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Citation: Jones M, Keiser J, McManus D. .

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Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
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Five species of Schistosoma are known to infect humans. Infection with , , , or adults occurs in mesenteric veins; adults occur in the vesicle plexus. Humans are infected after cercarial penetration of the skin. After penetration, the cercariae shed their bifurcated tails, and the resulting schistosomula enter capillaries and lymphatic vessels en route to the lungs. After several days, the worms migrate to the portal venous system, where they mature and unite. Pairs of worms then migrate to the site of patent infection. Egg production commences 4 to 6 weeks after infection. Eggs pass from the lumens of blood vessels into adjacent tissues, and many then pass through the intestinal or bladder mucosa and are shed in the feces or urine (see the text). In freshwater, the eggs hatch, releasing miracidia that, in turn, infect specific freshwater snails ( Table 1 ). Reprinted from the ( ) with permission.

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Image of FIGURE 2

Life cycles of five different food-borne trematodes, including intestinal flukes (, , and ), a liver fluke (), and a lung fluke (). Reprinted from ( ) with permission.

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Image of FIGURE 4

Eggs of trematode parasites. (A) (magnification, ×400); (B) (magnification, ×1,200); (C) (magnification, ×1,200); (D) (magnification, ×1,200); (E) (magnification, ×480); (F) (magnification, ×600). (Panels B through D are from reference 3; used with permission.)

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Image of FIGURE 3

Eggs of schistosome species (magnification, ×480). (A) ; (B) egg with typical lateral spine not in view; (C) ; (D) ; (E) ; (F) . (Panels C through E are from reference ; used with permission.)

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Generic image for table

Geographical distribution, intermediate hosts, and egg morphology of the major schistosomes infecting humans

Generic image for table

Geographical distribution, hosts, and life histories of lung and hepatic digeneans of humans

T, triclabendazole; P, praziquantel.

Generic image for table

Geographical distribution, hosts, and life histories of digeneans of the human intestinal tract

Modified from reference with permission. Abbreviations: NR, not recorded; MB, mebendazole; P, praziquantel.


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