1887

Chapter 149 : Susceptibility Test Methods: Parasites

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Susceptibility Test Methods: Parasites , Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap149-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap149-2.gif

Abstract:

Drug susceptibility tests fall into four broad categories: in vivo tests, in vitro tests, tests with experimental animals, and molecular tests. These different categories of tests provide complementary information. At one end of the spectrum, molecular tests analyze parasites at their most basic biologic level, without any outside interference. Most drug resistance tests in malaria concern , the most prevalent and virulent species and the most prone to the development of resistance. Incorporating pharmacokinetic parameters is now considered essential for true resistance identification within partners of artemisinins, which are frequently poorly absorbed or slowly eliminated drugs. While treatment failures for infections have often been disregarded as being due to poor patient compliance or rapid reinfection, there is an increasing recognition that true clinical resistance exists and may be increasing, thus necessitating accurate drug susceptibility testing of patient isolates. Treatment failure in leishmaniasis may result from either true drug resistance or patient immunodeficiencies that preclude effective chemotherapeutic action. Differentiation of these two possibilities is important for both individual patient care and general public health. A standardized in vivo method for detection of drug resistance that was designed for testing trypanosomes that infect cattle can also be applied to those that infect humans. Investigation of drug resistance mechanisms of schistosomes is more difficult and time-consuming than those associated with protozoan infections.

Citation: Le Bras J, Secor W. 2011. Susceptibility Test Methods: Parasites , p 2307-2314. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch149

Key Concept Ranking

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
0.40253896
0.40253896
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555816728.chap149
1. Abdulla, M.-H.,, D. S. Ruelas,, B. Wolff,, J. Snedecor,, K.-C. Lim,, F. Xu,, A. R. Renslo,, J. Williams,, J. H. McKerrow,, and C. R. Caffrey. 2009. Drug discovery for schistosomiasis: hit and lead compounds identified in a library of known drugs by medium-throughput phenotypic screening. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. 3: e478. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000478.
2. Ashutosh, S. Sundar, and N. Goyal. 2007. Molecular mechanisms of antimony resistance in Leishmania. J. Med. Microbiol. 56: 143 153.
3. Bacon, D. J.,, C. Latour,, C. Lucas,, O. Colina,, P. Ringwald,, and S. Picot. 2007. Comparison of a SYBR green I-based assay with a histidine-rich protein II ELISA for in vitro antimalarial drug efficacy testing and application to clinical isolates. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51: 1172 1178.
4. Bacon, D. J.,, R. Jambou,, T. Fandeur,, J. Le Bras,, C. Wongsrichanalai,, M. M. Fukuda,, P. Ringwald,, C. H. Sibley,, and D. E. Kyle. 2007. An in vitro antimalarial drug susceptibility database: a component of the World Antimalarial Resistance Network (WARN) database. Malaria J. 6: 120 124.
5. Barnes, K. I.,, W. M. Watkins,, and N. J. White. 2008. Antimalarial dosing regimens and drug resistance. Trends Parasitol. 24: 127 134.
6. Basco, L. K. 2003. Molecular epidemiology of malaria in Cameroon. XV. Experimental studies on serum substitutes and supplements and alternative culture media for in vitro drug sensitivity assays using fresh isolates of P. falciparum. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 69: 168 173.
7. Basco, L. K. 2004. Molecular epidemiology of malaria in Cameroon. XX. Experimental studies on various factors of in vitro drug sensitivity assays using fresh isolates of P. falciparum. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 70: 474 480.
8. Basco, L. K.,, and P. Ringwald. 2000. Molecular epidemiology of malaria in Yaounde, Cameroon. VI. Sequence variations in the Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase gene and in vitro resistance to pyrimethamine and cycloguanil. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 62: 271 276.
9. Bernhard, S. C.,, B. Nerima,, P. Mäser,, and R. Brun. 2007. Melarsoprol- and pentamidine-resistant Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense populations and their cross-resistance. Int. J. Parasitol. 37: 1443 1448.
10. Bridges, D. J.,, M. K. Gould,, B. Nerima,, P. Mäser,, R. J. S. Burchmore,, and H. P. de Koning. 2007. Loss of the highaffinity pentamidine transporter is responsible for high levels of cross-resistance between arsenical and diamidine drugs in African trypanosomes. Mol. Pharm. 71: 1098 1108.
11. Callahan, H. L.,, A. C. Portal,, R. Devereaux,, and M. Grogl. 1997. An axenic amastigote system for drug screening. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41: 818 822.
12. Certain, L. K.,, and C. H. Sibley. 2007. P. falciparum: a novel method for analysing haplotypes in mixed infections. Exp. Parasitol. 115: 233 241.
13. Choudhury, K.,, D. Zander,, M. Kube,, R. Reinhardt,, and J. Clos. 2008. Identification of a Leishmania infantum gene mediating resistance to miltefosine and Sb III. Int. J. Parasitol. 38: 1411 1423.
14. Cioli, D.,, S. S. Botros,, K. Wheatcroft-Francklow,, A. Mbaye,, V. Southgate,, L.-A. T. Tchuenté,, L. Pica-Mattoccia,, A. R. Troiani,, S. H. S. el-Din,, A.-N. A. Sabra,, J. Albin,, D. Engels,, and M. J. Doenhoff. 2004. Determination of ED 50 values for praziquantel in praziquantel-resistant and -susceptible Schistosoma mansoni isolates. Int. J. Parasitol. 34: 979 987.
15. Coleman, R. E.,, A. K. Nath,, I. Schneider,, G.-H. Song,, T. A. Klein,, and W. K. Milhous. 1994. Prevention of sporogony of Plasmodium falciparum and P. berghei in Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes by transmission-blocking antimalarials. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 50: 646 653.
16. Crowell, A. L.,, C. E. Stephens,, A. Kumar,, D. W. Boykin,, and W. E. Secor. 2004. Evaluation of dicationic compounds for activity against Trichomonas vaginalis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48: 3602 3605.
17. Desjardins, R. E.,, C. J. Canfield,, J. D. Haynes,, and J. D. Chulay. 1979. Quantitative assessment of antimalarial activity in vitro by a semiautomated microdilution technique. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 16: 710 718.
18. Djimdé, A.,, O. K. Doumbo,, J. F. Cortese,, K. Kayentao,, S. Doumbo,, Y. Diourté,, A. Dicko,, X. Su,, T. Nomura,, D. A. Fidock,, T. E. Wellems,, and C. V. Plowe. 2001. A molecular marker for chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria. N. Engl. J. Med. 344: 257 263.
19. Dube, A.,, N. Singh,, N. Sundar,, and N. Singh. 2005. Refractoriness to the treatment of sodium stibogluconate in Indian kala-azar field isolates persist in in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Parasitol. Res. 96: 216 223.
20. Duraisingh, M. T.,, P. Jones,, I. Sambou,, L. von Seidlein,, M. Pinder,, and D. C. Warhurst. 1999. Inoculum effect leads to overestimation of in vitro resistance for artemisinin derivatives and standard antimalarials: a Gambian field study. Parasitology 119: 435 440.
21. Eisler, M. C.,, J. Brandt,, B. Bauer,, P.-H. Clausen,, V. Delespaux,, P. H. Holmes,, A. Ilemobade,, N. Machila,, H. Mbwambo,, J. McDermott,, D. Mehlitz,, G. Murilla,, J. M. Ndung’u,, A. S. Peregrine,, I. Sidibé,, L. Sinyangwe,, and S. Geerts. 2001. Standardised tests in mice and cattle for the detection of drug resistance in tsetse-transmitted trypanosomes of African domestic cattle. Vet. Parasitol. 97: 171 182.
22. Fallon, P. G.,, J. V. Hamilton,, and M. J. Doenhoff. 1995. Efficacy of treatment of murine Schistosoma mansoni infections with praziquantel and oxamniquine correlates with infection intensity: role of host antibody. Parasitology 111: 59 66.
23. Fidock, D. A.,, T. Nomura,, A. K. Talley,, R. A. Cooper,, S. M. Dzekunov,, M. T. Ferdig,, L. M. B. Ursos,, A. B. S. Sidhu,, B. Naudé,, K. W. Deitsch,, X. Su,, J. C. Wootton,, P. D. Roepe,, and T. E. Wellems. 2000. Mutations in the P. falciparum digestive vacuole transmembrane protein PfCRT and evidence for their role in chloroquine resistance. Mol. Cell 6: 861 871.
24. Gould, M. K.,, X. L. Vu,, T. Seebeck,, and H. P. de Koning. 2008. Propidium iodide-based methods for monitoring drug action in the kinetoplastidae: comparison with the Alamar Blue assay. Anal. Biochem. 382: 87 93.
25. Hampl, V.,, S. Vanácová,, J. Kulda,, and J. Fleger. 2001. Concordance between genetic relatedness and phenotypic similarities of Trichomonas vaginalis strains. BMC Evol. Biol. 1: 11.
26. Hastings, M. D.,, K. M. Porter,, J. D. Maguire,, I. Susanti,, W. Kania,, M. J. Bangs,, C. H. Sibley,, and J. K. Baird. 2003. Dihydrofolate reductase mutations in Plasmodium vivax from Indonesia and therapeutic response to sulfadoxine plus pyrimethamine. J. Infect. Dis. 189: 744 750.
27. Jhingran, A.,, B. Chawla,, S. Saxena,, M. P. Barrett,, and R. Madhubala. 2009. Paromomycin: uptake and resistance in Leishmania donovani. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 164: 111 117.
28. Kaddouri, H.,, S. Nakache,, S. Houze,, F. Mentre,, and J. Le Bras. 2006. Assessment of drug susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum clinical isolates from Africa by using a Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase immunodetection assay and an inhibitory maximum effect model for precise measurement of the 50-percent inhibitory concentration. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 50: 3343 3349.
29. Kaminsky, R.,, and E. Zweygarth. 1989. Feeder layer-free in vitro assay for screening antitrypanosomal compounds against Trypanosoma brucei brucei and T. b. evansi. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33: 881 885.
30. Kibona, S. N.,, L. Metamba,, J. S. Kabonya,, and G. W. Lubega. 2006. Drug-resistance of Tryapanosoma b. rhodesiense isolates from Tanzania. Trop. Med. Int. Health 11: 144 155.
31. Liang, Y. S.,, G. C. Coles,, M. J. Doenhoff,, and V. R. Southgate. 2001. In vitro responses of praziquantel-resistant and -susceptible Schistosoma mansoni to praziquantel. Int. J. Parasitol. 31: 1227 1235.
32. Lira, R.,, S. Sundar,, A. Makharia,, R. Kenney,, A. Gam,, E. Saraiva,, and D. Sacks. 1999. Evidence that the high incidence of treatment failures in Indian kala-azar is due to the emergence of antimony-resistant strains of Leishmania donovani. J. Infect. Dis. 180: 564 567.
33. Maina, N.,, K. J. Maina,, P. Mäser,, and R. Brun. 2007. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense isolates from Ibba, South Sudan, an area of high melarsoprol treatment failure rate. Acta Trop. 104: 84 90.
34. Martínez-Grueiro, M. M.,, D. Montero-Pereira,, C. Giménez- Pardo,, J. J. Nogal-Ruiz,, J. A. Escario,, and A. Gómez-Barrio. 2003. Trichomonas vaginalis: determination of acid phosphatase activity as a pharmacological screening procedure. J. Parasitol. 89: 1076 1077.
35. Maser, P.,, C. Sutterlin,, A. Kralli,, and R. Kaminsky. 1999. A nucleoside transporter from Trypanosoma brucei involved in drug resistance. Science 285: 242 244.
36. Meade, J. C.,, J. de Mestral,, J. K. Stiles,, W. E. Secor,, R. W. Finley,, J. D. Cleary,, and W. B. Lushbaugh. 2009. Genetic diversity of Trichomonas vaginalis clinical isolates determined by EcoR1 restriction fragment length polymorphism of heat-shock protein 70 genes. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 80: 245 251.
37. Meingassner, J. G.,, and J. Thurner. 1979. Strain of Trichomonas vaginalis resistant to metronidazole and other 5-nitroimidazoles. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 15: 254 257.
38. Melman, S. D.,, M. L. Steinauer,, C. Cunnungham,, L. S. Kubatko,, I. N. Mwangi,, N. B. Wynn,, M. W. Mutuku,, D. M. S. Karanja,, D. G. Colley,, C. Black,, W. E. Secor,, G. M. Mkoji,, and E. S. Loker. 2009. Reduced susceptibility to praziquantel among naturally occurring Kenyan isolates of Schistosoma mansoni. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. 3: e504. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000504.
39. Mikus, J.,, and D. Steverding. 2000. A simple colorimetric method to screen drug cytotoxicity against Leishmania using the dye Alamar Blue ®. Parasitol. Int. 48: 265 269.
40. Mittal, M. K.,, S. Rai,, Ashutosh,, Ravinder,, S. Gupta,, S. Sundar,, and N. Goyal. 2007. Characterization of natural antimony resistance in Leishmania donovani isolates. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 76: 681 688.
41. Moreno, A.,, P. Brasseur,, N. Cuzin-Ouattara,, C. Blanc,, and P. Druilhe. 2001. Evaluation under field conditions of the colourimetric DELI-microtest for the assessment of Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 95: 100 103.
42. Mukherjee, A.,, P. K. Padmanabhan,, S. Singh,, G. Roy,, I. Girard,, M. Chatterjee,, M. Ouellette,, and R. Madhubala. 2007. Role of ABC transporter MRPA, γ -glutamylcysteine synthetase and ornithine decarboxylase in natural antimony- resistant isolates of Leishmania donovani. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 59: 204 211.
43. Müller, M.,, J. G. Lossick,, and T. E. Gorrell. 1988. In vitro susceptibility of Trichomonas vaginalis and treatment outcome in vaginal trichomoniasis. Sex. Transm. Dis. 15: 17 24.
44. Musset, L.,, O. Bouchaud,, S. Matheron,, L. Massias,, and J. Le Bras. 2006. Clinical atovaquone-proguanil resistance of Plasmodium falciparum associated with cytochrome b codon 268 mutations. Microbes Infect. 9: 2599 2604.
45. Nerima, B.,, E. Matovu,, G. W. Lubega,, and J. C. K. Enyaru. 2007. Detection of mutant P2 adenosine transporter (TbAT1) gene in Trypanosoma brucei gambiense isolates from northwest Uganda using allele-specific polymerase chain reaction. Trop. Med. Int. Health 12: 1361 1368.
46. Noedl, H.,, B. Attlmayr,, W. H. Wernsdorfer,, H. Kollaritsch,, and R. S. Miller. 2004. A histidine-rich protein 2-based malaria drug sensitivity assay for field use. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 71: 711 714.
47. Pica-Mattoccia, L.,, and D. Cioli. 2004. Sex- and stagerelated sensitivity of Schistosoma mansoni to in vivo and in vitro praziquantel treatment. Int. J. Parasitol. 34: 527 533.
48. Pica-Mattoccia, L.,, M. J. Doenhoff,, C. Valle,, A. Basso,, A.-R. Troiani,, P. Liberti,, A. Festucci,, A. Guidi,, and D. Cioli. 2009. Genetic analysis of decreased praziquantel sensitivity in a laboratory strain of Schistosoma mansoni. Acta Trop. 111: 82 85.
49. Pickard, A. L.,, C. Wongsrichanalai,, A. Purfield,, D. Kamwendo,, K. Emery,, C. Zalewski,, F. Kawamoto,, R. S. Miller,, and S. R. Meshnick. 2003. Resistance to antimalarials in Southeast Asia and genetic polymorphisms in pfmdr1. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47: 2418 2423.
50. Plowe, C. V., 2001. Folate antagonistsand mechanisms of resistance, p. 173 190. In P. J. Rosenthal (ed.), Antimalarial Chemotherapy—Mechanisms of Action, Resistance, and New Directions in Drug Discovery. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ.
51. Price, R. N.,, G. Dorsey,, E. A. Ashley,, K. I. Barnes,, J. K. Baird,, U. d’Alessandro,, P. J. Guerin,, M. K. Laufer,, I. Naidoo,, F. Nosten,, P. Olliaro,, C. V. Plowe,, P. Ringwald,, C. H. Sibley,, K. Stepniewska,, and N. J. White. 2007. World antimalarial resistance network I: clinical efficacy of antimalarial drugs. Malaria J. 6: 119.
52. Rason, M. A.,, T. Randriantsoa,, H. Andrianantenaina,, A. Ratsimbasoa,, and D. Ménard. 2008. Performance and reliability of the SYBR Green I based assay for the routine monitoring of susceptibility of P. falciparum clinical isolates. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 102: 346 351.
53. Raz, B.,, M. Iten,, Y. Grether-Buhler,, R. Kaminsky,, and R. Brun. 1997. The Alamar Blue ® assay to determine drug sensitivity or African trypanosomes ( T. b. rhodesiense and T. b. gambiense) in vitro. Acta Trop. 68: 139 147.
54. Rieckmann, K.H.,, L. J. Sax,, G. H. Campbell,, and J. E. Mrema. 1978. Drug sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum. An in-vitro microtechnique. Lancet i: 22 23.
55. Rijal, S.,, V. Yardley,, F. Chappuis,, S. Decuypere,, B. Khanal,, R. Singh,, M. Boelaert,, S. De Doncker,, S. Croft,, and J.-C. Dujardin. 2007. Antimonial treatment of visceral leishmaniasis: are current in vitro susceptibility assays adequate for prognosis of in vivo therapy outcome? Microbes Infect. 9: 529 535.
56. Sabah, A. A.,, C. Fletcher,, G. Webbe,, and M. J. Doenhoff. 1985. Schistosoma mansoni: reduced efficacy of chemotherapy in infected T-cell-deprived mice. Exp. Parasitol. 60: 348 354.
57. Sánchez-Cañete, M. P.,, L. Carvalho,, F. J. Pérez-Victoria,, F. Gamarro,, and S. Castanys. 2009. Low plasma membrane expression of the miltefosine transport complex renders Leishmania braziliensis refractory to the drug. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53: 1305 1313.
58. Sayed, A. A.,, A. Simeonov,, C. J. Thomas,, J. Inglese,, C. P. Austin,, and D. L. Williams. 2008. Identification of oxadiazoles as new drug leads for the control of schistosomiasis. Nat. Med. 14: 407 412.
59. Schwebke, J. R.,, and F. J. Barrientes. 2006. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis isolates with resistance to metronidazole and tinidazole. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 50: 4209 4210.
60. Sereno, D.,, and J.-L. Lemesre. 1997. Axenically cultured amastigote forms as an in vitro model for investigation of antileishmanial agents. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41: 972 976.
61. Sereno, D.,, G. Roy,, J. L. Lemesre,, B. Papadopoulou,, and M. Ouellette. 2001. DNA transformation of Leishmania infantum axenic amastigotes and their use in drug screening. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45: 1168 1173.
62. Sibley, C.,, K. I. Barnes,, and C. V. Plowe. 2007. The rationale for creating a world antimalarial resistance network. Malaria J. 6: 1 3.
63. Singh, N.,, and A. Dube. 2004. Fluorescent Leishmania: application to anti-leishmanial drug testing. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 71: 400 402.
64. Singh, R.,, D. Kumar,, V. Ramesh,, N. S. Negi,, S. Singh,, and P. Salotra. 2006. Visceral leishmaniasis, or Kala Azar (KA): high incidence of refractoriness to antimony is contributed by anthroponotic transmission via post-KA dermal leishmaniasis. J. Infect. Dis. 194: 302 306.
65. Smilkstein, M.,, N. Sriwilaijaroen,, J. X. Kelly,, P. Wilairat,, and M. Riscoe. 2004. Simple and inexpensive fluorescencebased technique for high-throughput antimalarial drug screening. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48: 1803 1806.
66. Snipes, L. J.,, P. M. Gamard,, E. M. Narcisi,, C. B. Beard,, T. Lehmann,, and W. E. Secor. 2000. Molecular epidemiology of metronidazole resistance in a population of Trichomonas vaginalis clinical isolates. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 3004 3009.
67. Sobel, J. D.,, V. Nagappan,, and P. Nyirjesy. 1999. Metronidazole- resistant vaginal trichomoniasis—an emerging problem. N. Engl. J. Med. 341: 292 293.
68. Stahel, E.,, D. Mazier,, A. Guillouzo,, F. Miltgen,, I. Landau,, S. Mellouk,, R. L. Beaudoin,, P. Langlois,, and M. Gentilini. 1988. Iron chelators: in vitro inhibitory effect on the liver stage of rodent and human malaria. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 39: 236 240.
69. Stewart, M. L.,, S. Krishna,, R. J. S. Burchmore,, R. Brun,, H. P. De Koning,, D. W. Boykin,, R. R. Tidwell,, J. E. Hall,, and M. P. Barrett. 2005. Detection of arsenical drug resistance in Trypanosoma brucei with a simple fluorescence test. Lancet 366: 486 487.
70. Syafruddin, D.,, P. B. Asih,, G. J. Casey,, J. Maguire,, J. K. Baird,, H. S. Nagesha,, A. F. Cowman,, and J. C. Reeder. 2005. Molecular epidemiology of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to antimalarial drugs in Indonesia. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 72: 174 181.
71. Tasanor, O.,, H. Noedl,, K. Na-Banchang,, K. Congpuong,, J. Sirichaisinthop,, and W. H. Wernsdorfer. 2002. An in vitro system for assessing the sensitivity of Plasmodium vivax to chloroquine. Acta Trop. 83: 49 61.
72. Trager, W.,, and J. B. Jensen. 1976. Human malaria parasites in continuous culture. Science 193: 673 675.
73. Vanacova, S.,, J. Tachezy,, J. Kulda,, and J. Flegr. 1997. Characterization of trichomonad species and strains by PCR fingerprinting. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 44: 545 552.
74. Vestergaard, L. S.,, and P. Ringwald. 2007. Responding to the challenge of antimalarial drug resistance by routine monitoring to update national malaria treatment policies. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 77: 153 159.
75. Wang, P.,, P. F. Sims,, and J. E. Hyde. 1997. A modified in vitro sulfadoxine susceptibility assay for Plasmodium falciparum suitable for investigating Fansidar resistance. Parasitology 115: 223 230.
76. White, N. J. 2002. The assessment of antimalarial drug efficacy. Trends Parasitol. 18: 458 464.
77. Wongsrichanalai, C.,, A. L. Pickard,, W. H. Wernsdorfer,, and S. R. Meshnick. 2002. Epidemiology of drug-resistant malaria. Lancet Infect. Dis. 2: 209 218.
78.World Health Organization. 2001. In-vitro micro-test (Mark III) for the assessment of P. falciparum susceptibility to chloroquine, mefloquine, quinine, amodiaquine, sulfadoxine/ pyrimethamine and artemisinine. CTD/MAL/9720 Rev 2. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
79. World Health Organization. 2003. Assessment and monitoring of antimalarial drug efficacy for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria. WHO/HTM/RBM/2003.50. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
80. World Health Organization. 2005. Susceptibility of P. falciparum to antimalarial drugs: report on global monitoring: 1996-2004. WHO/HTM/MAL/2005.1103. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
81. Xiao, J. C.,, L. F. Xie,, L. Zhao,, S. L. Fang,, and Z. R. Lun. 2008. The presence of Mycoplasma hominis in isolates of Trichomonas vaginalis impacts significantly on DNA fingerprinting results. Parasitol. Res. 102: 613 619.
82. Xiao, S.-H.,, J. Keiser,, J. Chollet,, J. Utzinger,, Y. Dong,, Y. Endriss,, J. L. Vennerstrom,, and M. Tanner. 2007. In vitro and in vivo activities of synthetic trioxolanes against major human schistosome species. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51: 1440 1445.
83. Yardley, V.,, N. Ortuño,, A. Llanos-Cuentas,, F. Chappuis,, S. De Doncker,, L. Ramirez,, S. Croft,, J. Arevalo,, V. Adaui,, H. Bermudez,, S. Decuypere,, and J.-C. Dujardin. 2006. American tegumentary leishmaniasis: is antimonial treatment outcome related to parasite drug susceptibility? J. Infect. Dis. 194: 1168 1175.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Selected antiparasitic agents and susceptibility testing methods

See the text for details.

Disease caused predominantly by , , , and .

Disease caused by .

Diseases caused by one of several species.

Disease caused by and .

Diseases caused predominantly by , and .

Citation: Le Bras J, Secor W. 2011. Susceptibility Test Methods: Parasites , p 2307-2314. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch149

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error