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Abstract:

spp. and spp. are protozoa belonging to the family . Recent estimates suggest that there are approximately 350 million people at risk of acquiring leishmaniasis, with 112 million currently infected. All adult female sand flies transmitting leishmaniasis belong to the genus in the Old World and in the New World. There are more than 30 species of sand flies that can transmit leishmaniasis. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis is produced most often by the complex. The majority of infected individuals are asymptomatic or have very few or minor symptoms that resolve without therapy. PCR-based methods for the diagnosis of leishmaniasis have used a variety of specimens, including urine. Molecular techniques for the detection of leishmanial DNA or RNA have been used for diagnosis, prognosis, and species identification. These methods are considered more sensitive than slide examination or culture, particularly for the detection of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Promastigote stages can be detected microscopically in wet mounts and then stained with Giemsa stain to observe their morphology. Positive reactions are usually seen in cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis; however, patients with active visceral and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis exhibit negative reactions. American trypanosomiasis (Chagas' disease) is a zoonosis caused by . Population-screening programs have been used to control infections. The most effective control measures include an integrated approach to reduce the human reservoir of infection and the use of insecticide and fly traps.

Citation: Bruckner D, Labarca J. 2011. and , p 2113-2126. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch134

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Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Life cycle stages of spp.

Citation: Bruckner D, Labarca J. 2011. and , p 2113-2126. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch134
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

(A) amastigotes from splenic press preparation (Giemsa stain); (B) amastigotes in liver (hematoxylin and eosin stain).

Citation: Bruckner D, Labarca J. 2011. and , p 2113-2126. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch134
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

promastigotes (Giemsa stain).

Citation: Bruckner D, Labarca J. 2011. and , p 2113-2126. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch134
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Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Life cycle stages of trypanosomes.

Citation: Bruckner D, Labarca J. 2011. and , p 2113-2126. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch134
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Image of FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5

(A and B) trypomastigotes; (C and D) trypomastigotes.

Citation: Bruckner D, Labarca J. 2011. and , p 2113-2126. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch134
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Image of FIGURE 6
FIGURE 6

epimastigotes (Giemsa stain).

Citation: Bruckner D, Labarca J. 2011. and , p 2113-2126. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch134
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Image of FIGURE 7
FIGURE 7

amastigotes in heart muscle (hematoxylin and eosin stain).

Citation: Bruckner D, Labarca J. 2011. and , p 2113-2126. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch134
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Features of human leishmanial infections

CL, cutaneous leishmaniasis; DCL, diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis; DL, diffuse leishmaniasis; MCL, mucocutaneous leishmaniasis; VL, visceral leishmaniasis.

in the Old World 5 i in the New World.

Citation: Bruckner D, Labarca J. 2011. and , p 2113-2126. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch134
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Characteristics of trypanosomiasis

Anthropozoonosis: transmission involving human-animal-human cycle.

Anthroponosis: transmission involving a human-human cycle.

Citation: Bruckner D, Labarca J. 2011. and , p 2113-2126. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch134
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Diagnostic methods to detect Chagas' infections

EIA, enzyme immunoassay; IHA, indirect hemagglutinin assay; RIPA, radioimmunoprecipitation assay; WB, Western blot.

Citation: Bruckner D, Labarca J. 2011. and , p 2113-2126. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch134

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