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Chapter 143 : Cestodes

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Abstract:

Four species of cestode tapeworms inhabit the human intestine: , , , and . Rarer larval cestode infections affecting humans include coenurosis (), sparganosis (), and cysticercosis by . Eggs can be easily seen by microscopical examination of stools. Eggs should be reported as sp. because direct observation does not confirm the species. taeniasis and cysticercosis are highly endemic to all parts of the developing world where pigs are raised as a food source. The infection is now also increasingly diagnosed in industrialized countries due to immigration of tapeworm carriers from zones of endemicity. is the smallest of the intestinal tapeworms of humans and also the most common tapeworm infection throughout the world. is normally a parasite of mice, and its life cycle characteristically involves a beetle as intermediate host. In humans, transmission is usually accomplished by direct ingestion of infective eggs containing oncospheres. Diagnosis of the infection rests on finding the spherical eggs in feces by microscopy. Eggs are characteristic and should be reported as . Beside physical examination, diagnosis usually is based on imaging techniques including ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) supported by serology. and have canids as definitive hosts and sheep as their normal intermediate host, harboring the larvae or coenurus. Diagnosis is based on pathological demonstration of the typical larval membrane and multiple scolices.

Citation: Garcia H, Jimenez J, Escalante H. 2011. Cestodes, p 2222-2229. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch143

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Enzyme-Linked Immunoelectrotransfer Blot Assay
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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Scolex, gravid proglottids, and eggs (top to bottom) of and (left to right). Note the coiled, central uterus in the absence of hooks in the scolex of and the similar appearances of the eggs of and .

Citation: Garcia H, Jimenez J, Escalante H. 2011. Cestodes, p 2222-2229. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch143
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Larval cestodes infecting the human host. (Top left) cysticerci in the human brain (neurocysticercosis), shown in a noncontrasted MRI of the brain; (top right) hydatid in the human liver (hydatid disease) as seen on liver ultrasound (kind contribution of Enrico Brunetti, Università di Pavia, Pavia, Italy); (bottom left) alveolar hydatid disease in human liver (kind courtesy of K. Buttenschoen and P. Kern, University Hospital Ulm, Ulm, Germany); (bottom right) coenurus showing multiple scolices in the cystic wall.

Citation: Garcia H, Jimenez J, Escalante H. 2011. Cestodes, p 2222-2229. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch143
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Some characteristics of main cestodes infecting humans

Citation: Garcia H, Jimenez J, Escalante H. 2011. Cestodes, p 2222-2229. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch143

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