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Recently, the taxonomy of had gone through revisions as the result of extensive molecular genetic studies and biologic characterizations of parasites from various animals. Within the epithelial cells, trophozoites undergo two or three generations of asexual amplification called merogony, leading to the formation of different types of meronts containing four to eight merozites. Studies in the United States and Europe have shown that cryptosporidiosis is more common among homosexual men than among persons in other human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission categories, indicating that direct person-to-person or anthroponotic transmission of cryptosporidiosis is common. Seasonal variations in the incidence of human infection in industrialized nations have also been partially attributed to waterborne transmission. As for any pathogens that are transmitted by the fecal-oral route, good hygiene is the key in preventing the acquisition of infection. There are significant differences among different species and subtype families in clinical manifestations of pediatric cryptosporidiosis. In industrialized nations, the most effective treatment and prophylaxis for cryptosporidiosis in AIDS patients is the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). From a public health point of view, the reporting of a significant number of cases above background levels in industrialized nations indicates the likely occurrence of outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis or false positivity of diagnostic kits. In situations like this, it is crucial to have the test results verified with a confirmatory test such as direct immunofluorescence assays (DFA) or PCR and to report them to the state or local public health department.

Citation: Xiao L, Cama V. 2011. , p 2180-2189. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch139

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Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy
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Image of FIGURE 1

Oocysts of (4 to 6 μm) (A), (6 to 8 μm) (B), (8 to 10 μm) (C), and (20 to 30 μm by 10 to 20 μm) (D) stained by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast stain.

Citation: Xiao L, Cama V. 2011. , p 2180-2189. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch139
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Image of FIGURE 2

oocysts (4 to 6 mm) and cyst (11 to 14 mm by 7 to 10 mm) under immunofluorescence microscopy.

Citation: Xiao L, Cama V. 2011. , p 2180-2189. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch139
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Generic image for table

Some commercial diagnostic assays for the detection of oocysts, antigens, or DNA

CLIA, Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments.

Not available in the United States.

Now replaced by II.

CLIA certification to Alexon-Trend; the company is now Remel.

Previously manufactured as Contrast /Combo rapid assay from Genzyme.

Citation: Xiao L, Cama V. 2011. , p 2180-2189. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch139

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