Tijerina,, L. Cecenas,, U. Reischl,, and G. M. Gonzalez. 2004. PCR assays for identification of Coccidioides posadasii based on the nucleotide sequence of the antigen 2/proline rich antigen. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42: 778 783.
6. Bialek, R.,, G. M. Gonzalez,, D. Begerow,, and U. E. Zelck. 2005. Coccidioidomycosis and blastomycosis: advances in molecular diagnosis. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 45: 355 360.
7. Binnicker, M. J.,, S. P. Buckwalter,, J. J. Eisberner,, R. A. Stewart,, A. E. McCullough,, S. L. Wohlfiel,, and N. L. Wegenack. 2007. Detection of Coccidioides species in clinical specimens by real-time PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45: 173 178.
8. Bracca, A.,, M. E. Tosello,, J. E. Girardini,, S. L. Amigot,, C. Gomez,, and E. Serra. 2003. Molecular detection of Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum in human clinical samples. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41: 1753 1755.
9. Brandt, M. E.,, D. Gaunt,, N. Iqbal,, S. McClinton,, S. Hambleton,, and L. Sigler. 2005. False-positive Histoplasma capsulatum Gen-Probe chemiluminescent test result caused by a Chrysosporium species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43: 1456 1458.
10. Buitrago, M. J.,, P. Merino,, S. Puente,, A. Gomez-Lopez,, A. Arribi,, R. M. Zancope-Oliveira,, M. C. Gutierrez,, J. L. Rodriguez-Tudela,, and M. Cuenca-Estrella. 2009. Utility of real-time PCR for the detection of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis DNA in the diagnosis of imported paracoccidioidomycosis. Med. Mycol. 31: 1 4.
11. Cano, L. E.,, and A. Restrepo. 1987. Predictive value of serologic tests in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with paracoccidioidomycosis. Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo 29: 276 283.
12. Chapman, S. W., 2005. Blastomyces dermatitidis, p. 3026 3040. In G. L. Mandell,, J. E. Bennett,, and R. Dolin (ed.), Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 6th ed. Elsevier, Philadelphia, PA.
13. Cloud, J. L.,, S. K. Bauman,, B. P. Neary,, K. G. Ludwig,, and E. R. Ashwood. 2007. Performance characteristics of a polyclonal enzyme immunoassay for the quantitation of Histoplasma antigen in human urine samples. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 128: 18 22.
14. Connolly, P. A.,, M. M. Durkin,, A. M. LeMonte,, E. J. Hackett,, and L. J. Wheat. 2007. Detection of Histoplasma antigen by quantitative enzyme immunoassay. Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 14: 1587 1591.
15. Cuellar Rodriguez, J.,, R. K. Avery,, M. Budey,, S. M. Gordon,, N. K. Shrestha,, D. van Duin,, M. Oethinger,, and S. D. Mawhorter. 2009. Histoplasmosis in solid organ transplant recipients: 10 years of experience at a large transplant center in an endemic area. Clin. Infect. Dis. 49: 710 716.
16. Deepe, G. S., Jr., 2005. Histoplasma capsulatum, p. 3012 3026. In G. L. Mandell,, J. E. Bennett,, and R. Dolin (ed.), Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 6th ed. Elsevier, Philadelphia, PA.
17. de Medeiros Muniz, M.,, C. V. Pizzini,, J. M. Peralta,, E. Reiss,, and R. Zancopé-Oliveira. 2001. Genetic diversity of Histoplasma capsulatum strains isolated from soil, animals, and clinical specimens in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, by a PCRbased random amplified polymorphic DNA assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39: 4487 4494.
18. Dosanjh, A.,, J. Theodore,, and D. Pappagianis. 1998. Probable false positive coccidioidal serologic results in patients with cystic fibrosis. Pediatr. Transplant. 2: 313 317.
19. Dot, J. M.,, A. Debourgogne,, J. Champigneulle,, Y. Salles,, M. Brizion,, J. M. Puyhardy,, J. Collomb,, F. Plénat,, and M. Machouart. 2009. Molecular diagnosis of disseminated adiaspiromycosis due to Emmonsia crescens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 47: 1269 1273.
20. Durkin, M.,, J. Witt,, A. LeMonte,, B. Wheat,, and P. Connolly. 2004. Antigen assay with the potential to aid in diagnosis of blastomycosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42: 4873 4875.
21. Durkin, M.,, P. Connolly,, T. Kuberski,, R. Myers,, B. M. Kubak,, D. Bruckner,, D. Pegues,, and L. J. Wheat. 2008. Diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis with use of the Coccidioides Antigen Enzyme Immunoassay. Clin. Infect. Dis. 47: 69 73.
22. Eckmann, B. H.,, G. L. Schaefer,, and M. Huppert. 1964. Bedside interhuman transmission of coccidioidomycosis via growth on fomites. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 89: 179 185.
23. Espinel-Ingroff, A. 1998. In vitro activity of the new triazole voriconazole (UK-109,496) against opportunistic filamentous and dimorphic fungi and common and emerging yeast pathogens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 198 202.
24. Espinel-Ingroff, A. 1998. Comparison of in vitro activities of the new triazole SCH56592 and the echinocandins MK- 0991 (L-743,872) and LY303366 against opportunistic filamentous and dimorphic fungi and yeasts. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 2950 2956.
25. Fisher, M. C.,, G. L. Koenig,, T. J. White,, and J. W. Taylor. 2002. Molecular and phenotypic description of Coccidioides posadasii sp. nov., previously recognized as the non-California population of Coccidioides immitis. Mycologia 94: 73 84.
26. Galgiani, J., 2005. Coccidioides species, p. 3040 3051. In G. L. Mandell,, J. E. Bennett,, and R. Dolin (ed.), Principles and Practice of Infectious Disease, 6th ed. Elsevier, Philadelphia, PA.
27. Gomez, B. L.,, J. I. Figueroa,, A. J. Hamilton,, B. Ortiz,, M. A. Robledo,, R. J. Hay,, and A. Restrepo. 1997. Use of monoclonal antibodies in diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis: new strategies for detection of circulating antigens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 3278 3283.
28. Gomez, B. L.,, J. I. Figueroa,, A. J. Hamilton,, S. Diez,, M. Rojas,, A. M. Tobon,, R. J. Hay,, and A. Restrepo. 1998. Antigenemia in patients with paracoccidioidomycosis: detection of the 87-kilodalton determinant during and after antifungal therapy. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 3309 3316.
29. Gonzalez, G. M.,, R. Tijerina,, L. K. Najvar,, R. Bocanegra,, M. Luther,, M. G. Rinaldi,, and J. R. Graybill. 2001. Correlation between antifungal susceptibilities of Coccidioides immitis in vitro and antifungal treatment with caspofungin in a mouse model. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45: 1854 1859.
30. Gonzalez, G. M.,, R. Tijerina,, L. K. Najvar,, R. Bocanegra,, M. Rinaldi,, D. Loebenberg,, and J. R. Graybill. 2002. In vitro and in vivo activities of posaconazole against Coccidioides immitis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46: 1352 1356.
31. Gori, S.,, E. Drouhet,, E. Gueho,, M. Huerre,, A. Lofaro,, M. Parenti,, and B. Dupont. 1998. Cutaneous disseminated mycosis in a patient with AIDS due to a new dimorphic fungus. J. Mycol. Med. 8: 57 63.
32. Hall, G. S.,, K. Pratt-Rippin,, and J. A. Washington. 1992. Evaluation of a chemiluminescent probe assay for identification of Histoplasma capsulatum isolates. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30: 3003 3004.
33. Herr, R. A.,, E. J. Tarcha,, P. R. Taborda,, J. W. Taylor,, L. Ajello,, and L. Mendoza. 2001. Phylogenetic analysis of Lacazia loboi places this previously uncharacterized pathogen within the dimorphic onygenales . J. Clin. Microbiol. 39: 309 314.
34. Imhof, A.,, C. Schaer,, G. Schoedon,, D. J. Schaer,, R. B. Walter,, A. Schaffner,, and M. Schneemann. 2003. Rapid detection of pathogenic fungi from clinical specimens using LightCycler real-time fluorescence PCR. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 22: 558 560.
35. Jewell, K.,, R. Cheshier,, and G. D. Cage. 2008. Genetic diversity among clinical Coccidioides spp. isolates in Arizona. Med. Mycol. 46: 449 455.
36. Karimi, K.,, L. J. Wheat,, P. Connolly,, G. Cloud,, R. Hajjeh,, E. Wheat,, K. Alves,, C. da Silva Lacaz,, and E. Keath. 2002. Differences in histoplasmosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in the United States and Brazil. J. Infect. Dis. 186: 1655 1660.
37. Kasuga, T.,, T. J. White,, G. Koenig,, J. McEwen,, A. Restrepo,, E. Castaneda,, C. DaSilva Lacaz,, E. M. Heins- Vaccari,, R. S. De Freitas,, R. M. Zancope-Oliveira,, Z. Qin,, R. Negroni,, D. A. Carter,, Y. Mikami,, M. Tamura,, M. L. Taylor,, G. F. Miller,, N. Poonwan,, and J. W. Taylor. 2003. Phylogeography of the fungal pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum. Mol. Ecol. 12: 3383 3401.
38. Kauffman, C. A. 2009. Histoplasmosis. Clin. Chest Med. 30: 217 225.
39. Kaufman, L.,, A. S. Sekhon,, N. Moledina,, M. Jalbert,, and D. Pappagianis. 1995. Comparative evaluation of commercial Premier EIA and microimmunodiffusion and complement fixation tests for Coccidioides immitis antibodies. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 618 619.
40. Koufopanou, V.,, A. Burt,, and J. W. Taylor. 1997. Concordance of gene genealogies reveals reproductive isolation in the pathogenic fungus Coccidioides immitis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94: 5478 5482.
41. Koufopanou, V.,, A. Burt,, T. Szaro,, and J. W. Taylor. 2001. Gene genealogies, cryptic species, and molecular evolution in the human pathogen Coccidioides immitis and relatives (Ascomycota, Onygenales). Mol. Biol. Evol. 18: 1246 1258.
42. Lenhart, S. W.,, M. P. Schafer,, M. Singal,, and R. A. Hajjeh. 2004. Histoplasmosis: Protecting Workers at Risk. DHHS (NIOSH) publication no. 2005-109. www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2005-109..
43. Li, R. K.,, M. A. Ciblak,, N. Nordoff,, L. Pasarell,, D. W. Warnock,, and M. R. McGinnis. 2000. In vitro activities of voriconazole, itraconazole, and amphotericin B against Blastomyces dermatitidis, Coccidioides immitis, and Histoplasma capsulatum. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44: 1734 1736.
44. Lindsley, M. D.,, D. W. Warnock,, and C. J. Morrison,. 2006. Serological and molecular diagnosis of fungal infection, p. 569 605. In N. R. Rose,, R. G. Hamilton,, and B. Detrick (ed.), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
45. Marques da Silva, S. H.,, A. L. Colombo,, M. H. Blotta,, J. D. Lopes,, F. Queiroz-Telles,, and Z. Pires de Camargo. 2003. Detection of circulating gp43 antigen in serum, cerebrospinal fluid, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with paracoccidioidomycosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41: 3675 3680.
46. Marques da Silva, S. H.,, F. Queiroz-Telles,, A. L. Colombo,, M. H. Blotta,, J. D. Lopes,, and Z. P. Camargo. 2004. Monitoring of gp43 antigenemia in paracoccidioidomycosis patients during therapy. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42: 2419 2424.
47. Martins, T. B.,, T. D. Jaskowski,, C. L. Mouritsen,, and H. R. Hill. 1995. Comparison of commercially available enzyme immunoassay with traditional serological tests for detection of antibodies to Coccidioides immitis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 940 943.
48. Matute, D. R.,, J. G. McEwen,, R. Puccia,, B. A. Montes,, G. San-Blas,, E. Bagagli,, J. T. Rauscher,, A. Restrepo,, F. Morais,, G. Niño-Vega,, and J. W. Taylor. 2006. Cryptic speciation and recombination in the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis as revealed by gene genealogies. Mol. Biol. Evol. 23: 65 73.
49. McCullough, M. J.,, A. F. DiSalvo,, K. V. Clemons,, P. Park,, and D. A. Stevens. 2000. Molecular epidemiology of Blastomyces dermatitidis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 30: 328 335.
50. McGinnis, M. R.,, L. Pasarell,, D. A. Sutton,, A. W. Fothergill,, C. R. Cooper,, and M. G. Rinaldi. 1997. In vitro evaluation of voriconazole against some clinically important fungi. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41: 1832 1834.
51. McKinsey, D. S.,, J. P. McKinsey,, N. Northcutt,, and J. C. Sarria. 2009. Interlaboratory discrepancy of antigenuria results in 2 patients with AIDS and histoplasmosis. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 63: 111 114.
52. Meece, J. K.,, J. L. Anderson,, B. S. Klein,, T. D. Sullivan,, S. L. Foley,, D. J. Baumgardner,, C. F. Brummitt,, and K. D. Reed. 2009. Genetic diversity in Blastomyces dermatitidis: implications for PCR detection in clinical and environmental samples. Med. Mycol. 22: 1 7.
53. Mendes-Giannini, M. J.,, J. P. Bueno,, M. A. Shikanai-Yasuda,, A. W. Ferreira,, and A. Masuda. 1989. Detection of the 43,000-molecular-weight glycoprotein in sera of patients with paracoccidioidomycosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27: 2842 2845.
54. Martagon-Villamil, J.,, N. Shrestha,, M. Sholtis,, C. M. Isada,, G. S. Hall,, T. Byrne,, B. A. Lodge,, L. B. Reller,, and G. W. Procop. 2003. Identification of Histoplasma capsulatum from culture extracts by real-time PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41: 1295 1298.
55. Maubon, D.,, S. Simon,, and C. Aznar. 2007. Histoplasmosis diagnosis using a polymerase chain reaction method. Application on human samples in French Guiana, South America. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 58: 441 444.
56. Millar, B. C.,, X. Jiru,, M. J. Walker,, J. P. Evans,, and J. E. Moore. 2003. False identification of Coccidioides immitis: do molecular methods always get it right? J. Clin. Microbiol. 41: 5778 5780.
57. Nascimento, E.,, R. Martinez,, A. R. Lopes,, L. A. de Souza Bernardes,, C. P. Barco,, M. H. S. Goldman,, J. W. Taylor,, J. G. McEwen,, M. P. Nobrega,, F. G. Nobrega,, and G. H. Goldman. 2004. Detection and selection of microsatellites in the genome of Paracocccidioides brasiliensis as molecular markers for clinical and epidemiological studies. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42: 5007 5014.
58. Padhye, A. A.,, G. Smith,, D. McLaughlin,, P. G. Standard,, and L. Kaufman. 1992. Comparative evaluation of a chemiluminescent DNA probe and an exoantigen test for rapid identification of Histoplasma capsulatum. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30: 3108 3111.
59. Padhye, A. A.,, G. Smith,, P. G. Standard,, D. McLaughlin,, and L. Kaufman. 1994. Comparative evaluation of chemiluminescent DNA probe assays and exoantigen tests for rapid identification of Blastomyces dermatitidis and Coccidioides immitis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32: 867 870.
60. Pappagianis, D.,, I. Krasnow,, and S. Beall. 1976. Falsepositive reactions of cerebrospinal fluid and diluted sera with the coccidioidal latex agglutination test. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 66: 916 921.
61. Pappagianis, D., 1996. Serology of coccidioidomycosis, p. 33 35. In H. E. Einstein, and A. Catanzaro (ed.), Coccidioidomycosis: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference. National Foundation for Infectious Diseases, Washington, DC.
62. Peterson, S. W.,, and L. Sigler. 1998. Molecular genetic variation in Emmonsia crescens and Emmonsia parva, etiologic agents of adiaspiromycosis, and their phylogenetic relationship to Blastomyces dermatitidis ( Ajellomyces dermatitidis) and other systemic fungal pathogens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 2918 2925.
63. Restrepo, A.,, and A. M. Tobón,. 2005. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, p. 3062 3068. In G. L. Mandell,, J. E. Bennett,, and R. Dollin (ed.), Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 6th ed. Elsevier, Philadelphia, PA.
64. Salina, M. A.,, M. A. Shikanai-Yasuda,, R. P. Mendes,, B. Barraviera,, and M. J. Mendes Giannini. 1998. Detection of circulating Paracoccidioides brasiliensis antigen in urine of paracoccidioidomycosis patients before and during treatment. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 1723 1728.
65. Sheff, K. W.,, E. R. York,, E. M. Driebe,, B. M. Barker,, S. D. Rounsley,, V. G. Waddell,, S. M. Beckstrom-Sternberg,, J. S. Beckstrom-Sternberg,, P. S. Keim,, and D. M. Engelthaler. 2010. Development of a rapid, cost-effective TaqMan real-time PCR assay for identification and differentiation of Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii. Med. Mycol. 48: 466 469.
66. Sigler, L., 2005. Adiaspiromycosis and other infections caused by Emmonsia species, p. 809 824. In R. Hay, and W. Merz (ed.), Medical Mycology, Topley & Wilson’s Microbiology and Microbial Infections, 10th ed. Hodder Arnold, London, United Kingdom.
67. Stevens, D. A.,, K. V. Clemons,, H. B. Levine,, D. Pappagianis,, E. J. Baron,, J. R. Hamilton,, S. C. Deresinski,, and N. Johnson. 2009. Expert opinion: what to do when there is Coccidioides exposure in a laboratory. Clin. Infect. Dis. 49: 919 923.
68. Stockman, L.,, K. A. Clark,, J. M. Hunt,, and G. D. Roberts. 1993. Evaluation of commercially available acridinium esterlabeled chemiluminescent DNA probes for culture identification of Blastomyces dermatitidis, Coccidioides immitis, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Histoplasma capsulatum. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31: 845 850.
69. Sutton, D. A. 2007. Diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis by culture: safety considerations, traditional methods, and susceptibility testing. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1111: 315 325.
70. Taylor, J. W.,, D. M. Geiser,, A. Burt,, and V. Koufopanou. 1999. The evolutionary biology and population genetics underlying fungal strain typing. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 12: 126 146.
71. Teixeira, M. M.,, R. C. Theodoro,, M. J. A. deCarvalho,, L. Fernandes,, H. C. Paes,, R. C. Hahn,, L. Mendoza,, E. Bagagli,, G. San-Blas,, and M. S. S. Felipe. 2009. Phylogenetic analysis reveals a high level of speciation in the Paracoccidioides genus. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 52: 273 283.
72. Untereiner, W. A.,, J. A. Scott,, F. A. Naveau,, L. Sigler,, J. Bachewich,, and A. Angus. 2004. The Ajellomycetaceae, a new family of vertebrate-associated Onygenales. Mycologia 96: 812 821.
73. Verghese, S.,, D. Arjundas,, K. C. Krishnakumar,, P. Padmaja,, D. Elizabeth,, A. A. Padhye,, and D. W. Warnock. 2002. Coccidioidomycosis in India: report of a second imported case. Med. Mycol. 40: 307 309.
74. Warnock, D. W., 2000. Mycotic agents of human disease, p. 111 120. In D. O. Fleming, and D. L. Hunt (ed.), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, 3rd ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
75. Wheat, L. J. 2006. Improvements in diagnosis of histoplasmosis. Expert Opin. Biol. Ther. 6: 1207 1221.
76. Wheat, J.,, M. French,, B. Batteiger,, and R. Kohler. 1985. Cerebrospinal fluid Histoplasma antibodies in central nervous system histoplasmosis. Arch. Intern. Med. 145: 1237 1240.
77. Wheat, L. J.,, P. Connolly,, M. Smedema,, E. Brizendine,, and R. Hafner. 2001. Emergence of resistance to fluconazole as a cause of failure during treatment of histoplasmosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Clin. Infect. Dis. 33: 1910 1913.
78. Wilson, D. E.,, and C. L. Chosewood. 2007. Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, 5th ed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.
79. Wright, P. W.,, D. Pappagianis,, M. Wilson,, A. Louro,, S. A. Moser,, K. Komatsu,, and P. G. Pappas. 2003. Donor-related coccidioidomycosis in organ transplant recipients. Clin. Infect. Dis. 37: 1265 1269.
80. Zimmerman, C. R.,, C. J. Snedker,, and D. Pappagianis. 1994. Characterization of Coccidioides immitis isolates by restriction fragment length polymorphisms. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32: 3040 3042.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

In vitro susceptibilities of dimorphic fungi to antifungal agents

NR, not reported.

Citation: Brandt M, Gomez B, Warnock D. 2011. , , , and Other Dimorphic Fungi Causing Systemic Mycoses, p 1902-1918. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch120

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error