1887

Chapter 124 : Mycotoxins

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Mycotoxins, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap124-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap124-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter reviews various mycotoxins and their relevance to sick building syndrome (SBS), veterinary problems, bioterrorism, and food safety. There are some 300 to 400 compounds, toxic to vertebrates in low concentrations, which are currently recognized as mycotoxins. Aflatoxins are produced by several species of , in particular and . Aflatoxin contamination can be the cause of a variety of economic and health problems. The most common organisms producing citrinin are , , , . Citrinin has demonstrated nephrotoxic effects on all animal species tested and was shown to inhibit dehydrogenase activity in rats’ kidneys, liver, and brain. Ergot alkaloids, produced by the ergot fungus , are the causative agent of ergotism which can manifest in either a gangrenous or convulsive condition following ingestion of contaminated grains. Ochratoxins A and B are produced by and many species of , especially . Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most common mycotoxins found in grain, including barley, oats, rye, and wheat. Zearalenone is a nonsteroidal estrogen or phytoestrogen produced by various species of . It is estimated that one-quarter of the world’s crops are contaminated to some extent with mycotoxins. There are several classes of mycotoxins, produced by a wide range of fungal species, which have been linked to various environmental issues such as SBS, veterinary problems, bioterrorism, and food safety.

Citation: Isham N, Halsall W, Ghannoum M. 2011. Mycotoxins, p 1973-1980. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch124

Key Concept Ranking

Microbial Toxins
0.576777
Ochratoxin A
0.5761433
0.576777
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Aflatoxin B. (Reprinted from reference with permission of the publisher.)

Citation: Isham N, Halsall W, Ghannoum M. 2011. Mycotoxins, p 1973-1980. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch124
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Citrinin. (Reprinted from reference with permission of the publisher.)

Citation: Isham N, Halsall W, Ghannoum M. 2011. Mycotoxins, p 1973-1980. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch124
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Ergotamine. (Reprinted from reference with permission of the publisher.)

Citation: Isham N, Halsall W, Ghannoum M. 2011. Mycotoxins, p 1973-1980. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch124
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Fumonisin B. (Reprinted from reference with permission of the publisher.)

Citation: Isham N, Halsall W, Ghannoum M. 2011. Mycotoxins, p 1973-1980. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch124
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5

Ochratoxin A. (Reprinted from reference with permission of the publisher.)

Citation: Isham N, Halsall W, Ghannoum M. 2011. Mycotoxins, p 1973-1980. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch124
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 6
FIGURE 6

Patulin. (Reprinted from reference with permission of the publisher.)

Citation: Isham N, Halsall W, Ghannoum M. 2011. Mycotoxins, p 1973-1980. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch124
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 7
FIGURE 7

(A) T-2 toxin; (B) deoxynivalenol. (Modified and reprinted from reference with permission of the publisher.)

Citation: Isham N, Halsall W, Ghannoum M. 2011. Mycotoxins, p 1973-1980. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch124
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 8
FIGURE 8

Zearalenone. (Reprinted from reference with permission of the publisher.)

Citation: Isham N, Halsall W, Ghannoum M. 2011. Mycotoxins, p 1973-1980. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch124
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555816728.chap124
1. Allcroft, R.,, and R. B. A. Carnaghan. 1963. Toxic products in groundnuts: biological effects. Chem. Ind. (London) 1963: 50 53.
2.Anonymous. 2002. Adverse Human Health Effects Associated with Molds in the Indoor Environment. American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Arlington Heights, IL. http://www.acoem.org/guidelines/pdf/Mold-10-27-02.pdf..
3. Arino, A.,, M. Herrera,, T. Juan,, G. Estopanan,, J. J. Carraminana,, C. Rota,, and A. Herrera. 2009. Influence of agricultural practices on the contamination of maize by fumonisin mycotoxins. J. Food Prot. 72: 898 902.
4. Asplin, F. D.,, and R. B. A. Carnaghan. 1961. The toxicity of certain groundnut meals for poultry with special reference to their effect on ducklings and chickens. Vet. Rec. 73: 1215 1219.
5. Azziz-Baumgartner, E.,, K. Lindblade,, K. Gieseker,, H. S. Rogers,, S. Kieszak,, H. Njapau,, R. Schleicher,, L. F. McCoy,, A. Misore,, K. DeCock,, C. Rubin,, L. Slutsker, and the Aflatoxin Investigative Group. 2005. Case-control study of an acute aflatoxicosis outbreak, Kenya, 2004. Environ. Health Perspect. 113: 1779 1783.
6. Bennett, J. W.,, and R. Bentley. 1999. Pride and prejudice: the story of ergot. Perspect. Biol. Med. 42: 333 355.
7. Bennett, J. W.,, and M. Klich. 2003. Mycotoxins. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 16: 497 516.
8. Blount, W. P. 1961. Turkey “X” disease. Turkeys 9: 52, 55 58, 61, 77.
9. Carlton, W. W.,, and J. Tuite,. 1977. Metabolites of P. viridicatum toxicology, p. 525 555. In J. V. Rodricks,, C. W. Hesseltine,, and M. A. Mehlman (ed.), Mycotoxins in Human and Animal Health. Pathotox Publications, Inc., Park Forest South, IL.
10. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2004. Outbreak of aflatoxin poisoning—eastern and central provinces, Kenya, January-July 2004. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 53: 790793.
11. Chu, F. S., 1991. Current immunochemical methods for mycotoxin analysis, p. 140 157. In M. Vanderlaan,, L. H. Stanker,, B. E. Watkins,, and D. W. Roberts (ed.), Immunoassays for Trace Chemical Analysis: Monitoring Toxic Chemicals in Humans, Food, and the Environment. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.
12. Chun, H. S.,, E. H. Choi,, H. J. Chang,, S. W. Choi,, and S. A. Eremin. 2009. A fluorescence polarization immunoassay for the detection of zearalenone in corn. Anal. Chim. Acta 639: 83 89.
13. Ciegler, A. 1986. Mycotoxins: a new class of chemical weapons. NBC Defense Technol. Int. 1( April): 52 57.
14. Cigic, I. K.,, and H. Prosen. 2009. An overview of conventional and emerging analytical methods for the determination of mycotoxins. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 10: 62 115.
15. Cole, P. 1977. Drug-induced lung disease. Drugs 13: 422 444.
16. Cozzi, G.,, M. Haidukowski,, G. Perrone,, A. Visconti,, and A. Logrieco. 2009. Influence of Lobesia botrana field control on black aspergilli rot and ochratoxin A contamination in grapes. J. Food Prot. 72: 894 897.
17. Desjardins, A. E. 2009. From yellow rain to green wheat: 25 years of tricothecene biosynthesis research. J. Agric. Food Chem. 57: 4478 4484.
18. Desjardins, A. E.,, R. D. Plattner,, T. C. Nelsen,, and J. F. Leslie. 1995. Genetic analysis of fumonisin production and virulence of Gibberella fujikuroi mating population A (Fusarium moniliforme) on maize (Zea mays) seedlings. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61: 79 86.
19. Detroy, R. W.,, E. B. Lillehoj,, and A. Ciegler,. 1971. Aflatoxin and related compounds, p. 3 178. In A. Ciegler,, S. Kadis,, and S. J. Ajl (ed.), Microbial Toxins, vol. VI. Fungal Toxins. Academic Press, New York, NY.
20. Diaz, G. J.,, A. Cortes,, and L. Botero. 2009. Evaluation of the ability of a feed additive to ameliorate the adverse effects of aflatoxins in turkey poults. Br. Poult. Sci. 50: 240 250.
21. Diener, U. L.,, R. J. Cole,, T. H. Sanders,, G. A. Payne,, L. S. Lee,, and M. A. Klich. 1987. Epidemiology of aflatoxin formation by Aspergillus flavus. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 25: 249 270.
22. Dorner, J. W. 2009. Biological control of aflatoxin contamination in corn using a nontoxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus. J. Food Prot. 72: 801 804.
23. El-Nezami, H.,, N. Polychronaki,, S. Salminen,, and H. Mykkänen. 2002. Binding rather than metabolism may explain the interaction of two food-grade Lactobacillus strains with zearalenone and its derivative á-zearalenol. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68: 3545 3549.
24. Fink-Gremmels, J. 1999. Mycotoxins: their implications for human and animal health. Vet. Q. 21: 115 120.
25. Floss, H. G. 1976. Recent advances in the chemistry and biosynthesis of ergot alkaloids. Cesk. Farm. 25: 409 419.
26. Floss, H. G. 2006. From ergot to ansamycins—45 years in biosynthesis. J. Nat. Prod. 69: 158 169.
27. Food and Agriculture Organization. 1997. Worldwide Regulations for Mycotoxins: a Compendium. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Food and Nutrition Paper 64. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, Italy.
28. Forgacs, J., 1972. Stachybotryotoxicosis, p. 95 128. In S. Kadis,, A. Ciegler,, and S. J. Ajl (ed.), Microbial Toxins, vol. VI. Fungal Toxins. Academic Press, New York, NY.
29. Foroud, N. A.,, and F. Eudes. 2009. Tricothecenes in cereal grains. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 10: 147 173.
30. Gelderblom, W. C.,, K. Jaskiewicz,, W. F. Marasas,, P. G. Thiel,, R. M. Horak,, R. Vleggaar,, and N. P. Kriek. 1988. Fumonisins—novel mycotoxins with cancer-promoting activity produced by Fusarium moniliforme. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54: 1806 1811.
31. Harding, J. D. J.,, J. T. Done,, G. Lewis,, and R. Allcroft. 1963. Experimental groundnut poisoning in pigs. Res. Vet. Sci. 4: 217 229.
32. Harrison, L. R.,, B. M. Colvin,, J. T. Greene,, L. E. Newman,, and J. R. Cole, Jr. 1990. Pulmonary edema and hydrothorax in swine produced by fumonisin B 1, a toxic metabolite of Fusarium moniliforme. J. Vet. Diagn. Investig. 2: 217 221.
33. Hashimoto, K.,, and Y. Morita. 1957. Inhibitory effect of citrinin (C13H1405) on the dehydrogenase system of rat’s kidney, liver and brain tissue, specially concerning the mechanism of polyuria observed in the poisoned animal. Jpn. J. Pharmacol. 7: 48 54.
34. Hawkins, M. B.,, J. W. Thornton,, D. Crews, et al. 2000. Identification of a third distinct estrogen receptor and reclassification of estrogen receptors in teleosts. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97: 10751 10756.
35. Hayes, R. B.,, J. P. van Nienwenhuise,, J. W. Raatgever,, and F. J. W. Ten Kate. 1984. Aflatoxin exposure in the industrial setting: an epidemiological study of mortality. Food Chem. Toxicol. 22: 39 43.
36. Henghold, W. B. 2004. Other biologic toxin bioweapons: ricin, staphylococcal enterotoxin B, and trichothecene mycotoxins. Dermatol. Clin. 22: 257 262.
37. Hinkley, S. F.,, E. P. Mazzola,, J. C. Fettinger,, Y. F. Lam,, and B. B. Jarvis. 2000. Atranones A-G, from the toxigenic mold Stachybotrys chartarum. Phytochemistry 55: 663 673.
38. Hsieh, D., 1988. Potential human health hazards of mycotoxins, p. 69 80. In S. Natori,, K. Hashimoto,, and Y. Ueno (ed.), Mycotoxins and Phytotoxins. Third Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/W.H.O./United Nations Program International Conference of Mycotoxins. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
39. Jarvis, B. B.,, W. G. Sorenson,, E. Hintikka,, M. Nikulin,, Y. Zhou,, J. Jiang,, S. Wang,, S. Hinkley,, R. A. Etzel,, and D. Dearborn. 1998. Study of toxin production by isolates of Stachybotrys chartarum and Memnoniella echinata isolated during a study of pulmonary hemosiderosis in infants. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64: 3620 3625.
40. Jaskiewicz, K.,, S. J. van Rensburg,, W. F. O. Marasas,, and W. C. A. Gelderblom. 1987. Carcinogenicity of Fusarium moniliforme culture material in rats. JNCI 78: 321 325.
41. Klich, M. A. 1987. Relation of plant water potential at flowering to subsequent cottonseed infection by Aspergillus flavus. Phytopathology 77: 739 741.
42. Krogh, P., 1987. Ochratoxins in food, p. 97 121. In P. Krogh (ed.), Mycotoxins in Food. Academic Press, London, United Kingdom.
43. Kuhn, D. M.,, and M. A. Ghannoum. 2003. Indoor mold, toxigenic fungi, and Stachybotrys chartarum: infectious disease perspective. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 16: 144 172.
44. Kuiper-Goodman, T. 1990. Uncertainties in the risk assessment of three mycotoxins: aflatoxin, ochratoxin, and zearalenone. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 68: 1017 1024.
45. Kuiper-Goodman, T., 1998. Food safety: mycotoxins and phycotoxins in perspective, p. 25 48. In M. Miraglia,, H. van Edmond,, C. Brera,, and J. Gilbert (ed.), Mycotoxins and Phycotoxins—Developments in Chemistry, Toxicology and Food Safety. Alaken Inc., Fort Collins, CO.
46. LeJeune, P. 1957. Use of a new antibiotic, citrinin, in treatment of tropical ulcer. Ann. Soc. Belg. Med. Trop. 37: 139 146.
47. Leusch, L. 1952. Notes on the trial therapeutic use of citrinin. J. Pharm. Belg. 7: 77 79.
48. Lewis, L.,, M. Onsongo,, H. Njapau,, H. Schurz-Rogers,, G. Luber,, S. Kieszak,, J. Nyamongo,, L. Backer,, A. M. Dahiye,, A. Misore,, K. DeCock,, C. Rubin, and the Kenya Aflatoxicosis Investigation Group. 2005. Aflatoxin contamination of commercial maize products during an outbreak of acute aflatoxicosis in eastern and central Kenya. Environ. Health Perspect. 113: 1763 1767.
49. Li, F. Q.,, T. Yoshizawa,, S. Kawamura,, S. Y. Luo,, and Y. W. Li. 2001. Aflatoxins and fumonisins in corn from the high-incidence area for human hepatocellular carcinoma in Guangxi, China. J. Agric. Food Chem. 49: 4122 4126.
50. Loosemore, R. M.,, and J. D. J. Harding. 1961. A toxic factor in Brazilian groundnut causing liver damage in pigs. Vet. Rec. 73: 1362 1364.
51. Loosemore, R. M.,, and L. M. Markson. 1961. Poisoning of cattle by Brazilian groundnut meal. Vet. Rec. 73: 813 814.
52. Lorenz, K. 1979. Ergot on cereal grains. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 11: 311 354.
53. Madsen, J. M. 2001. Toxins as weapons of mass destruction. A comparison and contrast with biological-warfare and chemical-warfare agents. Clin. Lab. Med. 21: 593 605.
54. Mannon, J.,, and E. Johnson. 1985. Fungi down on the farm. New Sci. 105: 12 16.
55. Marasas, W. F. O.,, T. S. Kellerman,, J. G. Pienaar,, and T. W. Naudé. 1976. Leukoencephalomalacia: a mycotoxicosis of Equidae caused by Fusarium moniliforme. J. Vet. Res. 43: 113 122.
56. Marasas, W. F. O.,, N. P. J. Kriek,, J. E. Fincham,, and S. J. van Rensburg. 1984. Primary liver cancer and oesophageal basal cell hyperplasia in rats caused by Fusarium moniliforme. Int. J. Cancer 34: 383 387.
57. Marquardt, R. R.,, and A. A. Frohlich. 1992. A review of recent advances in understanding ochratoxicosis. J. Anim. Sci. 70: 3968 3988.
58. McKean, C. M.,, L. Tang,, M. Billam,, M. Tang,, C. W. Theodorakis,, R. J. Kendall,, and J. S. Wang. 2006. Comparative acute and combinative toxicity of aflatoxin B 1 and T-2 toxin in animals and immortalized human cell lines. J. Appl. Toxicol. 26: 139 147.
59. Mirocha, C. J.,, C. M. Christensen,, and G. H. Nelson,. 1971. F-2 (zearalenone) estrogenic mycotoxin from Fusarium, p. 107 138. In S. Kadis,, A. Ciegler,, and S. J. Ajl (ed.), Microbial Toxins, vol. VII. Algal and Fungal Toxins. Academic Press, New York, NY.
60. Mirocha, C. J.,, S. V. Pathre,, and C. M. Christensen,. 1977. Zearalenone, p. 345 364. In J. V. Rodricks,, C. W. Hesseltine,, and M. A. Mehlman (ed.), Mycotoxins in Human and Animal Health. Pathotox Publishers Inc., Park Forest South, IL.
61. Mirocha, C. J.,, B. Schauerhamer,, and S.V. Pathre. 1974. Isolation, detection, and quantitation of zearalenone in maize and barley. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 57: 1104 1110.
62. Nelson, P. E.,, A. E. Desjardins,, and R. D. Plattner. 1993. Fumonisins, mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species: biology, chemistry and significance. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 31: 233 252.
63. Norstadt, F. A.,, and T. M. McCalla. 1969. Patulin production by Penicillium urticae Bainier in batch culture. Appl. Microbiol. 17: 193 196.
64. Nowicke, J. W.,, and M. Meselson. 2000. Yellow rain—a palynological analysis. Nature 309: 205 206.
65. Panaccione, D. G.,, and C. M. Coyle. 2005. Abundant respirable ergot alkaloids from the common airborne fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71: 3106 3111.
66. Pitt, J. I. 2000. Toxigenic fungi: which are important? Med. Mycol. 38: 17 22.
67. Reissig, J. E.,, and A. M. Rybarczyk. 2005. Pharmacologic treatment of opioid-induced sedation in chronic pain. Ann. Pharmacother. 39: 727 731.
68. Rheeder, J. P.,, W. F. O. Marasas,, and H. F. Vismer. 2002. Production of fumonisin analogs by Fusarium species. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68: 2101 2105.
69. Rosen, R. T.,, and J. D. Rosen. 1982. Presence of four Fusarium mycotoxins and synthetic material in ‘yellow rain’. Evidence for the use of chemical weapons in Laos. Biomed. Mass. Spectrom. 9: 443 450.
70. Rotter, B. A.,, D. B. Prelusky,, and J. J. Pestka. 1996. Toxicology of deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin). J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 48: 1 34.
71. Saito, M.,, M. Enomoto,, and T. Tatsuno,. 1971. Yellowed rice toxins: luteroskyrin and related compounds, chlorine-containing compounds and citrinin, p. 299 380. In A. Ciegler,, S. Kadis,, and S. J. Ajl (ed.), Microbial Toxins, vol. VI. Fungal Toxins. Academic Press, New York, NY.
72. Smith, J. E.,, and M. O. Moss. 1985. Mycotoxins. Formation, Analyses and Significance. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, United Kingdom.
73. Squire, R. A. 1981. Ranking animal carcinogens: a proposed regulatory approach. Science 214: 877 880.
74. Stark, A. A. 2005. Threat assessment of mycotoxins as weapons: molecular mechanisms of acute toxicity. J. Food Prot. 68: 1285 1293.
75. Takayama, H.,, N. Shimada,, O. Mikami,, and H. Murata. 2005. Suppressive effect of deoxynivalenol, a Fusarium mycotoxin, on bovine and porcine neutrophil chemiluminescence: an in vitro study. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 67: 531 533.
76. Trucksess, M. W.,, and Y. Tang,. 2001. Solid phase extraction method for patulin in apple juice and unfiltered apple juice, p. 205 213. In M. W. Trucksess, and A. F. Pohland (ed.), Mycotoxin Protocols. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ.
77. Van Egmond, H. P., 1989. Aflatoxin M 1: occurrence, toxicity, regulation, p. 11 55. In H. P. Van Egmond (ed.), Mycotoxins in Dairy Products. Elsevier Applied Science, London, United Kingdom.
78. Van Egmond, H. P.,, and G. J. A. Speijers. 1994. Survey of data on the incidence and levels of ochratoxin A in food and animal feed worldwide. Nat. Toxins 3: 125 144.
79. Wilson, D. M.,, and G. A. Payne,. 1994. Factors affecting Aspergillus flavus group infection and aflatoxin contamination of crops, p. 309 325. In D. L. Eaton, and J. D. Groopman (ed.), The Toxicology of Aflatoxins. Human Health, Veterinary and Agricultural Significance. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
80. Wilson, S. C.,, T. L. Brasel,, J. M. Martin,, C. Wu,, L. Andriychuk,, D. R. Douglas,, L. Cobos,, and D. C. Straus. 2005. Efficacy of chlorine dioxide as a gas and in solution in the inactivation of two trichothecene mycotoxins. Int. J. Toxicol. 24: 181 186.
81. Winter, J. C.,, K. Kiers,, M. D. Zimmerman,, C. J. Reissig,, J. R. Eckler,, T. Ullrich,, K. C. Rice,, A. Rabin,, and J. B. Richards. 2005. The stimulus properties of LSD in C57BL/6 mice. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 81: 830 837.
82. Wogan, G. N. 1966. Chemical nature and biological effects of the aflatoxins. Bacteriol. Rev. 30: 460 470.
83. Wu, Q.,, A. Jezkova,, Z. Yuan,, L. Pavlikova,, V. Dohnal,, and K. Kuca. 2009. Biological degradation of aflatoxins. Drug Metab. Rev. 41: 1 7.
84. Yu, S. J.,, C. S. Kiang,, S. V. Denn,, H. T. Tsai,, and Y. Wang. 1951. A preliminary report on the topical use of citrinin. Chin. Med. J. 69: 199 203.
85. Zapor, M.,, and J. T. Fishbain. 2004. Aerosolized biologic toxins as agents of warfare and terrorism. Respir. Care Clin. N. Am. 10: 111 122.
86. Zepnik, H.,, A. Pähler,, U. Schauer,, and W. Dekant. 2001. Ochratoxin A-induced tumor formation: is there a role of reactive ochratoxin A metabolites? Toxicol. Sci. 59: 59 67.
87. Zollner, P.,, and B. Mayer-Helm. 2006. Trace mycotoxin analysis in complex biological and food matrices by liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure ionisation mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. A 1136: 123 169.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Simplified taxonomy of mycotoxin-producing fungi

Citation: Isham N, Halsall W, Ghannoum M. 2011. Mycotoxins, p 1973-1980. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch124
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Mycotoxins and their common food substrates

Citation: Isham N, Halsall W, Ghannoum M. 2011. Mycotoxins, p 1973-1980. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch124
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Mycotoxins and animal outbreaks

Citation: Isham N, Halsall W, Ghannoum M. 2011. Mycotoxins, p 1973-1980. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch124

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error