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Chapter 124 : Mycotoxins

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Abstract:

This chapter reviews various mycotoxins and their relevance to sick building syndrome (SBS), veterinary problems, bioterrorism, and food safety. There are some 300 to 400 compounds, toxic to vertebrates in low concentrations, which are currently recognized as mycotoxins. Aflatoxins are produced by several species of , in particular and . Aflatoxin contamination can be the cause of a variety of economic and health problems. The most common organisms producing citrinin are , , , . Citrinin has demonstrated nephrotoxic effects on all animal species tested and was shown to inhibit dehydrogenase activity in rats’ kidneys, liver, and brain. Ergot alkaloids, produced by the ergot fungus , are the causative agent of ergotism which can manifest in either a gangrenous or convulsive condition following ingestion of contaminated grains. Ochratoxins A and B are produced by and many species of , especially . Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most common mycotoxins found in grain, including barley, oats, rye, and wheat. Zearalenone is a nonsteroidal estrogen or phytoestrogen produced by various species of . It is estimated that one-quarter of the world’s crops are contaminated to some extent with mycotoxins. There are several classes of mycotoxins, produced by a wide range of fungal species, which have been linked to various environmental issues such as SBS, veterinary problems, bioterrorism, and food safety.

Citation: Isham N, Halsall W, Ghannoum M. 2011. Mycotoxins, p 1973-1980. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch124

Key Concept Ranking

Microbial Toxins
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Ochratoxin A
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Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Aflatoxin B. (Reprinted from reference with permission of the publisher.)

Citation: Isham N, Halsall W, Ghannoum M. 2011. Mycotoxins, p 1973-1980. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch124
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Citrinin. (Reprinted from reference with permission of the publisher.)

Citation: Isham N, Halsall W, Ghannoum M. 2011. Mycotoxins, p 1973-1980. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch124
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FIGURE 3

Ergotamine. (Reprinted from reference with permission of the publisher.)

Citation: Isham N, Halsall W, Ghannoum M. 2011. Mycotoxins, p 1973-1980. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch124
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FIGURE 4

Fumonisin B. (Reprinted from reference with permission of the publisher.)

Citation: Isham N, Halsall W, Ghannoum M. 2011. Mycotoxins, p 1973-1980. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch124
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FIGURE 5

Ochratoxin A. (Reprinted from reference with permission of the publisher.)

Citation: Isham N, Halsall W, Ghannoum M. 2011. Mycotoxins, p 1973-1980. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch124
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FIGURE 6

Patulin. (Reprinted from reference with permission of the publisher.)

Citation: Isham N, Halsall W, Ghannoum M. 2011. Mycotoxins, p 1973-1980. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch124
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FIGURE 7

(A) T-2 toxin; (B) deoxynivalenol. (Modified and reprinted from reference with permission of the publisher.)

Citation: Isham N, Halsall W, Ghannoum M. 2011. Mycotoxins, p 1973-1980. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch124
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FIGURE 8

Zearalenone. (Reprinted from reference with permission of the publisher.)

Citation: Isham N, Halsall W, Ghannoum M. 2011. Mycotoxins, p 1973-1980. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch124
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Simplified taxonomy of mycotoxin-producing fungi

Citation: Isham N, Halsall W, Ghannoum M. 2011. Mycotoxins, p 1973-1980. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch124
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Mycotoxins and their common food substrates

Citation: Isham N, Halsall W, Ghannoum M. 2011. Mycotoxins, p 1973-1980. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch124
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Mycotoxins and animal outbreaks

Citation: Isham N, Halsall W, Ghannoum M. 2011. Mycotoxins, p 1973-1980. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch124

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