Chapter 149 : Susceptibility Test Methods: Parasites

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Susceptibility Test Methods: Parasites , Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap149-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap149-2.gif


Drug susceptibility tests fall into four broad categories: in vivo tests, in vitro tests, tests with experimental animals, and molecular tests. These different categories of tests provide complementary information. At one end of the spectrum, molecular tests analyze parasites at their most basic biologic level, without any outside interference. Most drug resistance tests in malaria concern , the most prevalent and virulent species and the most prone to the development of resistance. Incorporating pharmacokinetic parameters is now considered essential for true resistance identification within partners of artemisinins, which are frequently poorly absorbed or slowly eliminated drugs. While treatment failures for infections have often been disregarded as being due to poor patient compliance or rapid reinfection, there is an increasing recognition that true clinical resistance exists and may be increasing, thus necessitating accurate drug susceptibility testing of patient isolates. Treatment failure in leishmaniasis may result from either true drug resistance or patient immunodeficiencies that preclude effective chemotherapeutic action. Differentiation of these two possibilities is important for both individual patient care and general public health. A standardized in vivo method for detection of drug resistance that was designed for testing trypanosomes that infect cattle can also be applied to those that infect humans. Investigation of drug resistance mechanisms of schistosomes is more difficult and time-consuming than those associated with protozoan infections.

Citation: Le Bras J, Secor W. 2011. Susceptibility Test Methods: Parasites , p 2307-2314. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch149

Key Concept Ranking

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. Abdulla, M.-H.,, D. S. Ruelas,, B. Wolff,, J. Snedecor,, K.-C. Lim,, F. Xu,, A. R. Renslo,, J. Williams,, J. H. McKerrow,, and C. R. Caffrey. 2009. Drug discovery for schistosomiasis: hit and lead compounds identified in a library of known drugs by medium-throughput phenotypic screening. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. 3:e478. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000478.
2. Ashutosh, S. Sundar, and N. Goyal. 2007. Molecular mechanisms of antimony resistance in Leishmania. J. Med. Microbiol. 56:143153.
3. Bacon, D. J.,, C. Latour,, C. Lucas,, O. Colina,, P. Ringwald,, and S. Picot. 2007. Comparison of a SYBR green I-based assay with a histidine-rich protein II ELISA for in vitro antimalarial drug efficacy testing and application to clinical isolates. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51:11721178.
4. Bacon, D. J.,, R. Jambou,, T. Fandeur,, J. Le Bras,, C. Wongsrichanalai,, M. M. Fukuda,, P. Ringwald,, C. H. Sibley,, and D. E. Kyle. 2007. An in vitro antimalarial drug susceptibility database: a component of the World Antimalarial Resistance Network (WARN) database. Malaria J. 6:120124.
5. Barnes, K. I.,, W. M. Watkins,, and N. J. White. 2008. Antimalarial dosing regimens and drug resistance. Trends Parasitol. 24:127134.
6. Basco, L. K. 2003. Molecular epidemiology of malaria in Cameroon. XV. Experimental studies on serum substitutes and supplements and alternative culture media for in vitro drug sensitivity assays using fresh isolates of P. falciparum. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 69:168173.
7. Basco, L. K. 2004. Molecular epidemiology of malaria in Cameroon. XX. Experimental studies on various factors of in vitro drug sensitivity assays using fresh isolates of P. falciparum. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 70:474480.
8. Basco, L. K.,, and P. Ringwald. 2000. Molecular epidemiology of malaria in Yaounde, Cameroon. VI. Sequence variations in the Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase gene and in vitro resistance to pyrimethamine and cycloguanil. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 62:271276.
9. Bernhard, S. C.,, B. Nerima,, P. Mäser,, and R. Brun. 2007. Melarsoprol- and pentamidine-resistant Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense populations and their cross-resistance. Int. J. Parasitol. 37:14431448.
10. Bridges, D. J.,, M. K. Gould,, B. Nerima,, P. Mäser,, R. J. S. Burchmore,, and H. P. de Koning. 2007. Loss of the highaffinity pentamidine transporter is responsible for high levels of cross-resistance between arsenical and diamidine drugs in African trypanosomes. Mol. Pharm. 71:10981108.
11. Callahan, H. L.,, A. C. Portal,, R. Devereaux,, and M. Grogl. 1997. An axenic amastigote system for drug screening. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41:818822.
12. Certain, L. K.,, and C. H. Sibley. 2007. P. falciparum: a novel method for analysing haplotypes in mixed infections. Exp. Parasitol. 115:233241.
13. Choudhury, K.,, D. Zander,, M. Kube,, R. Reinhardt,, and J. Clos. 2008. Identification of a Leishmania infantum gene mediating resistance to miltefosine and SbIII. Int. J. Parasitol. 38:14111423.
14. Cioli, D.,, S. S. Botros,, K. Wheatcroft-Francklow,, A. Mbaye,, V. Southgate,, L.-A. T. Tchuenté,, L. Pica-Mattoccia,, A. R. Troiani,, S. H. S. el-Din,, A.-N. A. Sabra,, J. Albin,, D. Engels,, and M. J. Doenhoff. 2004. Determination of ED50 values for praziquantel in praziquantel-resistant and -susceptible Schistosoma mansoni isolates. Int. J. Parasitol. 34:979987.
15. Coleman, R. E.,, A. K. Nath,, I. Schneider,, G.-H. Song,, T. A. Klein,, and W. K. Milhous. 1994. Prevention of sporogony of Plasmodium falciparum and P. berghei in Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes by transmission-blocking antimalarials. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 50:646653.
16. Crowell, A. L.,, C. E. Stephens,, A. Kumar,, D. W. Boykin,, and W. E. Secor. 2004. Evaluation of dicationic compounds for activity against Trichomonas vaginalis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48:36023605.
17. Desjardins, R. E.,, C. J. Canfield,, J. D. Haynes,, and J. D. Chulay. 1979. Quantitative assessment of antimalarial activity in vitro by a semiautomated microdilution technique. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 16:710718.
18. Djimdé, A.,, O. K. Doumbo,, J. F. Cortese,, K. Kayentao,, S. Doumbo,, Y. Diourté,, A. Dicko,, X. Su,, T. Nomura,, D. A. Fidock,, T. E. Wellems,, and C. V. Plowe. 2001. A molecular marker for chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria. N. Engl. J. Med. 344:257263.
19. Dube, A.,, N. Singh,, N. Sundar,, and N. Singh. 2005. Refractoriness to the treatment of sodium stibogluconate in Indian kala-azar field isolates persist in in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Parasitol. Res. 96:216223.
20. Duraisingh, M. T.,, P. Jones,, I. Sambou,, L. von Seidlein,, M. Pinder,, and D. C. Warhurst. 1999. Inoculum effect leads to overestimation of in vitro resistance for artemisinin derivatives and standard antimalarials: a Gambian field study. Parasitology 119:435440.
21. Eisler, M. C.,, J. Brandt,, B. Bauer,, P.-H. Clausen,, V. Delespaux,, P. H. Holmes,, A. Ilemobade,, N. Machila,, H. Mbwambo,, J. McDermott,, D. Mehlitz,, G. Murilla,, J. M. Ndung’u,, A. S. Peregrine,, I. Sidibé,, L. Sinyangwe,, and S. Geerts. 2001. Standardised tests in mice and cattle for the detection of drug resistance in tsetse-transmitted trypanosomes of African domestic cattle. Vet. Parasitol. 97:171182.
22. Fallon, P. G.,, J. V. Hamilton,, and M. J. Doenhoff. 1995. Efficacy of treatment of murine Schistosoma mansoni infections with praziquantel and oxamniquine correlates with infection intensity: role of host antibody. Parasitology 111:5966.
23. Fidock, D. A.,, T. Nomura,, A. K. Talley,, R. A. Cooper,, S. M. Dzekunov,, M. T. Ferdig,, L. M. B. Ursos,, A. B. S. Sidhu,, B. Naudé,, K. W. Deitsch,, X. Su,, J. C. Wootton,, P. D. Roepe,, and T. E. Wellems. 2000. Mutations in the P. falciparum digestive vacuole transmembrane protein PfCRT and evidence for their role in chloroquine resistance. Mol. Cell 6:861871.
24. Gould, M. K.,, X. L. Vu,, T. Seebeck,, and H. P. de Koning. 2008. Propidium iodide-based methods for monitoring drug action in the kinetoplastidae: comparison with the Alamar Blue assay. Anal. Biochem. 382:8793.
25. Hampl, V.,, S. Vanácová,, J. Kulda,, and J. Fleger. 2001. Concordance between genetic relatedness and phenotypic similarities of Trichomonas vaginalis strains. BMC Evol. Biol. 1:11.
26. Hastings, M. D.,, K. M. Porter,, J. D. Maguire,, I. Susanti,, W. Kania,, M. J. Bangs,, C. H. Sibley,, and J. K. Baird. 2003. Dihydrofolate reductase mutations in Plasmodium vivax from Indonesia and therapeutic response to sulfadoxine plus pyrimethamine. J. Infect. Dis. 189:744750.
27. Jhingran, A.,, B. Chawla,, S. Saxena,, M. P. Barrett,, and R. Madhubala. 2009. Paromomycin: uptake and resistance in Leishmania donovani. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 164:111117.
28. Kaddouri, H.,, S. Nakache,, S. Houze,, F. Mentre,, and J. Le Bras. 2006. Assessment of drug susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum clinical isolates from Africa by using a Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase immunodetection assay and an inhibitory maximum effect model for precise measurement of the 50-percent inhibitory concentration. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 50:33433349.
29. Kaminsky, R.,, and E. Zweygarth. 1989. Feeder layer-free in vitro assay for screening antitrypanosomal compounds against Trypanosoma brucei brucei and T. b. evansi. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33:881885.
30. Kibona, S. N.,, L. Metamba,, J. S. Kabonya,, and G. W. Lubega. 2006. Drug-resistance of Tryapanosoma b. rhodesiense isolates from Tanzania. Trop. Med. Int. Health 11:144155.
31. Liang, Y. S.,, G. C. Coles,, M. J. Doenhoff,, and V. R. Southgate. 2001. In vitro responses of praziquantel-resistant and -susceptible Schistosoma mansoni to praziquantel. Int. J. Parasitol. 31:12271235.
32. Lira, R.,, S. Sundar,, A. Makharia,, R. Kenney,, A. Gam,, E. Saraiva,, and D. Sacks. 1999. Evidence that the high incidence of treatment failures in Indian kala-azar is due to the emergence of antimony-resistant strains of Leishmania donovani. J. Infect. Dis. 180:564567.
33. Maina, N.,, K. J. Maina,, P. Mäser,, and R. Brun. 2007. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense isolates from Ibba, South Sudan, an area of high melarsoprol treatment failure rate. Acta Trop. 104:8490.
34. Martínez-Grueiro, M. M.,, D. Montero-Pereira,, C. Giménez- Pardo,, J. J. Nogal-Ruiz,, J. A. Escario,, and A. Gómez-Barrio. 2003. Trichomonas vaginalis: determination of acid phosphatase activity as a pharmacological screening procedure. J. Parasitol. 89:10761077.
35. Maser, P.,, C. Sutterlin,, A. Kralli,, and R. Kaminsky. 1999. A nucleoside transporter from Trypanosoma brucei involved in drug resistance. Science 285:242244.
36. Meade, J. C.,, J. de Mestral,, J. K. Stiles,, W. E. Secor,, R. W. Finley,, J. D. Cleary,, and W. B. Lushbaugh. 2009. Genetic diversity of Trichomonas vaginalis clinical isolates determined by EcoR1 restriction fragment length polymorphism of heat-shock protein 70 genes. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 80:245251.
37. Meingassner, J. G.,, and J. Thurner. 1979. Strain of Trichomonas vaginalis resistant to metronidazole and other 5-nitroimidazoles. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 15:254257.
38. Melman, S. D.,, M. L. Steinauer,, C. Cunnungham,, L. S. Kubatko,, I. N. Mwangi,, N. B. Wynn,, M. W. Mutuku,, D. M. S. Karanja,, D. G. Colley,, C. Black,, W. E. Secor,, G. M. Mkoji,, and E. S. Loker. 2009. Reduced susceptibility to praziquantel among naturally occurring Kenyan isolates of Schistosoma mansoni. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. 3:e504. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000504.
39. Mikus, J.,, and D. Steverding. 2000. A simple colorimetric method to screen drug cytotoxicity against Leishmania using the dye Alamar Blue®. Parasitol. Int. 48:265269.
40. Mittal, M. K.,, S. Rai,, Ashutosh,, Ravinder,, S. Gupta,, S. Sundar,, and N. Goyal. 2007. Characterization of natural antimony resistance in Leishmania donovani isolates. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 76:681688.
41. Moreno, A.,, P. Brasseur,, N. Cuzin-Ouattara,, C. Blanc,, and P. Druilhe. 2001. Evaluation under field conditions of the colourimetric DELI-microtest for the assessment of Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 95:100103.
42. Mukherjee, A.,, P. K. Padmanabhan,, S. Singh,, G. Roy,, I. Girard,, M. Chatterjee,, M. Ouellette,, and R. Madhubala. 2007. Role of ABC transporter MRPA, γ -glutamylcysteine synthetase and ornithine decarboxylase in natural antimony- resistant isolates of Leishmania donovani. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 59:204211.
43. Müller, M.,, J. G. Lossick,, and T. E. Gorrell. 1988. In vitro susceptibility of Trichomonas vaginalis and treatment outcome in vaginal trichomoniasis. Sex. Transm. Dis. 15:1724.
44. Musset, L.,, O. Bouchaud,, S. Matheron,, L. Massias,, and J. Le Bras. 2006. Clinical atovaquone-proguanil resistance of Plasmodium falciparum associated with cytochrome b codon 268 mutations. Microbes Infect. 9:25992604.
45. Nerima, B.,, E. Matovu,, G. W. Lubega,, and J. C. K. Enyaru. 2007. Detection of mutant P2 adenosine transporter (TbAT1) gene in Trypanosoma brucei gambiense isolates from northwest Uganda using allele-specific polymerase chain reaction. Trop. Med. Int. Health 12:13611368.
46. Noedl, H.,, B. Attlmayr,, W. H. Wernsdorfer,, H. Kollaritsch,, and R. S. Miller. 2004. A histidine-rich protein 2-based malaria drug sensitivity assay for field use. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 71:711714.
47. Pica-Mattoccia, L.,, and D. Cioli. 2004. Sex- and stagerelated sensitivity of Schistosoma mansoni to in vivo and in vitro praziquantel treatment. Int. J. Parasitol. 34:527533.
48. Pica-Mattoccia, L.,, M. J. Doenhoff,, C. Valle,, A. Basso,, A.-R. Troiani,, P. Liberti,, A. Festucci,, A. Guidi,, and D. Cioli. 2009. Genetic analysis of decreased praziquantel sensitivity in a laboratory strain of Schistosoma mansoni. Acta Trop. 111:8285.
49. Pickard, A. L.,, C. Wongsrichanalai,, A. Purfield,, D. Kamwendo,, K. Emery,, C. Zalewski,, F. Kawamoto,, R. S. Miller,, and S. R. Meshnick. 2003. Resistance to antimalarials in Southeast Asia and genetic polymorphisms in pfmdr1. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47:24182423.
50. Plowe, C. V., 2001. Folate antagonistsand mechanisms of resistance, p. 173190. In P. J. Rosenthal (ed.), Antimalarial Chemotherapy—Mechanisms of Action, Resistance, and New Directions in Drug Discovery. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ.
51. Price, R. N.,, G. Dorsey,, E. A. Ashley,, K. I. Barnes,, J. K. Baird,, U. d’Alessandro,, P. J. Guerin,, M. K. Laufer,, I. Naidoo,, F. Nosten,, P. Olliaro,, C. V. Plowe,, P. Ringwald,, C. H. Sibley,, K. Stepniewska,, and N. J. White. 2007. World antimalarial resistance network I: clinical efficacy of antimalarial drugs. Malaria J. 6:119.
52. Rason, M. A.,, T. Randriantsoa,, H. Andrianantenaina,, A. Ratsimbasoa,, and D. Ménard. 2008. Performance and reliability of the SYBR Green I based assay for the routine monitoring of susceptibility of P. falciparum clinical isolates. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 102:346351.
53. Raz, B.,, M. Iten,, Y. Grether-Buhler,, R. Kaminsky,, and R. Brun. 1997. The Alamar Blue® assay to determine drug sensitivity or African trypanosomes (T. b. rhodesiense and T. b. gambiense) in vitro. Acta Trop. 68:139147.
54. Rieckmann, K.H.,, L. J. Sax,, G. H. Campbell,, and J. E. Mrema. 1978. Drug sensitivity ofPlasmodium falciparum. An in-vitro microtechnique. Lancet i:2223.
55. Rijal, S.,, V. Yardley,, F. Chappuis,, S. Decuypere,, B. Khanal,, R. Singh,, M. Boelaert,, S. De Doncker,, S. Croft,, and J.-C. Dujardin. 2007. Antimonial treatment of visceral leishmaniasis: are current in vitro susceptibility assays adequate for prognosis of in vivo therapy outcome? Microbes Infect. 9:529535.
56. Sabah, A. A.,, C. Fletcher,, G. Webbe,, and M. J. Doenhoff. 1985. Schistosoma mansoni: reduced efficacy of chemotherapy in infected T-cell-deprived mice. Exp. Parasitol. 60:348354.
57. Sánchez-Cañete, M. P.,, L. Carvalho,, F. J. Pérez-Victoria,, F. Gamarro,, and S. Castanys. 2009. Low plasma membrane expression of the miltefosine transport complex renders Leishmania braziliensis refractory to the drug. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53:13051313.
58. Sayed, A. A.,, A. Simeonov,, C. J. Thomas,, J. Inglese,, C. P. Austin,, and D. L. Williams. 2008. Identification of oxadiazoles as new drug leads for the control of schistosomiasis. Nat. Med. 14:407412.
59. Schwebke, J. R.,, and F. J. Barrientes. 2006. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis isolates with resistance to metronidazole and tinidazole. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 50:42094210.
60. Sereno, D.,, and J.-L. Lemesre. 1997. Axenically cultured amastigote forms as an in vitro model for investigation of antileishmanial agents. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41:972976.
61. Sereno, D.,, G. Roy,, J. L. Lemesre,, B. Papadopoulou,, and M. Ouellette. 2001. DNA transformation of Leishmania infantum axenic amastigotes and their use in drug screening. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:11681173.
62. Sibley, C.,, K. I. Barnes,, and C. V. Plowe. 2007. The rationale for creating a world antimalarial resistance network. Malaria J. 6:13.
63. Singh, N.,, and A. Dube. 2004. Fluorescent Leishmania: application to anti-leishmanial drug testing. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 71:400402.
64. Singh, R.,, D. Kumar,, V. Ramesh,, N. S. Negi,, S. Singh,, and P. Salotra. 2006. Visceral leishmaniasis, or Kala Azar (KA): high incidence of refractoriness to antimony is contributed by anthroponotic transmission via post-KA dermal leishmaniasis. J. Infect. Dis. 194:302306.
65. Smilkstein, M.,, N. Sriwilaijaroen,, J. X. Kelly,, P. Wilairat,, and M. Riscoe. 2004. Simple and inexpensive fluorescencebased technique for high-throughput antimalarial drug screening. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48:18031806.
66. Snipes, L. J.,, P. M. Gamard,, E. M. Narcisi,, C. B. Beard,, T. Lehmann,, and W. E. Secor. 2000. Molecular epidemiology of metronidazole resistance in a population of Trichomonas vaginalis clinical isolates. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:30043009.
67. Sobel, J. D.,, V. Nagappan,, and P. Nyirjesy. 1999. Metronidazole- resistant vaginal trichomoniasis—an emerging problem. N. Engl. J. Med. 341:292293.
68. Stahel, E.,, D. Mazier,, A. Guillouzo,, F. Miltgen,, I. Landau,, S. Mellouk,, R. L. Beaudoin,, P. Langlois,, and M. Gentilini. 1988. Iron chelators: in vitro inhibitory effect on the liver stage of rodent and human malaria. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 39:236240.
69. Stewart, M. L.,, S. Krishna,, R. J. S. Burchmore,, R. Brun,, H. P. De Koning,, D. W. Boykin,, R. R. Tidwell,, J. E. Hall,, and M. P. Barrett. 2005. Detection of arsenical drug resistance in Trypanosoma brucei with a simple fluorescence test. Lancet 366:486487.
70. Syafruddin, D.,, P. B. Asih,, G. J. Casey,, J. Maguire,, J. K. Baird,, H. S. Nagesha,, A. F. Cowman,, and J. C. Reeder. 2005. Molecular epidemiology of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to antimalarial drugs in Indonesia. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 72:174181.
71. Tasanor, O.,, H. Noedl,, K. Na-Banchang,, K. Congpuong,, J. Sirichaisinthop,, and W. H. Wernsdorfer. 2002. An in vitro system for assessing the sensitivity of Plasmodium vivax to chloroquine. Acta Trop. 83:4961.
72. Trager, W.,, and J. B. Jensen. 1976. Human malaria parasites in continuous culture. Science 193:673675.
73. Vanacova, S.,, J. Tachezy,, J. Kulda,, and J. Flegr. 1997. Characterization of trichomonad species and strains by PCR fingerprinting. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 44:545552.
74. Vestergaard, L. S.,, and P. Ringwald. 2007. Responding to the challenge of antimalarial drug resistance by routine monitoring to update national malaria treatment policies. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 77:153159.
75. Wang, P.,, P. F. Sims,, and J. E. Hyde. 1997. A modified in vitro sulfadoxine susceptibility assay for Plasmodium falciparum suitable for investigating Fansidar resistance. Parasitology 115:223230.
76. White, N. J. 2002. The assessment of antimalarial drug efficacy. Trends Parasitol. 18:458464.
77. Wongsrichanalai, C.,, A. L. Pickard,, W. H. Wernsdorfer,, and S. R. Meshnick. 2002. Epidemiology of drug-resistant malaria. Lancet Infect. Dis. 2:209218.
78.World Health Organization. 2001. In-vitro micro-test (Mark III) for the assessment of P. falciparum susceptibility to chloroquine, mefloquine, quinine, amodiaquine, sulfadoxine/ pyrimethamine and artemisinine. CTD/MAL/9720 Rev 2. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
79.World Health Organization. 2003. Assessment and monitoring of antimalarial drug efficacy for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria. WHO/HTM/RBM/2003.50. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
80.World Health Organization. 2005. Susceptibility of P. falciparum to antimalarial drugs: report on global monitoring: 1996-2004. WHO/HTM/MAL/2005.1103. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
81. Xiao, J. C.,, L. F. Xie,, L. Zhao,, S. L. Fang,, and Z. R. Lun. 2008. The presence of Mycoplasma hominis in isolates of Trichomonas vaginalis impacts significantly on DNA fingerprinting results. Parasitol. Res. 102:613619.
82. Xiao, S.-H.,, J. Keiser,, J. Chollet,, J. Utzinger,, Y. Dong,, Y. Endriss,, J. L. Vennerstrom,, and M. Tanner. 2007. In vitro and in vivo activities of synthetic trioxolanes against major human schistosome species. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51:14401445.
83. Yardley, V.,, N. Ortuño,, A. Llanos-Cuentas,, F. Chappuis,, S. De Doncker,, L. Ramirez,, S. Croft,, J. Arevalo,, V. Adaui,, H. Bermudez,, S. Decuypere,, and J.-C. Dujardin. 2006. American tegumentary leishmaniasis: is antimonial treatment outcome related to parasite drug susceptibility? J. Infect. Dis. 194:11681175.


Generic image for table

Selected antiparasitic agents and susceptibility testing methods

See the text for details.

Disease caused predominantly by , , , and .

Disease caused by .

Diseases caused by one of several species.

Disease caused by and .

Diseases caused predominantly by , and .

Citation: Le Bras J, Secor W. 2011. Susceptibility Test Methods: Parasites , p 2307-2314. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch149

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error