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Chapter 141 : Nematodes

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Nematodes, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

Soil-transmitted helminths (intestinal nematodes) are the most common infections globally with more than one billion people infected, especially in resource-poor settings where sanitation is inadequate. Studies strongly suggest that nematodes are actually related to the arthropods and priapulids in a newly recognized group, the Ecdysozoa. The adult worm is the largest of the human pathogenic nematodes, 15 to 35 cm in length. and are the two genera of Ancylostomatidae that infect humans. The major clinical manifestation of hookworm infection is iron deficiency anemia due to intestinal blood loss and depletion of iron stores. Some rhabditiform larvae develop into infective filariform larvae in the bowel lumen, penetrate the intestinal mucosa or perianal skin, and repeat the cycle of maturation within the same host. This process of autoinfection, albeit uncommon among intestinal nematodes, results in chronic infections that may persist for 40 years or more. The clinical features are related to the intensity of infection, as is the case with the other intestinal nematodes. In developed countries, any helminth eggs or larvae found in feces are significant and treatment is recommended, even if the patient is asymptomatic. However, treatment of asymptomatic cases is not necessary in developing countries as many of these parasites are endemic and reinfection is common.

Citation: Sheorey H, Biggs B, Traynor P. 2011. Nematodes, p 2200-2211. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch141

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Figures

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FIGURE 1

Relative sizes of helminth eggs.

Citation: Sheorey H, Biggs B, Traynor P. 2011. Nematodes, p 2200-2211. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch141
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Various eggs and adult worms of intestinal nematodes (magnification for panels A through C, E, and H, ×850). (A) Fertile egg of (B) Decorticated fertile egg of (C) Infertile egg of (D) adult worm with typical cylindrical body with tapering ends and thick cuticle. The adult worm is the largest of the human pathogenic nematodes, 15 to 35 cm in length. (E) Embryonated infective egg of (F) Adult worms in feces (arrow). (G) adult female. Adult females are usually 8 to 13 by 0.3 to 0.5 mm in size. Shown is the anterior end of a female worm with the characteristic lips. Typical eggs can also usually be seen in the field. Magnification, ×100. (H) Egg of

Citation: Sheorey H, Biggs B, Traynor P. 2011. Nematodes, p 2200-2211. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch141
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Eggs and larvae of intestinal nematodes (magnification, ×850). (A) Hookworm egg; (B) egg; (C) rhabditiform, or first-stage, larva of (D) anterior end of rhabditiform larva of showing short buccal cavity; (E) anterior end of rhabditiform hookworm larva showing long buccal cavity; (F) tail end of filariform, or laststage, larva of with the notched tail (arrow); (G) tail end of filariform, or last-stage, hookworm larva with the tapering tail.

Citation: Sheorey H, Biggs B, Traynor P. 2011. Nematodes, p 2200-2211. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch141
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References

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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Usual times for completion of life cycles under favorable conditions

Modified from reference .

Citation: Sheorey H, Biggs B, Traynor P. 2011. Nematodes, p 2200-2211. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch141
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Summary of common nematodes

Citation: Sheorey H, Biggs B, Traynor P. 2011. Nematodes, p 2200-2211. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch141

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