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Chapter 138 : , , and

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Abstract:

The (), , and are intestinal coccidia of humans, and oocysts of these coccidia are found in the feces of humans, and diagnosis is based ultimately on demonstrating oocysts ( or ) or sporocysts (Sarcocystis) in human stool samples. is in the family Eimeriidae, while and are in the family Sarcocystidae. The oocysts are -like and contain two sporocysts, each with four sporozoites. In areas of endemicity, there is an increased risk of infection with contact with soil and water. Most of the produce items implicated as transmitting are consumed raw, which does not lend itself to prevention by thermal means. species infecting mammals other than humans may also be present in water samples or on produce, and proofs of specificity are needed for these tests designed to look at environmental sources of and to detect oocysts on produce. Nitazoxanide has been evaluated for activity against , and in these studies, its efficacy for the treatment of cyclosporiasis was about 70%. Both and are usually identified by stool examination and are rarely misidentified in human feces. Computer report notes can indicate that trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is the drug of choice for treatment of these parasites. PCR can be used for the identification of organisms but is not commercially available and should be indicated as an experimental test.

Citation: Lindsay D, Upton S, Weiss L. 2011. , , and , p 2172-2179. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch138

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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Line drawings of unsporulated and sporulated oocysts of (A and B) and (C and D) and a sporulated oocyst (E) and sporocyst (F) of a species, all from humans. Bar, 10 μm.

Citation: Lindsay D, Upton S, Weiss L. 2011. , , and , p 2172-2179. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch138
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Modified Kinyoun's acid-fast-stained smears demonstrating an oocyst with a sporont (A), an oocyst with two sporoblasts (B), and a oocyst with a sporont (C).

Citation: Lindsay D, Upton S, Weiss L. 2011. , , and , p 2172-2179. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch138
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Toludine blue-stained 1-μm section demonstrating several unizoite cysts of . Note the thick wall that surrounds each single zoite.

Citation: Lindsay D, Upton S, Weiss L. 2011. , , and , p 2172-2179. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch138
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Structural data for and coccidial oocysts and sporocysts found in the feces of humans

Data have been rounded to the nearest micrometer.

Citation: Lindsay D, Upton S, Weiss L. 2011. , , and , p 2172-2179. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch138

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