1887

Chapter 136 : Pathogenic and Opportunistic Free-Living Amebae

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Pathogenic and Opportunistic Free-Living Amebae, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap136-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap136-2.gif

Abstract:

Small, free-living amebae belonging to the genera , , and have been identified as agents of central nervous system (CNS) infections of humans and other animals. The concept that these small, free-living amebae may occur as human pathogens was proposed by Culbertson and colleagues, who isolated sp. The genus contains as many as 24 species in three groups, with groupings based largely on morphologic characteristics. The chapter talks about clinical significance of Meningoencephalitis, Encephalitis, (Leptomyxid) Encephalitis, and Keratitis. It outlines the recommended procedure for isolating free-living pathogenic amebae from biological specimens. Identification of living organisms to the genus level is based on characteristic patterns of locomotion, morphologic features of the trophozoite and cyst forms, and results of enflagellation experiments. spp can easily be cultivated axenically, without the addition of serum or host tissue, in many different types of nutrient media, e.g., proteose peptone-yeast extract-glucose medium, Trypticase soy broth medium, and chemically defined medium. The serologic techniques discussed in this chapter have been developed as research tools and are not routinely available to clinical laboratories. Most clinical laboratories rely on the agar plate technique for the isolation and identification of these small, free-living, and pathogenic amebae, as other techniques, like PCR, are not available and sometimes not even feasible. The laboratories usually send the specimens to an outside laboratory like the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) for identification and interpretation.

Citation: Visvesvara G. 2011. Pathogenic and Opportunistic Free-Living Amebae, p 2139-2148. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch136

Key Concept Ranking

Acanthamoeba castellanii
0.47858837
0.47858837
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURES 1 through 4 FIGURES 5 and 6 FIGURES 7 and 8
FIGURES 1 through 4 FIGURES 5 and 6 FIGURES 7 and 8

. (1) Trophozoite, phase contrast (note the uroid and filaments at arrow); (2) trophozoite, trichrome stain; (3) biflagellate, phase contrast; (4) smooth-walled cyst, phase contrast (note the pore at the arrow). All magnifications, ∼×835.

. (5) Trophozoite, phase contrast (note the acanthopodia at the arrow); (6) double-walled cyst, phase contrast. Both magnifications, ∼×835.

. (7) Trophozoite, phase contrast; (8) cyst, phase contrast. Both magnifications, ∼×1,140.

Citation: Visvesvara G. 2011. Pathogenic and Opportunistic Free-Living Amebae, p 2139-2148. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch136
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 9
FIGURE 9

Large numbers of trophozoites (arrows) in a section of CNS tissue, showing extensive necrosis and destruction of brain tissue. Magnification, ∼×564.

Citation: Visvesvara G. 2011. Pathogenic and Opportunistic Free-Living Amebae, p 2139-2148. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch136
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 10
FIGURE 10

trophozoites (arrows) and a cyst (arrowhead) around a blood vessel in a section of CNS tissue from a GAE patient. Magnification, ∼×489.

Citation: Visvesvara G. 2011. Pathogenic and Opportunistic Free-Living Amebae, p 2139-2148. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch136
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 11
FIGURE 11

trophozoites and a cyst (arrowhead) in a brain section from a GAE patient. Note the double (small arrow) and triple (large arrow) nucleolar elements within the nuclei of the trophozoites. Magnification. ∼×413.

Citation: Visvesvara G. 2011. Pathogenic and Opportunistic Free-Living Amebae, p 2139-2148. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch136
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 12
FIGURE 12

Immunofluorescence localization of in a brain section from a GAE patient. Note the fluorescent amebae (arrows) around blood vessels. Magnification, ∼×188.

Citation: Visvesvara G. 2011. Pathogenic and Opportunistic Free-Living Amebae, p 2139-2148. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch136
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555816728.chap136
1. Adékambi, T.,, M. Reynaud-Gaubert,, G. Greub,, M.-J. Gevaudan,, B. La Scola,, D. Raoult,, and M. Drancourt. 2004. Amoebal coculture of “Mycobacterium massiliense” sp. nov. from the sputum of a patient with hemoptoic pneumonia. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:54935501.
2. Booton, G. C.,, J. R. Carmichael,, G. S. Visvesvara,, T. J. Byers,, and P. A. Fuerst. 2003. Identification of Balamuthia mandrillaris by PCR assay using the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene as a target. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:453455.
3. Booton, G. C.,, G. S. Visvesvara,, T. J. Byers,, D. J. Kelly,, and P. A. Fuerst. 2005. Identification and distribution of Acanthamoeba species genotypes associated with nonkeratitis infections. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:16891693.
4. Brasseur, G.,, L. Favennec,, D. Perrine,, J. P. Chenu,, and P. Brasseur. 1994. Successful treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis by hexamidine. Cornea 13:459462.
5. Bravo, F. G.,, J. Cabrera,, E. Gottuzo,, and G. S. Visvesvara,. 2005. Cutaneous manifestations of infection by free-living amebas, p. 4955. In S. K. Tyring,, O. Lupi,, and U. R. Hengge (ed.), Tropical Dermatology. Elsevier Churchill Livingstone, Philadelphia, PA.
5a.. Butt, C. G. 1966. Primary amebic meningoencephalitis. N. Engl. J. Med. 274:14731476.
6. Carter, R. F. 1972. Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. An appraisal of present knowledge. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 66:193208.
7. Culbertson, C. G.,, J. W. Smith,, and J. R. Minner. 1958. Acanthamoeba: observations on animal pathogenicity. Science 127:1506.
8. Deetz, T. R.,, M. H. Sawyer,, G. Billman,, F. L. Schuster,, and G. S. Visvesvara. 2003. Successful treatment of Balamuthia amebic encephalitis: presentation of two cases. Clin. Infect. Dis. 37:13041312.
9. De Jonckheere, J. F., 1987. Epidemiology, p. 127147. In E. G. Rondanelli (ed.), Amphizoic Amoebae Human Pathology. Piccin Nuova Libraria, Padua, Italy.
10. Di Gregorio, C.,, F. Rivasi,, N. Mongiardo,, B. De Rienzo,, and G. S. Visvesvara. 1991. Acanthamoeba meningoencephalitis in an AIDS patient: first report from Europe. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 116:13631365.
11. Driebe, W. T.,, G. A. Stern,, R. J. Epstein,, G. S. Visvesvara,, M. Adi,, and T. Komadina. 1988. Acanthamoeba keratitis: potential role for topical clotrimazole in combination chemotherapy. Arch. Ophthalmol. 106:11961201.
12. Dunnebacke, T. H.,, F. L. Schuster,, S. Yagi,, and G. C. Booton. 2004. Balamuthia mandrillaris from soil samples. Microbiology 150:28372842.
13. Foreman, O.,, J. Sykes,, L. Ball,, N. Yang,, and H. De Cock. 2004. Disseminated infection with Balamuthia mandrillaris in a dog. Vet. Pathol. 41:506510.
14. Fritsche, T. R.,, M. Horn,, M. Wagner,, R. P. Herwig,, K. H. Schleifer,, and R. K. Gautom. 2000. Phylogenetic diversity among geographically dispersed Chlamydiales endosymbionts from clinical and environmental isolates of Acanthamoeba spp. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66:26132619.
15. Gelman, B. B.,, S. J. Rauf,, R. Nader,, V. Popov,, J. Borkowski,, G. Chaljub,, H. W. Nauta,, and G. S. Visvesvara. 2001. Amoebic encephalitis due to Sappinia diploidea. JAMA 285:24502451.
16. Jayasekera, S.,, J. Sissons,, J. Tucker,, C. Rogers,, D. Nolder,, D. Warhurst,, S. Alsam,, J. M. L. White,, E. M. Higgins,, and N. A. Khan. 2004. Post-mortem culture of Balamuthia mandrillaris from the brain and cerebrospinal fluid of a case of granulomatous amoebic meningoencephalitis, using human brain microvascular endothelial cells. J. Med. Microbiol. 53:10071012.
17. John, D. T., 1993. Opportunistically pathogenic free-living amebae, p. 143246. In J. P. Kreier, and J. R. Baker (ed.), Parasitic Protozoa, vol. 3. Academic Press, Inc., New York, NY.
18. Johnston, S. P.,, R. Sriram,, Y. Qvarnstrom,, S. Roy,, J. Verani,, J. Yoder,, S. Lorick,, J. Roberts,, M. J. Beach,, and G. S. Visvesvara. 2009. Resistance of Acanthamoeba cysts to disinfection in multiple contact lens solutions. J. Clin. Microbiol. 47:20402045.
19. Jones, D. B.,, G. S. Visvesvara,, and N. M. Robinson. 1975. Acanthamoeba polyphaga keratitis and Acanthamoeba uveitis associated with fatal meningoencephalitis. Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U. K. 95:221232.
20. Jung, S.,, R. L. Schelper,, G. S. Visvesvara,, and H. T. Chang. 2004. Balamuthia mandrillaris meningoencephalitis in an immunocompetent patient: a case of unusual clinical course and successful outcome. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 128:466468.
21. Kramer, M. H.,, C. J. Lerner,, and G. S. Visvesvara. 1997. Kidney and liver transplants from a donor infected with Naegleria fowleri. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:10321033.
22. Larkin, D. F. P.,, S. Kilvington,, and J. K. G. Dart. 1992. Treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis with polyhexamethylene biguanide. Ophthalmology 99:185191.
23. La Scola, B.,, L. Mezi,, P. J. Weiller,, and D. Raoult. 2001. Isolation of Legionella anisa using an amoebic coculture procedure. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:365366.
24. Lozano-Alarcon, F.,, G. A. Bradley,, B. S. Houser,, and G. S. Visvesvara. 1997. Primary amebic meningoencephalitis due to Naegleria fowleri in a South American tapir. Vet. Pathol. 34:239243.
25. Marciano-Cabral, F.,, and G. Cabral. 2003. The importance of Acanthamoeba spp. as agents of disease in humans. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 16:273307.
26. Marciano-Cabral, F.,, and G. Cabral. 2007. The immune response to Naegleria fowleri amebae and pathogenesis of infection. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 51:243259.
27. Martinez, A. J. 1982. Acanthamoebiasis and immunosuppression. Case report. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 41:548557.
28. Martinez, A. J. 1985. Free-Living Amebas: Natural History, Prevention, Diagnosis, Pathology, and Treatment of the Disease. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL.
29. Martinez, A. J.,, and G. S. Visvesvara. 1997. Free-living, amphizoic and opportunistic amebas. Brain Pathol. 7:583589.
30. Martinez, A. J.,, and G. S. Visvesvara. 2001. Balamuthia mandrillaris infection. J. Med. Microbiol. 50:205207.
31. Martinez, S. M.,, G. Gonzales-Madiero,, P. Santiago,, A. R. DeLope,, J. Diz,, C. Conde,, and G. S. Visvesvara. 2000. Granulomatous amebic encephalitis in a patient with AIDS: isolation of Acanthamoeba sp. group II from brain tissue and successful treatment with sulfadiazine and fluconazole. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:38923895.
32. Moura, H.,, S. Wallace,, and G. S. Visvesvara. 1992. Acanthamoeba healyi n. sp. and the isoenzyme and immunoblot profiles of Acanthamoeba spp., groups 1 and 3. J. Protozool. 39:573583.
33. Murakawa, G. J.,, T. McCalmont,, J. Altman,, G. H. Telang,, M. D. Hoffman,, G. R. Kantor,, and T. G. Berger. 1995. Disseminated acanthamoebiasis in patients with AIDS. A report of five cases and a review of the literature. Arch. Dermatol. 131:12911296.
34. Nerad, T. A.,, G. S. Visvesvara,, and P.-M. Daggett. 1983. Chemically defined media for the cultivation of Naegleria: pathogenic and high temperature tolerant species. J. Protozool. 30:383387.
35. Page, F. C. 1985. A New Key to Fresh Water and Soil Gymnamoebae. Freshwater Biological Association, Ambleside, Cumbria, England.
36. Pfister, D. R.,, J. D. Cameron,, J. H. Krachmer,, and E. J. Holland. 1996. Confocal microscopy findings of Acanthamoeba keratitis. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 121:119128.
37. Qvarnstrom, Y.,, G. S. Visvesvara,, R. Sriram,, and A. J. da Silva. 2006. Multiplex real-time PCR assay for simultaneous detection of Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, and Naegleria fowleri. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:35893595.
38. Qvarnstrom, Y.,, A. J. Da Silva,, F. L. Schuster,, B. B. Gelman,, and G. S. Visvesvara. 2009. Molecular confirmation of Sappinia pedata as causative agent of amebic encephalitis. J. Infect. Dis. 199:11391142.
39. Rideout, B. A.,, C. H. Gardiner,, I. H. Stalis,, J. R. Zuba,, T. Hadfield,, and G. S. Visvesvara. 1997. Fatal infections with Balamuthia mandrillaris (a free-living amoeba) in gorillas and other Old World primates. Vet. Pathol. 34:1522.
40. Rowbotham, T. J. 1998. Isolation of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 from human feces with use of amebic cultures. Clin. Infect. Dis. 26:502503.
41. Sawyer, T. K.,, G. S. Visvesvara,, and B. A. Harke. 1976. Pathogenic amebas from brackish and ocean sediments with a description of Acanthamoeba hatchetti, n. sp. Science 196: 13241325.
42. Schuster, F. L.,, T. H. Dunnebacke,, G. C. Booton,, S. Yagi,, C. K. Kohlmeier,, C. Glaser,, D. Vugia,, A. Bakardjiev,, P. Azimi,, M. Maddux-Gonzalez,, A. J. Martinez,, and G. S. Visvesvara. 2003. Environmental isolation of Balamuthia mandrillaris associated with a case of amebic encephalitis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:31753180.
43. Schuster, F. L.,, C. Glaser,, S. Honarmand,, J. H. Maguire,, and G. S. Visvesvara. 2004. Balamuthia amebic encephalitis risk, Hispanic Americans. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10:15101512.
44. Schuster, F. L.,, J. B. Guglielmo,, and G. S. Visvesvara. 2006. In-vitro activity of miltefosine and voriconazole on clinical isolates of free-living amebas: Balamuthia mandrillaris, Acanthamoeba spp., and Naegleria fowleri. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 53:121126.
45. Schuster, F. L.,, and G. S. Visvesvara. 1996. Axenic growth and drug sensitivity studies of Balamuthia mandrillaris, an agent of amebic meningoencephalitis in humans and other animals. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:385388.
46. Schuster, F. L.,, and G. S. Visvesvara. 2004. Free-living amoebae as opportunistic and non-opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals. Int. J. Parasitol. 34:10011027.
47. Seidel, J. S.,, P. Harmatz,, G. S. Visvesvara,, A. Cohen,, J. Edwards,, and J. Turner. 1982. Successful treatment of primary amebic meningoencephalitis. N. Engl. J. Med. 306:346348.
48. Singh, B. N. 1975. Pathogenic and Non-Pathogenic Amebae. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY.
49. Sisson, J. P.,, C. A. Kemper,, M. Loveless,, D. McShane,, G. S. Visvesvara,, and S. C. Deresinski. 1995. Disseminated Acanthamoeba infection in patients with AIDS: case reports and review. Clin. Infect. Dis. 20:12071216.
50. Slater, C. A.,, J. Z. Sickel,, G. S. Visvesvara,, R. C. Pabico,, and A. A. Gaspari. 1994. Successful treatment of disseminated Acanthamoeba infection in an immunocompromised patient. N. Engl. J. Med. 331:8587.
51. Sriram, R.,, M. Shoff,, G. C. Booton,, P. A. Fuerst,, and G. S. Visvesvara. 2008. Survival of Acanthamoeba cysts after desiccation for more than 20 years. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46:40454048.
52. Stehr-Green, J. K.,, T. M. Bailey,, and G. S. Visvesvara. 1990. The epidemiology of Acanthamoeba keratitis in the United States. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 107:331336.
53. Stehr-Green, J. K.,, T. M. Bailey,, F. H. Brandt,, J. H. Carr,, W. W. Bond,, and G. S. Visvesvara. 1987. Acanthamoeba keratitis in soft contact lens wearers: a case-control study. JAMA 258:5760.
54. Stothard, D. R.,, J. M. Schroeder-Diedrich,, M. H. Awwad,, R. J. Gast,, D. R. Ledee,, D. S. Rodriguez-Zaragoza,, C. L. Dean,, P. A. Fuerst,, and T. J. Byers. 1998. The evolutionary history of the genus Acanthamoeba and the identification of eight new 18S rRNA gene sequence types. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 45:4554.
55. Verani, J. R.,, S. A., Lorick,, J. S. Yoder,, M. J. Beach,, C. R. Braden,, J. M. Roberts,, C. S. Conover,, S. Chen,, K. A. McConnell,, D. C. Chang,, B. J. Park,, D. B. Jones,, G. S. Visvesvara,, and S. L. Roy. 2009. National outbreak of Acanthamoeba keratitis associated with use of contact lens solution, United States. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 15:12361242.
56. Visvesvara, G. S., 1992. Parasite culture: Acanthamoeba and Naegleria spp., p. 7.9.2.17.9.2.8. In H. D. Isenberg (ed.), Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, vol. 2. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
57. Visvesvara, G. S.,, J. F. De Jonckheere,, R. Sriram,, and B. Daft. 2005. Isolation and molecular typing of Naegleria fowleri from the brain of a cow that died of primary amebic meningoencephalitis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:42034204.
58. Visvesvara, G. S.,, A. J. Martinez,, F. L. Schuster,, G. J. Leitch,, S. Wallace,, T. K. Sawyer,, and M. Anderson. 1990. Leptomyxid ameba, a new agent of amebic meningoencephalitis in humans and animals. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28:27502756.
59. Visvesvara, G. S.,, F. L. Schuster,, and A. J. Martinez. 1993. Balamuthia mandrillaris, new genus, new species, agent of amebic meningoencephalitis in humans and animals. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 40:504514.
60. Visvesvara, G. S.,, H. Moura,, and F. L. Schuster. 2007. Pathogenic and opportunistic free-living amoebae: Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri, and Sappinia diploidea. FEMS Immunol. Micribiol. 50:126.
61. Visvesvara, G. S.,, R. Sriram R,, Y. Qvarnstrom,, K. Bandyopadhyay,, A. J. Da Silva,, N. J. Pieniazek,, and G. A. Cabral. 2009. Paravahlkampfia francinae n. sp. masquerading as an agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 56:357366.
62. Wiley, C. A.,, R. E. Safrin,, C. E. Davis,, P. W. Lampert,, A. J. Braude,, A. J. Martinez,, and G. S. Visvesvara. 1987. Acanthamoeba meningoencephalitis in a patient with AIDS. J. Infect. Dis. 155:130133.
63. Wright, P.,, D. Warhurst,, and B. R. Jones. 1985. Acanthamoeba keratitis successfully treated medically. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 69:778782.
64. Yagi, S.,, G. C. Booton,, G. S. Visvesvara,, and F. L. Schuster. 2005. Detection of mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA in clinical specimens by PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:31923197.
65. Yoder, J. S.,, B. A. Eddy,, G. S. Visvesvara,, I. Capwell,, and M. J. Beach. 2010. The epidemiology of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis, 1962-2008. Epidemiol Infect. 138:968975. doi:10.1017/S0950268809991014.
66. Zhou, L.,, R. Sriram,, G. S. Visvesvara,, and L. Xiao. 2003. Genetic variations in the internal transcribed spacer and mitochondrial small subunit rRNA gene of Naegleria spp. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 50:522526.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error