1887

Chapter 138 : , , and

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

, , and , Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap138-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap138-2.gif

Abstract:

The (), , and are intestinal coccidia of humans, and oocysts of these coccidia are found in the feces of humans, and diagnosis is based ultimately on demonstrating oocysts ( or ) or sporocysts (Sarcocystis) in human stool samples. is in the family Eimeriidae, while and are in the family Sarcocystidae. The oocysts are -like and contain two sporocysts, each with four sporozoites. In areas of endemicity, there is an increased risk of infection with contact with soil and water. Most of the produce items implicated as transmitting are consumed raw, which does not lend itself to prevention by thermal means. species infecting mammals other than humans may also be present in water samples or on produce, and proofs of specificity are needed for these tests designed to look at environmental sources of and to detect oocysts on produce. Nitazoxanide has been evaluated for activity against , and in these studies, its efficacy for the treatment of cyclosporiasis was about 70%. Both and are usually identified by stool examination and are rarely misidentified in human feces. Computer report notes can indicate that trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is the drug of choice for treatment of these parasites. PCR can be used for the identification of organisms but is not commercially available and should be indicated as an experimental test.

Citation: Lindsay D, Upton S, Weiss L. 2011. , , and , p 2172-2179. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch138

Key Concept Ranking

Human immunodeficiency virus 1
0.47602096
0.47602096
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Line drawings of unsporulated and sporulated oocysts of (A and B) and (C and D) and a sporulated oocyst (E) and sporocyst (F) of a species, all from humans. Bar, 10 μm.

Citation: Lindsay D, Upton S, Weiss L. 2011. , , and , p 2172-2179. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch138
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Modified Kinyoun's acid-fast-stained smears demonstrating an oocyst with a sporont (A), an oocyst with two sporoblasts (B), and a oocyst with a sporont (C).

Citation: Lindsay D, Upton S, Weiss L. 2011. , , and , p 2172-2179. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch138
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Toludine blue-stained 1-μm section demonstrating several unizoite cysts of . Note the thick wall that surrounds each single zoite.

Citation: Lindsay D, Upton S, Weiss L. 2011. , , and , p 2172-2179. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch138
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555816728.chap138
1. Alfano-Sobsey, E. M.,, M. L. Eberhard,, J. R. Seed,, D. J. Weber,, K. Y. Won,, E. K. Nace,, and C. L. Moe. 2004. Human challenge pilot study with Cyclospora cayetanensis. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10: 726 728.
2. Arness, M. K.,, J. D. Brown,, J. P. Dubey,, R. C. Neafie,, and D. E. Granstrom. 1999. An outbreak of acute eosinophilic myositis attributed to human Sarcocystis parasitism. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 61: 548 553.
3. Atambay, M.,, M. R. Bayraktar,, U. Kayabas,, S. Yilmaz,, and Y. Bayindir. 2007. A rare diarrheic parasite in a liver transplant patient: Isospora belli. Transplant. Proc. 39: 1693 1695.
4. Beaver, P. C.,, K. Gadgil,, and P. Morera. 1979. Sarcocystis in man: a review and report of five cases. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 28: 819 844.
5. Benator, D. A.,, A. L. French,, L. M. Beaudet,, C. S. Levy,, and J. M. Orenstein. 1994. Isospora belli infection associated with acalculous cholecystitis in a patient with AIDS. Ann. Int. Med. 121: 663 664.
6. Bendall, R. P.,, S. Lucas,, A. Moody,, G. Tovey,, and P. L. Chiodini. 1993. Diarrhoea associated with cyanobacterium- like bodies: a new coccidian enteritis of man. Lancet 341: 590 592.
7. Bialek R.,, N. Binder, 2002. Comparison of autofluorescence and iodine staining for detection of Isospora belli in feces. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 67: 304 305.
8. Bialek, R.,, D. Overkamp,, I. Rettig,, and J. Knobloch. 2001. Case report: nitazoxanide treatment failure in chronic isosporiasis. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 65: 94 95.
9. Brandborg, L. L.,, S. B. Goldberg,, and W. C. Breidenbach. 1970. Human coccidiosis—a possible cause of malabsorption: the life cycle in small-bowel mucosal biopsies as a diagnostic feature. N. Engl. J. Med. 283: 1306 1313.
10. Bunyaratvej, S.,, and P. Unpunyo. 1992. Combined Sarcocystis and gram-positive bacterial infections. A possible cause of segmental enterocolitis in Thailand. J. Med. Assoc. Thai. 75: S38 S44.
11. Bunyaratvej, S.,, P. Bunyawongwiroj,, and P. Nitiyanant. 1982. Human intestinal sarcosporidiosis: report of six cases. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 31: 36 41.
12. Certad, G.,, A. Arenas-Pinto,, L. Pocaterra,, G. Ferrara,, J. Castro,, A. Bello,, and L. Nunez. 2003. Isosporiasis in Venezuelan adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus: clinical characterization. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 69: 217 222.
13. Chacín-Bonilla, L. 2008. Transmission of Cyclospora cayetanensis infection: a review focusing on soil-borne cyclosporiasis. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 102: 215 216.
14. Clarke, S. C.,, and M. McIntyre. 1997. An attempt to demonstrate a serological immune response in patients infected with Cyclospora cayetanensis. Br. J. Biomed. Sci. 54: 73 74.
15. de Gorgolas, M.,, J. Fortes,, and M. L. Fernandez Guerrero. 2001. Cyclospora cayetanensis cholecystitis in a patient with AIDS. Ann. Intern. Med. 134: 166.
16. de Otazu, R. D.,, L. Garcia-Nieto,, E. Izaguirre-Gondra,, E. Mayayo,, S. Ciani,, and F. F. Nogales. 2004. Endometrial coccidiosis. J. Clin. Pathol. 57: 1104 1105.
17. Diaz, E.,, J. Mondragon,, E. Ramirez,, and R. Bernal. 2003. Epidemiology and control of intestinal parasites with nitazoxanide in children in Mexico. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 69: 384 385.
18. Dixon, B. R.,, J. M. Bussey,, L. J. Parrington,, and M. Parenteau. 2005. Detection of Cyclospora cayetanensis oocysts in human fecal specimens by flow cytometry. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43: 2375 2379.
19. Dodds, S. E.,, and R. Elsdon-Dew. 1955. Further observations on human coccidiosis in Natal. S. Afr. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 1: 104 109.
20. Doumbo, O.,, J. F. Rossignol,, E. Pichard,, H. A. Traore,, T. M. Dembele,, M. Diakite,, F. Traore,, and D. A. Diallo. 1997. Nitazoxanide in the treatment of cryptosporidial diarrhea and other intestinal parasitic infections associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in tropical Africa. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 56: 637 639.
21. Dowd, S. E.,, D. John,, J. Eliopolus,, C. P. Gerba,, J. Naranjo,, R. Klein,, B. Lopez,, M. de Mejia,, C. E. Mendoza,, and I. L. Pepper. 2003. Confirmed detection of Cyclospora cayetanensis, Encephalitozoon intestinalis and Cryptosporidium parvum in water used for drinking. J. Water Health 1: 117 123.
22. Dubey, J. P.,, A. W. Kotula,, A. Sharar,, C. D. Andrews,, and D. S. Lindsay. 1990. Effect of high temperature on infectivity of Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts in pork. J. Parasitol. 76: 201 204.
23. Eberhard, M. L.,, N. J. Pieniazek,, and M. J. Arrowood. 1997. Laboratory diagnosis of Cyclospora infections. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 121: 792 797.
24. Eberhard, M. L.,, Y. R. Ortega,, D. E. Hanes,, E. K. Nace,, R. Q. Do,, M. G. Robl,, K. Y. Won,, C. Gavidia,, N. L. Sass,, K. Mansfield,, A. Gozalo,, J. Griffiths,, R. Gilman,, C. R. Sterling,, and M. J. Arrowood. 2000. Attempts to establish experimental Cyclospora cayetanensis infection in laboratory animals. J. Parasitol. 86: 577 582.
25. El Naggar, H. H.,, A. E. Handousa,, E. M. El Hamshary,, and A. M. El Shazly. 1999. Evaluation of five stains in diagnosing human intestinal coccidiosis. J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol. 29: 883 891.
26. Elsdon-Dew, R. 1953. Isospora natalensis (sp. nov.) in man. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 56: 149 150.
27. Fayer, R. 2004. Sarcocystis spp. in humans. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 17: 894 902.
28. Ferreira, L. F.,, S. G. Coutinho,, C. A. Argento,, and J. R. da Silva. 1962. Experimental human coccidial enteritis by Isospora belli Wenyon, 1923. A study based on the infection of 5 volunteers. Hospital (Rio de Janeiro) 62: 795 804.
29. Fox, L. M.,, and L. D. Saravolatz. 2005. Nitazoxanide: a new thiazolide antiparasitic agent. Clin. Infect. Dis. 40: 1173 1180.
30. French, A. L.,, L. M. Beaudet,, D. A. Benator,, C. S. Levy,, M. Kass,, and J. M. Orenstein. 1995. Cholecystectomy in patients with AIDS: clinicopathologic correlations in 107 cases. Clin. Infect. Dis. 21: 852 858.
31. Garcia, L. S.,, and D. A. Bruckner. 1997. Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, 3rd ed., p. 593 607, 937. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
32. González, L. M.,, N. Villalobos,, E. Montero,, J. Morales,, R. A. Sanz,, A. Muro,, L. J. Harrison,, R. M. Parkhouse,, and T. Gárate. 2006. Differential molecular identification of Taeniid spp. and Sarcocystis spp. cysts isolated from infected pigs and cattle. Vet. Parasitol. 142: 95 101.
33. Goodman, M. L.,, and E. Maher. 1966. Four uncommon infections in Hodgkin's disease. JAMA 198: 1129.
34. Greenberg, S. J.,, M. P. Davey,, W. S. Zierdt,, and T. A. Waldmann. 1988. Isospora belli infection in patients with human T-cell leukemia virus type I-associated adult T-cell leukemia. Am. J. Med. 85: 435 438.
35. Hallak, A.,, I. Yust,, Y. Ratan,, and U. Adar. 1982. Malabsorption syndrome, coccidiosis, combined immune deficiency, and fulminant lymphoproliferative disease. Arch. Intern. Med. 142: 196 197.
36. Herwaldt, B. L. 2000. Cyclospora cayetanensis: a review, focusing on the outbreaks of cyclosporiasis in the 1990s. Clin. Infect. Dis. 31: 1040 1057.
37. Jinneman, K. C.,, J. H. Wetherington,, W. E. Hill,, A. M. Adams,, J. M. Johnson,, B. J. Tenge,, N. L. Dang,, R. L. Manger,, and M. M. Wekell. 1998. Template preparation for PCR and RFLP of amplification products for the detection and identification of Cyclospora sp. and Eimeria spp. oocysts directly from raspberries. J. Food Prot. 61: 1497 1503.
38. Jongwutiwes, S.,, C. Putaporntip,, M. Charoenkorn,, T. Iwasaki,, and T. Endo. 2007. Morphologic and molecular characterization of Isospora belli oocysts from patients in Thailand. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 77: 107 112.
39. Karanis, P.,, C. Kourenti,, and H. Smith. 2007. Waterborne transmission of protozoan parasites: a worldwide review of outbreaks and lessons learnt. J. Water Health 5: 1 38.
40. Kimura, K.,, S. Kumar Rai,, K. Takemasa,, Y. Ishibashi,, M. Kawabata,, M. Belosevic,, and S. Uga. 2004. Comparison of three microscopic techniques for diagnosis of Cyclospora cayetanensis. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 238: 263 266.
41. Koru, O.,, R. E. Araz,, Y. A. Yilmaz,, S. Ergüven,, M. Yenicesu,, B. Pektas,, and M. Tanyüksel. 2007. Case report: Isospora belli infection in a renal transplant recipient. Turkiye Parazitol. Derg. 31: 98 100.
42. Lalonde, L. F.,, and A. A. Gajadhar. 2008. Highly sensitive and specific PCR assay for reliable detection of Cyclospora cayetanensis oocysts. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74: 4354 4358.
43. Limson-Pobre, R. N.,, S. Merrick,, D. Gruen,, and R. Soave. 1995. Use of diclazuril for the treatment of isosporiasis in patients with AIDS. Clin. Infect. Dis. 20: 201 202.
44. Lindquist, H. D.,, J. W. Bennett,, J. D. Hester,, M. W. Ware,, J. P. Dubey,, and W. V. Everson. 2003. Autofluorescence of Toxoplasma gondii and related coccidian oocysts. J. Parasitol. 89: 865 867.
45. Lindsay, D. S.,, J. P. Dubey,, M. A. Toivio-Kinnucan,, J. F. Michiels,, and B. L. Blagburn. 1997. Examination of extraintestinal tissue cysts of Isospora belli. J. Parasitol. 83: 620 625.
46. Lindsay, D. S.,, D. Holliman,, G. J. Flick,, D. G. Goodwin,, S. M. Mitchell,, and J. P. Dubey. 2008. Effects of high pressure processing on Toxoplasma gondii oocysts on raspberries. J. Parasitol. 94: 757 758.
47. Madico, G.,, J. McDonald,, R. H. Gilman,, L. Cabrera,, and C. R. Sterling. 1997. Epidemiology and treatment of Cyclospora cayetanensis infection in Peruvian children. Clin. Infect. Dis. 24: 977 981.
48. Matsubayashi, H.,, and T. Nozawa. 1948. Experimental infection of Isospora hominis in man. Am. J. Trop. Med. 28: 633 637.
49. Mehlhorn, H.,, and A. O. Heydorn. 1979. Electron microscopical study on gamogony of Sarcocystis suihominis in human tissue cultures. Z. Parasitenkd. 58: 97 113.
50. Mehrotra, R.,, D. Bisht,, P. A. Singh,, S. C. Gupta,, and R. K. Gupta. 1996. Diagnosis of human Sarcocystis infection from biopsies of the skeletal muscle. Pathology 28: 281 282.
51. Michiels, J. F.,, P. Hofman,, E. Bernard,, M. C. St. Paul,, C. Boissy,, V. Mondain,, Y. LeFichoux,, and R. Loubiere. 1994. Intestinal and extraintestinal Isospora belli infection in an AIDS patient. Pathol. Res. Pract. 190: 1089 1093.
52. Mirdha, B. R.,, S. K. Kabra,, and J. C. Samantray. 2002. Isosporiasis in children. Indian Pediatr. 39: 941 944.
53. Mughal, T. I.,, and M. Y. Khan. 1991. Isospora belli diarrhea as a presenting feature of AIDS. Saudi Med. J. 12: 433 434.
54. Muller, A.,, R. Bialek,, G. Fatkenheuer,, B. Salzberger,, V. Diehl,, and C. Franzen. 2000. Detection of Isospora belli by polymerase chain reaction using primers based on smallsubunit ribosomal RNA sequences. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 19: 631 634.
55. Oliveira-Silva, M. B.,, E. Lages-Silva,, D. V. Resende,, A. Prata,, L. E. Ramirez,, and J. K. Frenkel. 2006. Cystoisospora belli: in vitro multiplication in mammalian cells. Exp. Parasitol. 114: 189 192.
56. Ortega, Y.,, R. Nagle,, R. H. Gilman,, J. Watanabe,, J. Miyagui,, H. Quispe,, P. Kanagusuku,, C. Roxas,, and C. R. Sterling. 1997. Pathologic and clinical findings in patients with cyclosporiasis and a description of intracellular parasite life-cycle stages. J. Infect. Dis. 176: 1584 1589.
57. Pape, J. W.,, R.-I. Verdier,, M. Boncy,, J. Boncy,, and W. D. Johnson. 1994. Cyclospora infection in adults infected with HIV. Clinical manifestations, treatment, and prophylaxis. Ann. Intern. Med. 121: 654 657.
58. Pape, J. W.,, R. I. Verdier,, and W. D. Johnson, Jr. 1989. Treatment and prophylaxis of Isospora belli infections in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. New Engl. J. Med. 320: 1044 1047.
59. Parija, S. C.,, M. R. Shivaprakash,, and S. R. Jayakeerthi. 2003. Evaluation of lacto-phenol cotton blue (LPCB) for detection of Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora and Isospora in the wet mount preparation of stool. Acta Trop. 85: 349 354.
60. Pathmanathan, R.,, and K. P. Kan. 1992. Three cases of human Sarcocystis infection with a review of human muscular sarcocystosis in Malaysia. Trop. Geogr. Med. 44: 102 108.
61. Relman, D. A.,, T. M. Schmidt,, A. Gajadhar,, M. Sogin,, J. Cross,, K. Yoder,, O. Sethabutr,, and P. Echeverria. 1996. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Cyclospora, the human intestinal pathogen, suggests that it is closely related to Eimeria species. J. Infect. Dis. 73: 440 445.
62. Resiere, D.,, J. M. Vantelon,, P. Bouree,, E. Chachaty,, G. Nitenberg,, and F. Blot. 2003. Isospora belli infection in a patient with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 9: 1065 1067.
63. Romero Cabello, R.,, L. R. Guerrero,, M. R. Munoz Garcia,, and A. Geyne Cruz. 1997. Nitazoxanide for the treatment of intestinal protozoan and helminthic infections in Mexico. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 91: 701 703.
64. Sifuentes-Osornio, J.,, G. Porras-Cortes,, R. P. Bendall,, F. Morales-Villarreal,, G. Reyes-Teran,, and G. M. Ruiz- Palacios. 1995. Cyclospora cayetanensis infection in patients with and without AIDS: biliary disease as another clinical manifestation. Clin. Infect. Dis. 21: 1092 1097.
65. Siripanth, C.,, B. Punpoowong,, P. Amarapal,, and N. Thima. 2004. Development of Isospora belli in Hct-8, Hep-2, human fibroblast, BEK and Vero culture cells. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 35: 796 800.
66. Smith, H. V.,, C. A. Paton,, M. M. A. Mtambo,, and R. W. A. Girdwood. 1997. Sporulation of Cyclospora sp. oocysts. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63: 1631 1632.
67. Sun, T.,, C. F. Ilardi,, D. Asnis,, A. R. Bresciani,, S. Goldenberg,, B. Roberts,, and S. Teichberg. 1996. Light and electron microscopic identification of Cyclospora species in the small intestine. Evidence of the presence of asexual life cycle in human host. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 105: 216 220.
68. ten Hove, R. J.,, L. van Lieshout,, E. A. Brienen,, M. A. Perez,, and J. J. Verweij. 2008. Real-time polymerase chain reaction for detection of Isospora belli in stool samples. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 61: 280 283.
69. Trier, J. S.,, P. C. Moxey,, E. M. Schimmel,, and E. Robles. 1974. Chronic intestinal coccidiosis in man: intestinal morphology and response to treatment. Gastroenterology 66: 923 935.
70. Van den Enden, E.,, M. Praet,, R. Joos,, A. Van Gompel,, and P. Gigasse. 1995. Eosinophilic myositis resulting from sarcocystosis. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 98: 273 276.
71. Vangeel, L.,, K. Houf,, K. Chiers,, J. Vercruysse,, K. D'Herde,, and R. Ducatelle. 2007. Molecular-based identification of Sarcocystis hominis in Belgian minced beef. J. Food Prot. 70: 1523 1526.
72. Varea, M.,, A. Clavel,, O. Doiz,, F. J. Castillo,, M. C. Rubio,, and R. Gomez-Lus. 1998. Fuchsin fluorescence and autofluorescence in Cryptosporidium, Isospora and Cyclospora oocysts. Int. J. Parasitol. 28: 1881 1883.
73. Varma, M.,, J. D. Hester,, F. W. Schaefer III,, M. W. Ware,, and H. D. Lindquist. 2003. Detection of Cyclospora cayetanensis using a quantitative real-time PCR assay. J. Microbiol. Methods 53: 27 36.
74. Velásquez, J. N.,, S. Carnevale,, M. Mariano,, L. H. Kuo,, A. Caballero,, A. Chertcoff,, C. Ibáñez,, and J. P. Bozzini. 2001. Isosporosis and unizoite tissue cysts in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Hum. Pathol. 32: 500 505.
75. Verdier, R. I.,, D. W. Fitzgerald,, D. W. Johnson,, and J. W. Pape. 2000. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole compared with ciprofloxacin for treatment and prophylaxis of Isospora belli and Cyclospora cayetanensis infection in HIV-infected patients—a randomized, controlled trial. Ann. Intern. Med. 132: 885 888.
76. Visvesvara, G. S.,, H. Moura,, E. Kovacs-Nace,, S. Wallace,, and M. L. Eberhard. 1997. Uniform staining of Cyclospora oocysts in fecal smears by a modified safranin technique with microwave heating. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 730 733.
77. Wang, K. X.,, C. P. Li,, J. Wang,, and Y. Tian. 2002. Cyclospora cayetanensis in Anhui, China. World J. Gastroenterol. 8: 1144 1148.
78. Weiss, L. M.,, D. C. Perlman,, J. Sherman,, H. Tanowitz,, and M. Wittner. 1988. Isospora belli infection: treatment with pyrimethamine. Ann. Intern. Med. 109: 474 475.
79. Westerman, E. L.,, and R. P. Christensen. 1979. Chronic Isospora belli infection treated with co-trimoxazole. Ann. Intern. Med. 91: 413 414.
80. Yang, Z. Q.,, Q. Q. Li,, Y. X. Zuo,, X. W. Chen,, Y. J. Chen,, L. Nie,, C. G. Wei,, J. S. Zen,, S. W. Attwood,, X. Z. Zhang,, and Y. P. Zhang. 2002. Characterization of Sarcocystis species in domestic animals using a PCR-RFLP analysis of variation in the 18S rRNA gene: a cost-effective and simple technique for routine species identification. Exp. Parasitol. 102: 212 217.
81. Yazar, S.,, B. Tokgöz,, O. Yaman,, and I. Sahin. 2006. Isospora belli infection in a patient with a renal transplant. Turkiye Parazitol. Derg. 30: 22 24.
82. Zar, F. A.,, E. El-Bayoumi,, and M. M. Yungbluth. 2001. Histologic proof of acalculous cholecystitis due to Cyclospora cayetanensis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 33: E140 E141.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Structural data for and coccidial oocysts and sporocysts found in the feces of humans

Data have been rounded to the nearest micrometer.

Citation: Lindsay D, Upton S, Weiss L. 2011. , , and , p 2172-2179. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch138

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error