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Chapter 123 : Fungi Causing Eumycotic Mycetoma

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Abstract:

Eumycetoma is a chronic, granulomatous, progressive subcutaneous fungal disease characterized by the production of large masses of fungal organisms called grains, which are discharged through sinus tracts. The etiologic agents described in this chapter are species that are isolated most commonly from human or lower-animal mycetoma. is occasionally found as a cause of mycetoma in the United States and Argentina. It was also reported as the cause of an opportunistic mycetoma infection in a renal transplant recipient. is the most common agent of mycetoma in humans as well as lower animals in temperate climates, occurring mostly in the limbs. identification was confirmed in all mycetoma or mycetoma-like infections, while other environmental strains were found to belong to other species, suggesting some predilection for human invasion with particular species. Certain species (, , , , and ) do not sporulate readily but can be recognized by molecular techniques. The major difference between the two species is found in the ascospores, which differ in size, shape, septation, and the nature of the gelatinous sheath that surrounds them. With the exception of and species, most fungi causing eumycotic mycetoma are susceptible in vitro to ketoconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole. Since agents of eumycotic mycetoma are soil or plant saprobes, their etiologic role in mycetoma must be carefully established.

Citation: Ahmed A, de Hoog G. 2011. Fungi Causing Eumycotic Mycetoma , p 1962-1972. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch123

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Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

(top left) . Slide culture on potato dextrose agar showing geniculate conidiogenous cell and septate, curved conidia. Magnification, ×160.

Citation: Ahmed A, de Hoog G. 2011. Fungi Causing Eumycotic Mycetoma , p 1962-1972. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch123
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

(top right) . Geniculate conidiogenous cell bearing smooth, predominantly four-celled conidia. Magnification, ×160.

Citation: Ahmed A, de Hoog G. 2011. Fungi Causing Eumycotic Mycetoma , p 1962-1972. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch123
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

(middle left) . Ostiolate conidiomata (pycnidia) containing numerous cylindric conidia. Magnification, ×250.

Citation: Ahmed A, de Hoog G. 2011. Fungi Causing Eumycotic Mycetoma , p 1962-1972. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch123
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Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

(middle right) . Lateral, septate conidiophore bearing closely annellated conidiogenous cell producing smooth, nonseptate, ellipsoidal to cylindric conidia. Magnification, ×160.

Citation: Ahmed A, de Hoog G. 2011. Fungi Causing Eumycotic Mycetoma , p 1962-1972. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch123
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Image of FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5

(bottom left) . Slide culture on SDA showing erect, septate conidiophore, phialidic conidiogenous cell, and slightly curved conidia. Magnification, ×160.

Citation: Ahmed A, de Hoog G. 2011. Fungi Causing Eumycotic Mycetoma , p 1962-1972. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch123
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Image of FIGURE 6
FIGURE 6

(bottom right) . Slide culture on soil extract agar showing lateral phialides and globose conidia. Magnification, ×250.

Citation: Ahmed A, de Hoog G. 2011. Fungi Causing Eumycotic Mycetoma , p 1962-1972. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch123
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Image of FIGURE 7
FIGURE 7

(top left) . Cross section of an ascocarp showing the ascomatal wall of interwoven hyphae and containing dark asci and ascospores. Magnification, ×250.

Citation: Ahmed A, de Hoog G. 2011. Fungi Causing Eumycotic Mycetoma , p 1962-1972. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch123
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Image of FIGURE 8
FIGURE 8

(top right) . Globose, nonostiolate, ruptured cleistothecium containing ellipsoid to oblate ascospores. Magnification, ×160.

Citation: Ahmed A, de Hoog G. 2011. Fungi Causing Eumycotic Mycetoma , p 1962-1972. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch123
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Image of FIGURE 9
FIGURE 9

(bottom left) . Slide culture on potato dextrose agar showing lateral, single, egg-shaped to clavate, truncate conidia. Magnification, ×160.

Citation: Ahmed A, de Hoog G. 2011. Fungi Causing Eumycotic Mycetoma , p 1962-1972. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch123
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Image of FIGURE 10
FIGURE 10

(bottom right) synanamorph of . Slide culture on potato dextrose agar showing ropelike bundles of hyphae producing cylindric, smooth conidia. Magnification, ×160.

Citation: Ahmed A, de Hoog G. 2011. Fungi Causing Eumycotic Mycetoma , p 1962-1972. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch123
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Tables

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TABLE 1

Overview of main species causing eumycotic mycetoma

Citation: Ahmed A, de Hoog G. 2011. Fungi Causing Eumycotic Mycetoma , p 1962-1972. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch123

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