1887

Chapter 142 : Filarial Nematodes

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Filarial Nematodes , Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap142-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap142-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter talks about three lymphatic-dwelling filarial parasites of humans: , , and . Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is associated with a variety of clinical manifestations. The four most common presentations are asymptomatic (or subclinical) microfilaremia, lymphedema, hydrocele, and acute attacks. Lymphedema most commonly affects the lower extremities but can also affect arms, breasts in females, and the scrotum in males. Diagnosis of bancroftian and brugian filarial infection can be made noninvasively in some cases by ultrasound. Recent developments in immunodiagnostic and molecular biology techniques give further options for diagnosis. The current global elimination campaign uses three drugs: DEC, ivermectin, and albendazol, in various combinations for mass treatment of communities where the parasites are endemic. Next, the chapter talks about . The major disease manifestations of onchocerciasis are localized to the skin, lymph nodes, and eyes. Finally, the chapter discusses , and infections. The adult worms of reside in the body cavities (pericardial, pleural, and peritoneal) as well as in the mesentery and the perirenal and retroperitoneal tissues. The major clinical manifestations of infections are related to the skin: pruritus, papular rashes, and pigmentation changes. For infections, diagnosis is made parasitologically by finding the microfilariae in the blood or in other body fluids. The diagnosis of streptocerciasis can be made by finding the characteristic microfilariae on skin-snip examination. The chapter describes treatment and prevention methods for , , and .

Citation: Fink D, Nutman T. 2011. Filarial Nematodes , p 2212-2221. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch142

Key Concept Ranking

Luciferase Immunoprecipitation Systems Assay
0.4388623
0.4388623
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Common microfilariae found in humans. Organisms are stained with hematoxylin. Magnification, ×325. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) .

Citation: Fink D, Nutman T. 2011. Filarial Nematodes , p 2212-2221. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch142
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Diagrammatic representation of the anterior and posterior extremities of the common microfilariae found in humans. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) .

Citation: Fink D, Nutman T. 2011. Filarial Nematodes , p 2212-2221. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch142
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555816728.chap142
1. Adolph, P. E.,, I. G. Kagan,, and R. M. McQuay. 1962. Diagnosis and treatment of Acanthocheilonema perstans filariasis. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 11:7688.
2. Albiez, E. J. 1983. Studies on nodules and adult Onchocerca volvulus during a nodulectomy trial in hyperendemic villages in Liberia and Upper Volta. I. Palpable and impalpable onchocercomata. Tropenmed. Parasitol. 34:5460.
3. Ananthakrishnan, S.,, and L. K. Das. 2004. Entry lesions in bancroftian filarial lymphoedema patients—a clinical observation. Acta. Trop. 90:215218.
4. Ash, L.,, and T. Orihel. 1997. Atlas of Human Parasitology, 4th ed. American Society of Clinical Pathologists, Chicago, IL.
5. Boatin, B. A.,, and F. O. Richards, Jr. 2006. Control of onchocerciasis. Adv. Parasitol. 61:349394.
6. Boussinesq, M.,, J. Gardon,, N. Gardon-Wendel,, and J. P. Chippaux. 2003. Clinical picture, epidemiology and outcome of Loa-associated serious adverse events related to mass ivermectin treatment of onchocerciasis in Cameroon. Filaria J. 2(Suppl. 1):S4.
7. Burbelo, P. D.,, H. P. Leahy,, M. J. Iadarola,, and T. B. Nutman. 2009. A four-antigen mixture for rapid assessment of Onchocerca volvulus infection. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. 3:e438.
8. Burbelo, P. D.,, R. Ramanathan,, A. D. Klion,, M. J. Iadarola,, and T. B. Nutman. 2008. Rapid, novel, specific, high-throughput assay for diagnosis of Loa loa infection. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46:22982304.
9. Coulibaly, Y. I.,, B. Dembele,, A. A. Diallo,, E. M. Lipner,, S. S. Doumbia,, S. Y. Coulibaly,, S. Konate,, D. A. Diallo,, D. Yalcouye,, J. Kubofcik,, O. K. Doumbo,, A. K. Traore,, A. D. Keita,, M. P. Fay,, S. F. Traore,, T. B. Nutman,, and A. D. Klion. 2009. A randomized trial of doxycycline for Mansonella perstans infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 361:14481458.
10. Dreyer, G.,, D. Addiss,, J. Roberts,, and J. Noroes. 2002. Progression of lymphatic vessel dilatation in the presence of living adult Wuchereria bancrofti. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 96:157161.
11. Dreyer, G.,, D. Mattos,, and J. Noroes. 2007. Chyluria. Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. 53:460464. (In Portuguese.)
12. Dreyer, G.,, Z. Medeiros,, M. J. Netto,, N. C. Leal,, L. G. de Castro,, and W. F. Piessens. 1999. Acute attacks in the extremities of persons living in an area endemic for bancroftian filariasis: differentiation of two syndromes. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 93:413417.
13. Dreyer, G.,, J. Noroes,, J. Figueredo-Silva,, and W. F. Piessens. 2000. Pathogenesis of lymphatic disease in bancroftian filariasis: a clinical perspective. Parasitol. Today 16:544548.
14. Fischer, P.,, E. Tukesiga,, and D. W. Buttner. 1999. Longterm suppression of Mansonella streptocerca microfilariae after treatment with ivermectin. J. Infect. Dis. 180:14031405.
15. Gardon, J.,, N. Gardon-Wendel,, N. Demanga,, J. Kamgno,, J. P. Chippaux,, and M. Boussinesq. 1997. Serious reactions after mass treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin in an area endemic for Loa loa infection. Lancet 350:1822.
16. Gonzalez, A. A.,, D. D. Chadee,, and S. C. Rawlins. 1999. Ivermectin treatment of mansonellosis in Trinidad. West Indian Med. J. 48:231234.
17. Hoerauf, A.,, S. Mand,, O. Adjei,, B. Fleischer,, and D. W. Buttner. 2001. Depletion of wolbachia endobacteria in Onchocerca volvulus by doxycycline and microfilaridermia after ivermectin treatment. Lancet 357:14151416.
18. Keiser, P. B.,, Y. Coulibaly,, J. Kubofcik,, A. A. Diallo,, A. D. Klion,, S. F. Traore,, and T. B. Nutman. 2008. Molecular identification of Wolbachia from the filarial nematode Mansonella perstans. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 160:123128.
19. Klion, A. D.,, A. Massougbodji,, B. C. Sadeler,, E. A. Ottesen,, and T. B. Nutman. 1991. Loiasis in endemic and nonendemic populations: immunologically mediated differences in clinical presentation. J. Infect. Dis. 163: 13181325.
20. Klion, A. D.,, E. A. Ottesen,, and T. B. Nutman. 1994. Effectiveness of diethylcarbamazine in treating loiasis acquired by expatriate visitors to endemic regions: long-term follow-up. J. Infect. Dis. 169:604610.
21. Klion, A. D.,, A. Vijaykumar,, T. Oei,, B. Martin,, and T. B. Nutman. 2003. Serum immunoglobulin G4 antibodies to the recombinant antigen, Ll-SXP-1, are highly specific for Loa loa infection. J. Infect. Dis. 187:128133.
22. Lipner, E. M.,, N. Dembele,, S. Souleymane,, W. S. Alley,, D. R. Prevots,, L. Toe,, B. Boatin,, G. J. Weil,, and T. B. Nutman. 2006. Field applicability of a rapid-format anti-Ov-16 antibody test for the assessment of onchocerciasis control measures in regions of endemicity. J. Infect. Dis. 194:216221.
23. Lipner, E. M.,, M. A. Law,, E. Barnett,, J. S. Keystone,, F. von Sonnenburg,, L. Loutan,, D. R. Prevots,, A. D. Klion, and T. B. Nutman for the Geosentinel Surveillance Network. 2007. Filariasis in travelers presenting to the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. 1:e88.
24. Marinkelle, C. J.,, and E. German. 1970. Mansonelliasis in the Comisaria del Vaupes of Colombia. Trop. Geogr. Med. 22:101111.
25. McCarthy, J. S.,, M. Zhong,, R. Gopinath,, E. A. Ottesen,, S. A. Williams,, and T. B. Nutman. 1996. Evaluation of a polymerase chain reaction-based assay for diagnosis of Wuchereria bancrofti infection. J. Infect. Dis. 173:15101514.
26. McPherson, T.,, S. Persaud,, S. Singh,, M. P. Fay,, D. Addiss,, T. B. Nutman,, and R. Hay. 2006. Interdigital lesions and frequency of acute dermatolymphangioadenitis in lymphoedema in a filariasis-endemic area. Br. J. Dermatol. 154:933941.
27. Meyers, W. M.,, D. H. Connor,, L. E. Harman,, K. Fleshman,, R. Moris,, and R. C. Neafie. 1972. Human streptocerciasis. A clinico-pathologic study of 40 Africans (Zairians) including identification of the adult filaria. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 21:528545.
28. Molyneux, D. H. 2009. Filaria control and elimination: diagnostic, monitoring and surveillance needs. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 103:338341.
29. More, S. J.,, and D. B. Copeman. 1990. A highly specific and sensitive monoclonal antibody-based ELISA for the detection of circulating antigen in bancroftian filariasis. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 41:403406
30. Narahari, S. R.,, T. J. Ryan,, P. E. Mahadevan,, K. S. Bose,, and K. S. Prasanna. 2007. Integrated management of filarial lymphedema for rural communities. Lymphology 40:313.
31. Noroes, J.,, D. Addiss,, A. Santos,, Z. Medeiros,, A. Coutinho,, and G. Dreyer. 1996. Ultrasonographic evidence of abnormal lymphatic vessels in young men with adult Wuchereria bancrofti infection in the scrotal area. J. Urol. 156:409412.
32. Nutman, T. B.,, K. D. Miller,, M. Mulligan,, G. N. Reinhardt,, B. J. Currie,, C. Steel,, and E. A. Ottesen. 1988. Diethylcarbamazine prophylaxis for human loiasis. N. Engl. J. Med. 319:750756.
33. Nutman, T. B.,, T. E. Nash,, and E. A. Ottesen. 1987. Ivermectin in the successful treatment of a patient with Mansonella ozzardi infection. J. Infect. Dis. 156:662665.
34. Nutman, T. B.,, P. A. Zimmerman,, J. Kubofcik,, and D. D. Kostyu. 1994. A universally applicable diagnostic approach to filarial and other infections. Parasitol. Today 10:239243.
35. Olszewski, W. L.,, S. Jamal,, G. Manokaran,, S. Pani,, V. Kumaraswami,, U. Kubicka,, B. Lukomska,, F. M. Tripathi,, E. Swoboda,, F. Meisel-Mikolajczyk,, E. Stelmach,, and M. Zaleska. 1999. Bacteriological studies of blood, tissue fluid, lymph and lymph nodes in patients with acute dermatolymphangioadenitis (DLA) in course of ‘filarial’ lymphedema. Acta Trop. 73:217224.
36. Ottesen, E. A. 2006. Lymphatic filariasis: treatment, control and elimination. Adv. Parasitol. 61:395441.
37. Ottesen, E. A.,, P. J. Hooper,, M. Bradley,, and G. Biswas. 2008. The global programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis: health impact after 8 years. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. 2:e317.
38. Ottesen, E. A.,, and T. B. Nutman. 1992. Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia. Annu. Rev. Med. 43:417424.
39. Pani, S. P.,, and A. Srividya. 1995. Clinical manifestations of bancroftian filariasis with special reference to lymphoedema grading. Indian J. Med. Res. 102:114118.
40. Pani, S. P.,, J. Yuvaraj,, P. Vanamail,, V. Dhanda,, E. Michael,, B. T. Grenfell,, and D. A. Bundy. 1995. Episodic adenolymphangitis and lymphoedema in patients with bancroftian filariasis. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 89:7274.
41. Rajan, T. V. 2000. Lymphatic Filariasis: A Historical Perspective, vol. 1. Imperial College Press, London, England.
42. Ramachandran, C. P. 1993. Improved immunodiagnostic tests to monitor onchocerciasis control programmes—a multicenter effort. Parasitol. Today 9:7779.
43. Rao, R. U.,, Y. Huang,, M. J. Bockarie,, M. Susapu,, S. J. Laney,, and G. J. Weil. 2009. A qPCR-based multiplex assay for the detection of Wuchereria bancrofti, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax DNA. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 103:365370.
44. Rao, R. U.,, G. J. Weil,, K. Fischer,, T. Supali,, and P. Fischer. 2006. Detection of Brugia parasite DNA in human blood by real-time PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:38873893.
45.Sasa, M. 1976. Human Filariasis: A Global Survey of Epidemiology and Control. University Park Press, Baltimore, MD.
46. Seim, A. R.,, G. Dreyer,, and D. G. Addiss. 1999. Controlling morbidity and interrupting transmission: twin pillars of lymphatic filariasis elimination. Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop. 32:325328.
47. Shenoy, R. K.,, V. Kumaraswami,, T. K. Suma,, K. Rajan,, and G. Radhakuttyamma. 1999. A double-blind, placebocontrolled study of the efficacy of oral penicillin, diethylcarbamazine or local treatment of the affected limb in preventing acute adenolymphangitis in lymphoedema caused by brugian filariasis. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 93:367377.
48. Shenoy, R. K.,, K. Sandhya,, T. K. Suma,, and V. Kumaraswami. 1995. A preliminary study of filariasis related acute adenolymphangitis with special reference to precipitating factors and treatment modalities. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 26:301305.
49. Shenoy, R. K.,, T. K. Suma,, V. Kumaraswami,, S. Padma,, N. Rahmah,, G. Abhilash,, and C. Ramesh. 2007. Doppler ultrasonography reveals adult-worm nests in the lymph vessels of children with brugian filariasis. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 101:173180.
50. Stingl, P. 2009. Onchocerciasis: developments in diagnosis, treatment and control. Int. J. Dermatol. 48:393396.
51. Taylor, H. R. 1985. Global priorities in the control of onchocerciasis. Rev. Infect. Dis. 7:844846.
52. Taylor, M. J.,, W. H. Makunde,, H. F. McGarry,, J. D. Turner,, S. Mand,, and A. Hoerauf. 2005. Macrofilaricidal activity after doxycycline treatment of Wuchereria bancrofti: a double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 365:21162121.
53. Tisch, D. J.,, M. J. Bockarie,, Z. Dimber,, B. Kiniboro,, N. Tarongka,, F. E. Hazlett,, W. Kastens,, M. P. Alpers,, and J. W. Kazura. 2008. Mass drug administration trial to eliminate lymphatic filariasis in Papua New Guinea: changes in microfilaremia, filarial antigen, and Bm14 antibody after cessation. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 78:289293.
54. Udwadia, F. 1975. Pulmonary Eosinophilia. Progress in Respiration Research, vol. 7. S. Karger, Basel, Switzerland.
55. Vijayan, V. K. 2007. Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia: pathogenesis, diagnosis and management. Curr. Opin. Pulm. Med. 13:428433.
56. Weil, G. J.,, P. J. Lammie,, and N. Weiss. 1997. The ICT Filariasis Test: a rapid-format antigen test for diagnosis of bancroftian filariasis. Parasitol. Today 13:401404.
57. Weil, G. J.,, C. Steel,, F. Liftis,, B. W. Li,, G. Mearns,, E. Lobos,, and T. B. Nutman. 2000. A rapid-format antibody card test for diagnosis of onchocerciasis. J. Infect. Dis. 182: 17961799.
58. World Health Organization. 1992. Lymphatic Filariasis: The Diseases and Its Control, vol. 821. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
59. Zhong, M.,, J. McCarthy,, L. Bierwert,, M. Lizotte-Waniewski,, S. Chanteau,, T. B. Nutman,, E. A. Ottesen,, and S. A. Williams. 1996. A polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of the parasite Wuchereria bancrofti in human blood samples. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 54:357363.
60. Zimmerman, P. A.,, R. H. Guderian,, E. Aruajo,, L. Elson,, P. Phadke,, J. Kubofcik,, and T. B. Nutman. 1994. Polymerase chain reaction-based diagnosis of Onchocerca volvulus infection: improved detection of patients with onchocerciasis. J. Infect. Dis. 169:686689.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Filarial parasites of humans

Citation: Fink D, Nutman T. 2011. Filarial Nematodes , p 2212-2221. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch142

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error