Chapter 19 : , , and Other Catalase-Positive Cocci

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Historically, the genera and were placed together with the genera and in the family containing grampositive, catalase-positive cocci. An unrelated species of gram-positive cocci exhibiting positive catalase reaction and occurring in human specimens is , the only species of this genus, which is a member of the family belonging to the order . In this chapter, the term "micrococci" is used to indicate the members of the genus as understood before the emendation, reflecting most of the clinically relevant species. The genus comprises four hoofed-animal-adapted species including , first described as . species can be identified phenotypically on the basis of a variety of conventional characteristics. The diagnosis of staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome (TSS) and staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS) is based on clinical signs supplemented by serologic tests and the detection of the toxin production by staphylococcal isolates (, rarely other species). Detection of methicillin-resistant (MRSA) represents the most important task in determining the antimicrobial susceptibilities of staphylococci. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are an important cause of nosocomial bloodstream infections, but they are also the most common contaminants of blood cultures. The considerations of clinical significance discussed for CoNS are also appropriate for members of the and families; however, the criteria used for distinguishing etiologically relevant isolates from contaminants and colonizers, respectively, should be applied much more strictly.

Citation: Becker K, von Eiff C. 2011. , , and Other Catalase-Positive Cocci , p 308-330. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch19

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Multiple-Locus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing
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Image of FIGURE 1

Columbia blood agar plate with 5% sheep blood showing subsp. after 24 h of incubation displaying the typical shapes of the normal phenotype with golden yellow-pigmented colonies surrounded by a hemolysis zone (left) and of the small-colony phenotype characterized by tiny, nonhemolytic, and nonpigmented colonies (right).

Citation: Becker K, von Eiff C. 2011. , , and Other Catalase-Positive Cocci , p 308-330. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch19
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