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Chapter 23 : General Approaches to the Identification of Aerobic Gram-Positive Rods

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Abstract:

This chapter emphasizes that the Gram stain (performed on 24- to 48-h-old colonies from rich media) and macroscopic morphologies are initial key features for the differentiation of aerobic gram-positive rods. All strains of aerobic gram-positive rods (except the non-rapidly growing mycobacteria) are initially grown on blood agar plates. Catalase activity should be tested with colonies grown on media lacking heme groups. Type of metabolism can be evaluated using oxidative-fermentative media or in cystine Trypticase agar (CTA) medium. Genera which contain strictly anaerobic gram-positive rods may also contain species, or strains within a species, which grow reasonably well aerotolerantly or aerobically. Some gram-positive rods (e.g., spp. or might be initially misidentified as gram-positive cocci because of their initial gram stain appearance. Molecular approaches to characterize or subtype pathogens are described in the chapter.

Citation: Bernard K. 2011. General Approaches to the Identification of Aerobic Gram-Positive Rods, p 377-380. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch23

Key Concept Ranking

Gram-Positive Cocci
0.9397102
16s rRNA Sequencing
0.5750176
Gram Staining
0.4486464
Blood Agar
0.41263986
0.9397102
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References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555816728.chap23
1. Bernard, K. A. 2005. Corynebacterium species and coryneforms: an update on taxonomy and diseases attributed to these taxa. Clin. Microbiol. Newsl. 27:918.
2.Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. 2008. Interpretive Criteria for Identification of Bacteria and Fungi by DNA Target Sequencing; Approved Guideline. CLSI document MM18-A. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, PA.
3. Funke, G.,, A. von Graevenitz,, J. E. Clarridge III,, and K. A. Bernard. 1997. Clinical microbiology of coryneform bacteria. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 10:125159.
4. Gneiding, K.,, R. Frodl,, and G. Funke. 2008. Identities of Microbacterium spp. encountered in human clinical specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46:36463652.
5. Mages, I. S.,, R. Frodl,, K. A. Bernard,, and G. Funke. 2008. Identities of Arthrobacter spp. and Arthrobacter-like bacteria encountered in human clinical specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46:29802986.
6. Stackebrandt, E.,, and J. Ebers. 2006. Taxonomic parameters revisited: tarnished gold standards. Microbiol. Today 33:152155.

Tables

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TABLE 1

Algorithm for identification of gram-positive rods

+, all or nearly all strains positive; –, all or nearly all strain negative; V, feature variable; O, oxidative metabolism; F, fermentative metabolism. “Pigment” implies that colonies have pigment other than gray-white or white colony; yellow or yellowish (Y) or yellow-orange (Y-O) pigment is typical, blackish-gray (B-G) pigment is occasionally seen, and pinkish coral (P-C) is seen for some and spp. Table excludes extremely infrequently isolated genera described in chapter 26, e.g., .

Strains of the genus in particular can be aerotolerant.

Citation: Bernard K. 2011. General Approaches to the Identification of Aerobic Gram-Positive Rods, p 377-380. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch23

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