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Chapter 22 : , and Other Aerobic Catalase-Negative, Gram-Positive Cocci

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Abstract:

The aerobic catalase-negative gram-positive cocci included in this chapter form a taxonomically diverse group of bacteria that are isolated infrequently as opportunistic agents of infection. The genera and accommodate organisms previously known as nutritionally variant or satelliting streptococci. Most of the genera described here are catalase-negative facultative anaerobes, but are classified as a microaerophile that grows poorly, if at all, under anaerobic conditions. Some strains of may exhibit weakly positive catalase reactions due to nonheme catalase activity. Commercially available identification kits or systems offering a more comprehensive array of phenotypic tests are improving in their ability to identify many of the organisms discussed in the chapter. Serologic response to the organisms described in this chapter has not been extensively investigated. Antimicrobial susceptibility studies on the organisms mentioned in the chapter have generally employed dilution testing methods. The lack of standardized methods and interpretive criteria and the relatively small collections of isolates for some of the genera discussed in the chapter make it difficult to accurately assess antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Efforts to identify the gram-positive cocci included in the chapter should be made only when isolates are considered to be clinically significant, since the organisms may also appear in clinical cultures as contaminants or constituents of the normal microbiota. More extensive phenotypic testing using commercially available identification systems and molecular methods should be employed for definitive identification.

Citation: Ruoff K. 2011. , and Other Aerobic Catalase-Negative, Gram-Positive Cocci, p 365-376. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch22

Key Concept Ranking

Gram-Positive Cocci
1.2847598
Gram-Positive Bacteria
1.1379182
Bacteria
0.65522546
Abiotrophia
0.63415915
Gemella
0.61018765
Leuconostoc
0.60365003
Pediococcus
0.6014708
Aerococcus
0.5927538
1.2847598
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Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Identification of catalase-negative gram-positive cocci that grow aerobically with cells arranged in pairs and chains. Abbreviations: 6.5% NaCl, growth in broth containing 6.5% NaCl; bile esculin, hydrolysis of esculin in the presence of 40% bile; motility, motility in motility test medium; 45°C, growth at 45°C; 10°C, growth at 10°C; probe, reaction with commercially available nucleic acid probe for the genus Enterococcus; HIP, hydrolysis of hippurate; satellitism, satelliting growth behavior; ARG, arginine hydrolysis activity; BGUR, beta-glucuronidase activity.

Citation: Ruoff K. 2011. , and Other Aerobic Catalase-Negative, Gram-Positive Cocci, p 365-376. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch22
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Identification of catalase-negative gram-positive cocci that grow aerobically with cells arranged in pairs, tetrads, clusters, or irregular groups. Abbreviations: 6.5% NaCl, growth in broth containing 6.5% NaCl; esculin, hydrolysis of esculin; BGUR, beta-glucuronidase activity.

Citation: Ruoff K. 2011. , and Other Aerobic Catalase-Negative, Gram-Positive Cocci, p 365-376. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch22
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Tables

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TABLE 1

Possible identities of catalase-negative, gram-positive cocci based on certain phenotypic reactions and cellular morphology

Abbreviations and symbols: NaCl, growth in 6.5% NaCl; +, ≥90% of strains positive; –, ≤10% of strains positive.

Some strains may display vancomycin resistance, and some strains are motile.

Most enterococcal strains are capable of growth at 45°C, differentiating them from vagococci, which may be phenotypically similar. Strains of vagococci have been reported as testing positive with a commercially available nucleic acid probe for members of the genus .

Phenotypically similar strains of enterococci and lactococci can be differentiated with a commercially available nucleic acid probe for members of the genus .

Motile.

Some strains display satelliting growth; some strains are urease positive.

Members of this genus display satelliting growth.

Although shares some phenotypic traits with , it is facultative and usually nonhemolytic, in contrast to , which prefers an aerobic growth atmosphere and is alpha-hemolytic.

Two additional species of ( and “”) have been proposed ( ), both based on the isolation of a single strain. These new species display negative reactions in the PYR test, in contrast to .

Vancomycin resistant.

Viridans group streptococci include streptococci of the anginosus, mitis, mutans, salivarius, and bovis species groups. Some strains of a member of the mitis species group) may produce positive reactions in the PYR test.

Citation: Ruoff K. 2011. , and Other Aerobic Catalase-Negative, Gram-Positive Cocci, p 365-376. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch22

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