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Citation: Bernard K. .

Key Concept Ranking

Gram-Positive Cocci
16s rRNA Sequencing
Gram Staining
Blood Agar
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1. Bernard, K. A. 2005. Corynebacterium species and coryneforms: an update on taxonomy and diseases attributed to these taxa. Clin. Microbiol. Newsl. 27:918.
2.Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. 2008. Interpretive Criteria for Identification of Bacteria and Fungi by DNA Target Sequencing; Approved Guideline. CLSI document MM18-A. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, PA.
3. Funke, G.,, A. von Graevenitz,, J. E. Clarridge III,, and K. A. Bernard. 1997. Clinical microbiology of coryneform bacteria. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 10:125159.
4. Gneiding, K.,, R. Frodl,, and G. Funke. 2008. Identities of Microbacterium spp. encountered in human clinical specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46:36463652.
5. Mages, I. S.,, R. Frodl,, K. A. Bernard,, and G. Funke. 2008. Identities of Arthrobacter spp. and Arthrobacter-like bacteria encountered in human clinical specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46:29802986.
6. Stackebrandt, E.,, and J. Ebers. 2006. Taxonomic parameters revisited: tarnished gold standards. Microbiol. Today 33:152155.


Generic image for table

Algorithm for identification of gram-positive rods

+, all or nearly all strains positive; –, all or nearly all strain negative; V, feature variable; O, oxidative metabolism; F, fermentative metabolism. “Pigment” implies that colonies have pigment other than gray-white or white colony; yellow or yellowish (Y) or yellow-orange (Y-O) pigment is typical, blackish-gray (B-G) pigment is occasionally seen, and pinkish coral (P-C) is seen for some and spp. Table excludes extremely infrequently isolated genera described in chapter 26, e.g., .

Strains of the genus in particular can be aerotolerant.


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