1887

Chapter 147 : Antiparasitic Agents

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Antiparasitic Agents, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap147-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap147-2.gif

Abstract:

There are a number of effective antiprotozoal and anthelmintic drugs currently available. These antiparasitic agents are important both for therapy of individual patients and for control of parasitic infections at the community level. This chapter focuses on the mechanisms of action, pharmacology, clinical utility, and adverse effects of common first-line antiparasitic therapies and newer drug alternatives. Most helminth infections in humans can be treated with one of five drugs, namely, albendazole, mebendazole, praziquantel, ivermectin, and diethylcarbamazine (DEC), so these five drugs are reviewed. A newer agent, nitazoxanide, which has both anthelmintic and antiprotozoal activity, is discussed. The chapter also reviews other major antiprotozoal drugs, including those used for malaria, gastrointestinal protozoal infection, leishmaniasis, and trypanosomiasis. The quinoline derivatives can be divided into the following four groups: the 4-aminoquinolines; the cinchona alkaloids; synthetic compounds, such as mefloquine and halofantrine; and the 8-aminoquinolines. The two agents used for treatment of American trypano-somiasis are nifurtimox and benznidazole. Nifurtimox has significant side effects that preclude the completion of therapy in many patients. Less frequent but more-severe toxicities include psychosis and convulsions. Benznidazole crosses the placenta, but there are minimal data regarding teratogenic effects of either agent in either animals or humans.

Citation: Leder K, Weller P. 2011. Antiparasitic Agents, p 2277-2295. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch147

Key Concept Ranking

Parasitic Proteins
1.0627596
Antibacterial Agents
0.6114802
Chagas' Disease
0.57165766
Antiprotozoal Agents
0.5302603
1.0627596
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555816728.chap147
1. Adagu, I. S.,, D. Nolder,, D. C. Warhurst,, and J. F. Rossignol. 2002. In vitro activity of nitazoxanide and related compounds against isolates of Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 49:103111.
2. Adam, I.,, E. T. Elwasila,, and M. Homeida. 2004. Is praziquantel therapy safe during pregnancy? Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 98:540543.
3. Allen, H. E.,, D. W. Crompton,, N. de Silva,, P. T. LoVerde,, and G. R. Olds. 2002. New policies for using anthelmintics in high risk groups. Trends Parasitol. 18:381382.
4.Reference deleted.
5.Anonymous. 2007. Drugs for Parasitic Infections. The Medical Letter, Inc., New Rochelle, NY. www.medletter.com.
6.Anonymous. 2003. Nitazoxanide (Alinia)—a new antiprotozoal agent. Med.Lett. Drugs Ther. 45:2931.
7. Araujo, N.,, A. Kohn,, and N. Katz. 1991. Activity of the artemether in experimental schistosomiasis mansoni. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 86:185188.
8. Auer, H.,, H. Kollaritsch,, J. Juptner,, and H. Aspock. 1994. Albendazole and pregnancy. Appl. Parasitol. 35:146147.
9. Baraka, O. Z.,, B. M. Mahmoud,, C. K. Marschke,, T. G. Geary,, M. M. Homeida,, and J. F. Williams. 1996. Ivermectin distribution in the plasma and tissues of patients infected with Onchocerca volvulus. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 50:407410.
10. Bem, J. L.,, L. Kerr,, and D. Stuerchler. 1992. Mefloquine prophylaxis: an overview of spontaneous reports of severe psychiatric reactions and convulsions. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 95:167179.
11. Berman, J. J. 2008. Treatment of leishmaniasis with miltefosine: 2008 status. Expert Opin. Drug Metab. Toxicol. 4:12091216.
12. Bhattacharya, S. K.,, T. K. Jha,, S. Sundar,, C. P. Thakur,, J. Engel,, H. Sindermann,, K. Junge,, J. Karbwang,, A. D. Bryceson,, and J. D. Berman. 2004. Efficacy and tolerability of miltefosine for childhood visceral leishmaniasis in India. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38:217221.
13. Bogan, J. A.,, and S. Marriner. 1980. Analysis of benzimidazoles in body fluids by high-performance liquid chromatography. J. Pharm. Sci. 69:422423.
14. Brindley, P. J.,, and A. Sher. 1990. Immunological involvement in the efficacy of praziquantel. Exp. Parasitol. 71:245248.
15. Broekhuysen, J.,, A. Stockis,, R. L. Lins,, J. De Graeve,, and J. F. Rossignol. 2000. Nitazoxanide: pharmacokinetics and metabolism in man. Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 38:387394.
16. Brueckner, R. P.,, T. Coster,, D. L. Wesche,, M. Shmuklarsky,, and B. G. Schuster. 1998. Prophylaxis of Plasmodium falciparum infection in a human challenge model with WR 238605, a new 8-aminoquinoline antimalarial. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 42:12931294.
17. Bryson, H. M.,, and K. L. Goa. 1992. Halofantrine. A review of its antimalarial activity, pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic potential. Drugs 43:236258.
18. Burri, C.,, T. Baltz,, C. Giroud,, F. Doua,, H. A. Welker,, and R. Brun. 1993. Pharmacokinetic properties of the trypanocidal drug melarsoprol. Chemotherapy 39:225234.
19. Calvopina, M.,, R. H. Guderian,, W. Paredes,, M. Chico,, and P. J. Cooper. 1998. Treatment of human pulmonary paragonimiasis with triclabendazole: clinical tolerance and drug efficacy. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 92:566569.
20. Campbell, W. C. 1993. Ivermectin, an antiparasitic agent. Med. Res. Rev. 13:6179.
21. Chen, P. Q.,, G. Q. Li,, X. B. Guo,, K. R. He,, Y. X. Fu,, L. C. Fu,, and Y. Z. Song. 1994. The infectivity of gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum from patients treated with artemisinin. Chin. Med. J. 107:709711.
22. Chulay, J. D.,, L. Fleckenstein,, and D. H. Smith. 1988. Pharmacokinetics of antimony during treatment of visceral leishmaniasis with sodium stibogluconate or meglumine antimoniate. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 82:6972.
23. Cobo, F.,, C. Yarnoz,, B. Sesma,, P. Fraile,, M. Aizcorbe,, R. Trujillo,, A. Diaz-de-Liano,, and M. A. Ciga. 1998. Albendazole plus praziquantel versus albendazole alone as a preoperative treatment in intra-abdominal hydatisosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus. Trop. Med. Int. Health 3:462466.
24. Croft, S. L. 1997. The current status of antiparasite chemotherapy. Parasitology 114:S3S15.
25. Croft, S. L.,, K. Seifert,, and M. Duchene. 2003. Antiprotozoal activities of phospholipid analogues. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 126:165172.
26. de Silva, N.,, H. Guyatt,, and D. Bundy. 1997. Anthelmintics. A comparative review of their clinical pharmacology. Drugs 53:769788.
27. de Toranzo, E. G.,, M. Masana,, and J. A. Castro. 1984. Administration of benznidazole, a chemotherapeutic agent against Chagas disease, to pregnant rats. Covalent binding of reactive metabolites to fetal and maternal proteins. Arch. Int. Pharmacodyn. Ther. 272:1723.
28. Diaz, E.,, J. Mondragon,, E. Ramirez,, and R. Bernal. 2003. Epidemiology and control of intestinal parasites with nitazoxanide in children in Mexico. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 68:384385.
29. Docampo, R.,, and S. N. Moreno. 1984. Free radical metabolites in the mode of action of chemotherapeutic agents and phagocytic cells on Trypanosoma cruzi. Rev. Infect. Dis. 6:223238.
30. Doenhoff, M. J.,, D. Cioli,, and J. Utzinger. 2008. Praziquantel: mechanisms of action, resistance and new derivatives for schistosomiasis. Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis. 21:659667.
31. Dondorp, A.,, F. Nosten,, K. Stepniewska,, N. Day,, and N. White. 2005. Artesunate versus quinine for treatment of severe falciparum malaria: a randomised trial. Lancet 366:717725.
32. Dumas, M.,, and B. Bouteille. 2000. Treatment of human African trypanosomiasis. Bull. W. H. O. 78:1474.
33. Edstein, M. D.,, S. Looareesuwan,, C. Viravan,, and D. E. Kyle. 1996. Pharmacokinetics of proguanil in malaria patients treated with proguanil plus atovaquone. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 27:216220.
34. Edwards, G.,, K. Awadzi,, A. M. Breckenridge,, H. M. Gilles,, M. L. Orme,, and S. A. Ward. 1981. Diethylcarbamazine disposition in patients with onchocerciasis. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 30:551557.
35. Edwards, G.,, and A. M. Breckenridge. 1988. Clinical pharmacokinetics of anthelmintic drugs. Clin. Pharmacokinet. 15:6793.
36. Fischer, C.,, A. Voss,, and J. Engel. 2001. Development status of miltefosine as first oral drug in visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Med. Microbiol. Immunol. (Berlin) 190:8587.
37. Foley, M.,, and L. Tilley. 1997. Quinoline antimalarials: mechanisms of action and resistance. Int. J. Parasitol. 27:231240.
38. Fox, L. M. 2006. Ivermectin: uses and impact 20 years on. Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis. 19:588593.
39. Fox, L. M.,, and L. D. Saravolatz. 2005. Nitazoxanide: a new thiazolide antiparasitic agent. Clin. Infect. Dis. 40:11731180.
40. Fozard, J. R.,, M. L. Part,, N. J. Prakash,, and J. Grove. 1980. Inhibition of murine embryonic development by alphadifluoromethylornithine, an irreversible inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 65:379391.
41. Frayha, G. J.,, J. D. Smyth,, J. G. Gobert,, and J. Savel. 1997. The mechanisms of action of antiprotozoal and anthelmintic drugs in man. Gen. Pharmacol. 28:273299.
42. Gilles, H. M.,, and P. S. Hoffman. 2002. Treatment of intestinal parasitic infections: a review of nitazoxanide. Trends Parasitol. 18:9597.
43. Gilman, A.,, T. W. Rall,, and A. S. Nies (ed.). 1990. Goodman and Gilman’s the Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed. Pergamon Press, New York, NY.
44. Goa, K. L.,, D. McTavish,, and S. P. Clissold. 1991. Ivermectin. A review of its antifilarial activity, pharmacokinetic properties and clinical efficacy in onchocerciasis. Drugs 42:640658.
45. Gombert, M. E.,, E. J. Goldstein,, J. L. Benach,, M. J. Tenenbaum,, E. Grunwaldt,, M. H. Kaplan,, and L. K. Eveland. 1982. Human babesiosis. Clinical and therapeutic considerations. JAMA 248:30053007.
46. Gu, H. M.,, D. C. Warhurst,, and W. Peters. 1984. Uptake of [3H] dihydroartemisinine by erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 78:265270.
47. Gutteridge, W. E. 1985. Existing chemotherapy and its limitations. Br. Med. Bull. 41:162168.
48. Gyapong, J. O.,, M. A. Chinbuah,, and M. Gyapong. 2003. Inadvertent exposure of pregnant women to ivermectin and albendazole during mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis. Trop. Med. Int. Health 8:10931101.
49. Hennequin, C.,, P. Bouree,, N. Bazin,, F. Bisaro,, and A. Feline. 1994. Severe psychiatric side effects observed during prophylaxis and treatment with mefloquine. Arch. Intern. Med. 154:23602362.
50. Huebert, N. D.,, J. J. Schwartz,, and K. D. Haegele. 1997. Analysis of 2-difluoromethyl-DL-ornithine in human plasma, cerebrospinal fluid and urine by cation-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography. J. Chromatogr. A 762:293298.
51. Inyang-Etoh, P. C.,, G. C. Ejezie,, M. F. Useh,, and E. C. Inyang-Etoh. 2009. Efficacy of a combination of praziquantel and artesunate in the treatment of urinary schistosomiasis in Nigeria. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 103:3844.
52. Jaroonvesama, N.,, K. Charoenlarp,, and J. H. Cross. 1981. Treatment of Opisthorchis viverrini with mebendazole. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 12:595597.
53. Jha, T. K.,, S. Sundar,, C. P. Thakur,, P. Bachmann,, J. Karbwang,, C. Fischer,, A. Voss,, and J. Berman. 1999. Miltefosine, an oral agent, for the treatment of Indian visceral leishmaniasis. N. Engl. J. Med. 341:17951800.
54. Joseph, C. A.,, and P. A. Dixon. 1984. Possible prostaglandin- mediated effect of diethylcarbamazine on rat uterine contractility. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 36:281282.
55. Jung, H.,, M. Hurtado,, M. T. Medina,, M. Sanchez,, and J. Sotelo. 1990. Dexamethasone increases plasma levels of albendazole. J. Neurol. 237:279280.
56. Jung, H.,, M. Hurtado,, M. Sanchez,, M. T. Medina,, and J. Sotelo. 1992. Clinical pharmacokinetics of albendazole in patients with brain cysticercosis. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 32:2831.
57. Kaojarern, S.,, S. Nathakarnkikool,, and T. U. Suvanakoot. 1989. Comparative bioavailability of praziquantel tablets. Drug Intell. Clin. Pharm. 23:2932.
58. Karbwang, J.,, and N. J. White. 1990. Clinical pharmacokinetics of mefloquine. Clin. Pharmacokinet. 19:264279.
59. Keiser, J.,, and J. Utzinger. 2008. Efficacy of current drugs against soil-transmitted helminth infections: systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA \:19371948.
60. Kingsnorth, A. N. 1986. The chemotherapeutic potential of polyamine antimetabolites. Ann. R. Coll. Surg. Engl. 68:7681.
61. Klion, A. D.,, E. A. Ottesen,, and T. B. Nutman. 1994. Effectiveness of diethylcarbamazine in treating loiasis acquired by expatriate visitors to endemic regions: long-term follow-up. J. Infect. Dis. 169:604610.
62. Kraivichian, K.,, S. Nuchprayoon,, P. Sitichalernchai,, W. Chaicumpa,, and S. Yentakam. 2004. Treatment of cutaneous gnathostomiasis with ivermectin. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 71:623628.
63. Krishna, S.,, and N. J. White. 1996. Pharmacokinetics of quinine, chloroquine and amodiaquine. Clinical implications. Clin. Pharmacokinet. 30:263299.
64. Lacey, E. 1990. Mode of action of benzimidazoles. Parasitol. Today 6:112115.
65.Reference deleted.
66. Levy, M.,, D. Buskila,, D. D. Gladman,, M. B. Urowitz,, and G. Koren. 1991. Pregnancy outcome following first trimester exposure to chloroquine. Am. J. Perinatol. 8:174178.
67. Liu, Y. H.,, X. G. Wang,, P. Gao,, and M. X. Qian. 1991. Experimental and clinical trial of albendazole in the treatment of Clonorchiasis sinensis. Chin. Med. J. 104:2731.
68. Looareesuwan, S.,, J. D. Chulay,, C. J. Canfield,, and D. B. Hutchinson. 1999. Malarone (atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride): a review of its clinical development for treatment of malaria. Malarone Clinical Trials Study Group. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 60:533541.
69. Looareesuwan, S.,, R. E. Phillips,, N. J. White,, S. Kietinun,, J. Karbwang,, C. Rackow,, R. C. Turner,, and D. A. Warrell. 1985. Quinine and severe falciparum malaria in late pregnancy. Lancet ii:48.
70. Markell, E. K.,, and M. P. Udkow. 1986. Blastocystis hominis: pathogen or fellow traveler? Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 35:10231026.
71. Marriner, S. E.,, D. L. Morris,, B. Dickson,, and J. A. Bogan. 1986. Pharmacokinetics of albendazole in man. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 30:705708.
72. McAuley, J. B.,, B. L. Herwaldt,, S. L. Stokes,, J. A. Becher,, J. M. Roberts,, M. K. Michelson,, and D. D. Juranek. 1992. Diloxanide furoate for treating asymptomatic Entamoeba histolytica cyst passers: 14 years’ experience in the United States. Clin. Infect. Dis. 15:464468.
73. Mihaly, G. W.,, S. A. Ward,, G. Edwards,, M. L. Orme,, and A. M. Breckenridge. 1984. Pharmacokinetics of primaquine in man: identification of the carboxylic acid derivative as a major plasma metabolite. Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 17:441446.
74. Milord, F.,, L. Loko,, L. Ethier,, B. Mpia,, and J. Pepin. 1993. Eflornithine concentrations in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of 63 patients treated for Trypanosoma brucei gambiense sleeping sickness. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 87:473477.
75. Mohamed, A. E.,, M. I. Yasawy,, and M. A. Al Karawi. 1998. Combined albendazole and praziquantel versus albendazole alone in the treatment of hydatid disease. Hepatogastroenterology 45:16901694.
76. More, B.,, H. Bhatt,, V. Kukreja,, and S. S. Ainapure. 2003. Miltefosine: great expectations against visceral leishmaniasis. J. Postgrad. Med. 49:101103.
77. Morris, D. L.,, J. B. Chinnery,, G. Georgiou,, G. Stamatakis,, and B. Golematis. 1987. Penetration of albendazole sulphoxide into hydatid cysts. Gut 28:7580.
78. Moskopp, D.,, and E. Lotterer. 1993. Concentrations of albendazole in serum, cerebrospinal fluid and hydatidous brain cyst. Neurosurg. Rev. 16:3537.
79. Murta, S. M.,, C. Ropert,, R. O. Alves,, R. T. Gazzinelli,, and A. J. Romanha. 1999. In-vivo treatment with benznidazole enhances phagocytosis, parasite destruction and cytokine release by macrophages during infection with a drug-susceptible but not with a derived drug-resistant Trypanosoma cruzi population. Parasite Immunol. 21:535544.
80. Na-Bangchang, K.,, S. Krudsood,, U. Silachamroon,, P. Molunto,, O. Tasanor,, K. Chalermrut,, N. Tangpukdee,, O. Matangkasombut,, S. Kano,, and S. Looareesuwan. 2004. The pharmacokinetics of oral dihydroartemisinin and artesunate in healthy Thai volunteers. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 35:575582.
81. Naquira, C.,, G. Jimenez,, J. G. Guerra,, R. Bernal,, D. R. Nalin,, D. Neu,, and M. Aziz. 1989. Ivermectin for human strongyloidiasis and other intestinal helminths. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 40:304309.
82. Nicolas, L.,, C. Plichart,, L. N. Nguyen,, and J. P. Moulia- Pelat. 1997. Reduction of Wuchereria bancrofti adult worm circulating antigen after annual treatments of diethylcarbamazine combined with ivermectin in French Polynesia. J. Infect. Dis. 175:489492.
83. Njoo, F. L.,, W. M. Beek,, H. J. Keukens,, H. van Wilgenburg,, J. Oosting,, J. S. Stilma,, and A. Kijlstra. 1995. Ivermectin detection in serum of onchocerciasis patients: relationship to adverse reactions. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 52:9497.
84. Noroes, J.,, G. Dreyer,, A. Santos,, V. G. Mendes,, Z. Medeiros,, and D. Addiss. 1997. Assessment of the efficacy of diethylcarbamazine on adult Wuchereria bancrofti in vivo. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 91:7881.
85. Nosten, F.,, M. Vincenti,, J. Simpson,, P. Yei,, K. L. Thwai,, A. de Vries,, T. Chongsuphajaisiddhi,, and N. J. White. 1999. The effects of mefloquine treatment in pregnancy. Clin. Infect. Dis. 28:808815.
86. Nosten, F.,, and N. J. White. 2007. Artemisinin-based combination treatment of falciparum malaria. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 77:181192.
87. Olds, G. R. 2003. Administration of praziquantel to pregnant and lactating women. Acta Trop. 86:185195.
88. Olliaro, P.,, C. Nevill,, J. LeBras,, P. Ringwald,, P. Mussano,, P. Garner,, and P. Brasseur. 1996. Systematic review of amodiaquine treatment in uncomplicated malaria. Lancet 348:11961201.
89. Opatrny, L.,, R. Prichard,, L. Snell,, and J. D. Maclean. 2005. Death related to albendazole-induced pancytopenia: case report and review. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 72:291294.
90. Ortiz, J. J.,, A. Ayoub,, G. Gargala,, N. L. Chegne,, and L. Favennec. 2001. Randomized clinical study of nitazoxanide compared to metronidazole in the treatment of symptomatic giardiasis in children from Northern Peru. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 15:14091415.
91. Ottesen, E. A. 1985. Efficacy of diethylcarbamazine in eradicating infection with lymphatic-dwelling filariae in humans. Rev. Infect. Dis. 7:341356.
92. Ottesen, E. A.,, and W. C. Campbell. 1994. Ivermectin in human medicine. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 34:195203.
93. Pacque, M.,, B. Munoz,, G. Poetschke,, J. Foose,, B. M. Greene,, and H. R. Taylor. 1990. Pregnancy outcome after inadvertent ivermectin treatment during community-based distribution. Lancet 336:14861489.
94. Pepin, J.,, and F. Milord. 1994. The treatment of human African trypanosomiasis. Adv. Parasitol. 33:147.
95. Polak, A.,, and R. Richle. 1978. Mode of action of the 2-nitroimidazole derivative benznidazole. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 72:4554.
96. Prasad, R.,, R. Kumar,, B. P. Jaiswal,, and U. K. Singh. 2004. Miltefosine: an oral drug for visceral leishmaniasis. Indian J. Pediatr. 71:143144.
97. Price, R. N.,, F. Nosten,, C. Luxemburger,, F. O. ter Kuile,, L. Paiphun,, T. Chongsuphajaisiddhi,, and N. J. White. 1996. Effects of artemisinin derivatives on malaria transmissibility. Lancet 347:16541658.
98. Pungpark, S.,, D. Bunnag,, and T. Harinasuta. 1984. Albendazole in the treatment of opisthorchiasis and concomitant intestinal helminthic infections. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 15:4450.
99. Pussard, E.,, and F. Verdier. 1994. Antimalarial 4-aminoquinolines: mode of action and pharmacokinetics. Fundam. Clin. Pharmacol. 8:117.
100. Radloff, P. D.,, J. Philipps,, D. Hutchinson,, and P. G. Kremsner. 1996. Atovaquone plus proguanil is an effective treatment for Plasmodium ovale and P. malariae malaria. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 90:682.
101. Rombo, L.,, A. Bjorkman,, E. Sego,, and O. Ericsson. 1986. Whole blood concentrations of chloroquine and desethylchloroquine during and after treatment of adult patients infected with Plasmodium vivax, P. ovale or P. malariae. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 80:763766.
102. Sands, M.,, M. A. Kron,, and R. B. Brown. 1985. Pentamidine: a review. Rev. Infect. Dis. 7:625634.
103. Silver, H. 1997. Malarial infection during pregnancy. Infect. Dis. Clin. N. Am. 11:99107.
104. Sindermann, H.,, S. L. Croft,, K. R. Engel,, W. Bommer,, H. J. Eibl,, C. Unger,, and J. Engel. 2004. Miltefosine ( Impavido): the first oral treatment against leishmaniasis. Med. Microbiol. Immunol. (Berlin) 193:173180.
105. Slater, A. F.,, and A. Cerami. 1992. Inhibition by chloroquine of a novel haem polymerase enzyme activity in malaria trophozoites. Nature 355:167169.
106. Sotelo, J.,, and H. Jung. 1998. Pharmacokinetic optimisation of the treatment of neurocysticercosis. Clin. Pharmacokinet. 34:503515.
107. Soto, J.,, B. A. Arana,, J. Toledo,, N. Rizzo,, J. C. Vega,, A. Diaz,, M. Luz,, P. Gutierrez,, M. Arboleda,, J. D. Berman,, K. Junge,, J. Engel,, and H. Sindermann. 2004. Miltefosine for new world cutaneous leishmaniasis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38:12661272.
108. Soto, J.,, and P. Soto. 2006. Miltefosine: oral treatment of leishmaniasis. Expert Rev. Anti Infect. Ther. 4:177185.
109. Soto, J.,, J. Toledo,, P. Gutierrez,, R. S. Nicholls,, J. Padilla,, J. Engel,, C. Fischer,, A. Voss,, and J. Berman. 2001. Treatment of American cutaneous leishmaniasis with miltefosine, an oral agent. Clin. Infect. Dis. 33:E57E61.
110. Srivastava, I. K.,, and A. B. Vaidya. 1999. A mechanism for the synergistic antimalarial action of atovaquone and proguanil. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43:13341339.
111. Stockis, A.,, A. M. Allemon,, S. De Bruyn,, and C. Gengler. 2002. Nitazoxanide pharmacokinetics and tolerability in man using single ascending oral doses. Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 40:213220.
112. Stockis, A.,, X. Deroubaix,, R. Lins,, B. Jeanbaptiste,, P. Calderon,, and J. F. Rossignol. 1996. Pharmacokinetics of nitazoxanide after single oral dose administration in 6 healthy volunteers. Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 34: 349351.
113. Sundar, S.,, T. K. Jha,, H. Sindermann,, K. Junge,, P. Bachmann,, and J. Berman. 2003. Oral miltefosine treatment in children with mild to moderate Indian visceral leishmaniasis. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 22:434438.
114. Sundar, S.,, T. K. Jha,, C. P. Thakur,, J. Engel,, H. Sindermann,, C. Fischer,, K. Junge,, A. Bryceson,, and J. Berman. 2002. Oral miltefosine for Indian visceral leishmaniasis. N. Engl. J. Med. 347:17391746.
115. Sutherland, I. H.,, and W. C. Campbell. 1990. Development, pharmacokinetics and mode of action of ivermectin. Acta Leiden 59:161168.
116. Taylor, H. R. 1984. Recent developments in the treatment of onchocerciasis. Bull W. H. O. 62:509515.
117. Tietze, P. E.,, and J. E. Jones. 1991. Parasites during pregnancy. Prim. Care 18:7599.
118. Twum-Danso, N. A. 2003. Loa loa encephalopathy temporally related to ivermectin administration reported from onchocerciasis mass treatment programs from 1989 to 2001: implications for the future. Filaria J. 2(Suppl. 1):S7.
119. Utzinger, J.,, S. H. Xiao,, M. Tanner,, and J. Keiser. 2007. Artemisinins for schistosomiasis and beyond. Curr. Opin. Investig. Drugs 8:105116.
120. Vanhauwere, B.,, H. Maradit,, and L. Kerr. 1998. Postmarketing surveillance of prophylactic mefloquine (Lariam) use in pregnancy. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 58:1721.
121. vanRiemsdijk, M. M.,, M. M. van der Klauw,, J. A. van Heest,, F. R. Reedeker,, R. J. Ligthelm,, R. M. Herings,, and B. H. Stricker. 1997. Neuro-psychiatric effects of antimalarials. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 52:16.
122. Veenendaal, J. R.,, A. D. Parkinson,, N. Kere,, K. H. Rieckmann,, and M. D. Edstein. 1991. Pharmacokinetics of halofantrine and n-desbutylhalofantrine in patients with falciparum malaria following a multiple dose regimen of halofantrine. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 41:161164.
123. Voogd, T. E.,, E. L. Vansterkenburg,, J. Wilting,, and L. H. Janssen. 1993. Recent research on the biological activity of suramin. Pharmacol. Rev. 45:177203.
124. Waalkes, T. P.,, and V. T. DeVita. 1970. The determination of pentamidine (4,49-diamidinophenoxypentane) in plasma, urine, and tissues. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 75:871878.
125. Walsh, D. S.,, P. Wilairatana,, D. B. Tang,, D. G. Heppner, Jr.,, T. G. Brewer,, S. Krudsood,, U. Silachamroon,, W. Phumratanaprapin,, D. Siriyanonda,, and S. Looareesuwan. 2004. Randomized trial of 3-dose regimens of tafenoquine (WR238605) versus low-dose primaquine for preventing Plasmodium vivax malaria relapse. Clin. Infect. Dis. 39:10951103.
126. Warhurst, D. C. 1984. Why are primaquine and other 8-aminoquinolines particularly effective against the mature gametocytes and the hypnozoites of malaria? Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 78:165.
127. Wen, L. Y.,, X. L. Yan,, F. H. Sun,, Y. Y. Fang,, M. J. Yang,, and L. J. Lou. 2008. A randomized, double-blind, multicenter clinical trial on the efficacy of ivermectin against intestinal nematode infections in China. Acta Trop. 106:190194.
128. White, N. J. 1985. Clinical pharmacokinetics of antimalarial drugs. Clin. Pharmacokinet. 10:187215.
129. Workman, P.,, R. A. White,, M. I. Walton,, L. N. Owen,, and P. R. Twentyman. 1984. Preclinical pharmacokinetics of benznidazole. Br. J. Cancer 50:291303.
130.World Health Organization. 1995. Control of foodborne trematode infections. Report of a WHO study group. W. H. O. Tech. Rep. Ser. 849:1157.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Treatment of major protozoal infections

Adapted from reference .

Citation: Leder K, Weller P. 2011. Antiparasitic Agents, p 2277-2295. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch147
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Treatment of major helminthic infections

Adapted from reference .

This is not an exhaustive list of all possible parasitic infections, but commonly encountered parasites are included.

No longer manufactured and/or problems with availability.

Citation: Leder K, Weller P. 2011. Antiparasitic Agents, p 2277-2295. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch147
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Major indications for albendazole

Adapted from reference .

Citation: Leder K, Weller P. 2011. Antiparasitic Agents, p 2277-2295. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch147
Generic image for table
TABLE 4

Major indications for mebendazole

Adapted from reference .

Citation: Leder K, Weller P. 2011. Antiparasitic Agents, p 2277-2295. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch147
Generic image for table
TABLE 5

Major indications for praziquantel

Adapted from reference .

Citation: Leder K, Weller P. 2011. Antiparasitic Agents, p 2277-2295. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch147
Generic image for table
TABLE 6

Major indications for ivermectin

Adapted from reference .

Citation: Leder K, Weller P. 2011. Antiparasitic Agents, p 2277-2295. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch147
Generic image for table
TABLE 7

Major indications for DEC

Adapted from reference .

Citation: Leder K, Weller P. 2011. Antiparasitic Agents, p 2277-2295. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch147
Generic image for table
TABLE 8

Major indications for nitazoxanide

Adapted from reference .

The dosing schedule for nitazoxanide given as a twice-daily (b.i.d.) treatment course for 3 days consists of the following: for children 1 to 3 years of age, 100 mg b.i.d. for 3 days; for children 4 to 11 years of age, 200 mg b.i.d. for 3 days; and for adults, 500 mg b.i.d. for 3 days.

Licensed for this use by the U.S. FDA.

Citation: Leder K, Weller P. 2011. Antiparasitic Agents, p 2277-2295. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch147

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error