Chapter 25 : and

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

and , Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap25-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap25-2.gif


The majority of cases of listeriosis occur in individuals who have an underlying condition that leads to suppression of their cell-mediated immunity. Among veterinarians and abattoir workers, primary cutaneous listeriosis with or without bacteremia has been reported. Transient bacteremia can result in placentitis and/or amnionitis, and since is able to cross the placenta, it can infect the fetus, causing abortion, stillbirth, or, most commonly, preterm labor. In general, specimens for detection of do not need special handling during collection. colonies appear blue, and colonies of other bacteria appear yellowish or orange. The CAMP (Christie, Atkins, Munch-Petersen) test can be used to differentiate among hemolytic species. Commercially available miniaturized tests considerably speed up biochemical identification of spp. The matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (mass spectrometry) (MALDI-TOF [MS]) technique has recently been introduced and allows discrimination of the species by use of the respective software. Treatment with an aminopenicillin (ampicillin or amoxicillin) plus gentamicin is still regarded as the most effective therapeutic regimen for listeriosis. species are catalase positive, motile, esculin positive, and not alpha-hemolytic. The genus has three validly published species, , , and the more recently described . has been recognized for more than 100 years as the agent of swine erysipelas, an acute or chronic disease. Occurrence of this species in wound or tissue specimen indicates erysipeloid rather than contamination. Species identification is essential in order to ensure adequate antimicrobial therapy.

Citation: Wellinghausen N. 2011. and , p 403-412. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch25

Key Concept Ranking

Multilocus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis
Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of FIGURE 1

Macroscopic view of colonies on 5% human blood agar plates after 24 h of incubation. (A) : discrete zone of beta-hemolysis under the removed colonies. (B) : no hemolysis. (C) : wide zone of beta-hemolysis around the colonies.

Citation: Wellinghausen N. 2011. and , p 403-412. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch25
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2

CAMP test done with CIP 5710 (top plate) and CIP 5869 (bottom plate) after 24 h of incubation. Upper right, ; lower right, ; middle left, .

Citation: Wellinghausen N. 2011. and , p 403-412. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch25
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Ahrne, S.,, I. M. Stenstrom,, N. E. Jensen,, B. Pettersson,, M. Uhlen,, and G. Molin. 1995. Classification of Erysipelothrix strains on the basis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 45:382385.
2. Aureli, P.,, G. C. Fiorucci,, D. Caroli,, G. Marchiaro,, O. Novara,, L. Leone,, and S. Salmaso. 2000. An outbreak of febrile gastroenteritis associated with corn contaminated by Listeria monocytogenes. N. Engl. J. Med. 342:12361241.
3. Barbuddhe, S. B.,, T. Maier,, G. Schwarz,, M. Kostrzewa,, H. Hof,, E. Domann,, T. Chakraborty,, and T. Hain. 2008. Rapid identification and typing of Listeria species by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74:54025407.
4. Becker, B.,, S. Schuler,, M. Lohneis,, A. Sabrowski,, G. D. Curtis,, and W. H. Holzapfel. 2006. Comparison of two chromogenic media for the detection of Listeria monocytogenes with the plating media recommended by EN/DIN 11290-1. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 109:127131.
5. Berche, P.,, K. A. Reich,, M. Bonnichon,, J. L. Beretti,, C. Geoffroy,, J. Raveneau,, P. Cossart,, J. L. Gaillard,, P. Geslin,, and H. Kreis. 1990. Detection of anti-listeriolysin O for serodiagnosis of human listeriosis. Lancet 335:624627.
6. Bernard, K. A.,, M. Bellefeuille,, and E. P. Ewan. 1991. Cellular fatty acid composition as an adjunct to the identification of asporogenous, aerobic gram-positive rods. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29:8389.
7. Bille, J.,, B. Catimel,, E. Bannerman,, C. Jacquet,, M. N. Yersin,, I. Caniaux,, D. Monget,, and J. Rocourt. 1992. API Listeria, a new and promising one-day system to identify Listeria isolates. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58:1857Æ1860.
8. Boerlin, P.,, J. Rocourt,, F. Grimont,, P. A. D. Grimont,, C. Jacquet,, and J. C. Piffaretti. 1992. Listeria ivanovii subsp. londoniensis subsp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 42:6973.
9. Borucki, M. K.,, S. H. Kim,, D. R. Call,, S. C. Smole,, and F. Pagotto. 2004. Selective discrimination of Listeria monocytogenes epidemic strains by a mixed-genome DNA microarray compared to discrimination by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, ribotyping, and multilocus sequence typing. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:52705276.
10. Boving, M. K.,, L. N. Pedersen,, and J. K. Moller. 2009. Eight-plex PCR and liquid array detection of bacterial and viral pathogens in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with suspected meningitis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 47:908913.
11. Brosch, R.,, M. Brett,, B. Catimel,, J. B. Luchansky,, B. Ojeniyi,, and J. Rocourt. 1996. Genomic fingerprinting of 80 strains from the WHO multicenter international typing study of Listeria monocytogenes via pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Int. J. Food Microbiol. 32:343355.
12. Cairns, B.J.,, and R. J. Payne. 2009. Sudden increases in listeriosis rates in England and Wales, 2001 and 2003. Emerg. Infect.Dis. 15:465468.
13. Cepeda, J. A.,, M. Millar,, E. A. Sheridan,, S. Warwick,, M. Raftery,, D. C. Bean,, and D. W. Wareham. 2006. Listeriosis due to infection with a catalase-negative strain of Listeria monocytogenes. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:19171918..
14.Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). 2010. Methods for Antimicrobial Dilution and Disk Susceptibility Testing of Infrequently Isolated and Fastidious Bacteria. Approved Guideline M45-A2. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, PA.
15. Cole, M. B.,, M. V. Jones,, and C. Holyoak. 1990. The effect of pH, salt concentration and temperature on the survival and growth of Listeria monocytogenes. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 69:6372.
16. Collins, M. D.,, S. Wallbanks,, D. J. Lane,, J. Shah,, R. Nietupski,, J. Smida,, M. Dorsch,, and E. Stackebrandt. 1991. Phylogenetic analysis of the genus Listeria based on reverse transcriptase sequencing of 16S rRNA. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 41:240246.
17. Cummins, A. J.,, A. K. Fielding,, and J. McLauchlin. 1994. Listeria ivanovii infection in a patient with AIDS. J. Infect. 28:8991.
18. Dever, F. P.,, D. W. Schaffner,, and P. J. Slade. 1993. Methods for the detection of foodborne Listeria monocytogenes in the U.S. J. Food Saf. 13:263292.
19. Doganay, M. 2003. Listeriosis: clinical presentation. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 35:173175.
20. Doumith, M.,, C. Buchrieser,, P. Glaser,, C. Jacquet,, and P. Martin. 2004. Differentiation of the major Listeria monocytogenes serovars by multiplex PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:38193822.
21. Doumith, M.,, C. Jacquet,, P. Gerner-Smidt,, L. M. Graves,, S. Loncarevic,, T. Mathisen,, A. Morvan,, C. Salcedo,, M. Torpdahl,, J. A. Vazquez,, and P. Martin. 2005. Multicenter validation of a multiplex PCR assay for differentiating the major Listeria monocytogenes serovars 1/2a, 1/2b, 1/2c, and 4b: toward an international standard. J. Food Prot. 68: 26482650.
22. Doumith, M.,, C. Jacquet,, V. Goulet,, C. Oggioni,, L. F. Van,, C. Buchrieser,, and P. Martin. 2006. Use of DNA arrays for the analysis of outbreak-related strains of Listeria monocytogenes. Int. J. Med. Microbiol. 296:559562.
23. Ducey, T. F.,, B. Page,, T. Usgaard,, M. K. Borucki,, K. Pupedis,, and T. J. Ward. 2007. A single-nucleotide-polymorphismbased multilocus genotyping assay for subtyping lineage I isolates of Listeria monocytogenes. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73: 133147.
24. Dunbar, S. A.,, and J. E. Clarridge III. 2000. Potential errors in recognition of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:13021304.
25. Elsner, H. A.,, I. Sobottka,, A. Bubert,, H. Albrecht,, R. Laufs,, and D. Mack. 1996. Catalase-negative Listeria monocytogenes causing lethal sepsis and meningitis in an adult hematologic patient. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 15: 965967.
26. Elvy, J.,, I. Hanspal,, and P. Simcock. 2008. A case of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae causing bilateral endogenous endophthalmitis. J. Clin. Pathol. 61:12231224.
27. Farber, J. M.,, and P. I. Peterkin. 1991. Listeria monocytogenes, a food-borne pathogen. Microbiol. Rev. 55:476511.
28. Farber, J. M.,, P. I. Peterkin,, A. O. Carter,, P. V. Varughese,, F. E. Ashton,, and E. P. Ewan. 1991. Neonatal listeriosis due to cross-infection confirmed by isoenzyme typing and DNA fingerprinting. J. Infect. Dis. 163:927928.
29. Feresu, S. B.,, and D. Jones. 1988. Taxonomic studies on Brochothrix, Erysipelothrix, Listeria and atypical lactobacilli. J. Gen. Microbiol. 134:11651183.
30. Fidalgo, S. G.,, C. J. Longbottom,, and T. V. Rjley. 2002. Susceptibility of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae to antimicrobial agents and home disinfectants. Pathology 34:462465.
31. Fonnesbech, V. B.,, V. Fussing,, B. Ojeniyi,, L. Gram,, and P. Ahrens. 2004. High-resolution genotyping of Listeria monocytogenes by fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis compared to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, ribotyping, and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. J. Food Prot. 67:16561665.
32. Food and DrugAdministration, U.S.DepartmentofAgriculture,andCentersforDiseaseControlandPrevention. 2003. Quantitative assessment of relative risk to public health fromfoodborne Listeria monocytogenes among selected categories of ready-to-eatfood. http://www.cfsan.fda.gov.
33. Funke, G.,, F. N. Renaud,, J. Freney,, and P. Riegel. 1997. Multicenter evaluation of the updated and extended API (RAPID) Coryne database 2.0. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:31223126.
34. Gasanov, U.,, D. Hughes,, and P. M. Hansbro. 2005. Methods for the isolation and identification of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes: a review. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 29:851875.
35. Gerner-Smidt, P.,, K. Hise,, J. Kincaid,, S. Hunter,, S. Rolando,, E. Hyytia-Trees,, E. M. Ribot,, and B. Swaminathan. 2006. PulseNet USA: a five-year update. Foodborne Pathog. Dis. 3:919.
36. Gholizadeh, Y.,, C. Poyart,, M. Juvin,, J. L. Beretti,, J. Croize,, P. Berche,, and J. L. Gaillard. 1996. Serodiagnosis of listeriosis based upon detection of antibodies against recombinant truncated forms of listeriolysin O. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34: 13911395.
37. Goulet, V.,, C. Hedberg,, A. Le Monnier,, and H. de Valk. 2008. Increasing incidence of listeriosis in France and other European countries. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14:734740.
38. Graves, L. M.,, L. O. Helsel,, A. G. Steigerwalt,, R. E. Morey,, M. I. Daneshvar,, S. E. Roof,, R. H. Orsi,, E. D. Fortes,, S. R. Millilo,, H. C. den Bakker,, M. Wiedmann,, B. Swaminathan,, and B. D. Sauders. 2010. Listeria marthii sp. nov., isolated from the natural environment, Finger Lakes National Forest. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 60: 12801288.
39. Graves, L. M.,, and B. Swaminathan. 2001. PulseNet standardized protocol for subtyping Listeria monocytogenes by macrorestriction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 65:5562.
40. Grayo, S.,, O. Join-Lambert,, M. C. Desroches,, and M. A. Le. 2008. Comparison of the in vitro efficacies of moxifloxacin and amoxicillin against Listeria monocytogenes. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52:16971702.
41. Grif, K.,, G. Patscheider,, M. P. Dierich,, and F. Allerberger. 2003. Incidence of fecal carriage of Listeria monocytogenes in three healthy volunteers: a one-year prospective stool survey. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 22:1620.
42. Hadorn, K.,, H. Hachler,, A. Schaffner,, and F. H. Kayser. 1993. Genetic characterization of plasmid-encoded multiple antibiotic resistance in a strain of Listeria monocytogenes causing endocarditis. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 12: 928937.
43. Hegde, V.,, C. G. Leon-Velarde,, C. M. Stam,, L. A. Jaykus,, and J. A. Odumeru. 2007. Evaluation of BBL CHROMagar Listeria agar for the isolation and identification of Listeria monocytogenes from food and environmental samples. J. Microbiol. Methods 68:8287.
44. Hof, H. 2004. An update on the medical management of listeriosis. Expert Opin. Pharmacother. 5:17271735.
45. Imada, Y.,, Y. Mori,, M. Daizoh,, K. Kudoh,, and T. Sakano. 2003. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay employing a recombinant antigen for detection of protective antibody against swine erysipelas. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41: 50155021.
46. Jacquet, C.,, J. Bille,, and J. Rocourt. 1992. Typing of Listeria monocytogenes by restriction polymorphism of the ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene region. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. 276:356365.
47. Johnson, J.,, K. Jinneman,, G. Stelma,, B. G. Smith,, D. Lye,, J. Messer,, J. Ulaszek,, L. Evsen,, S. Gendel,, R. W. Bennett,, B. Swaminathan,, J. Pruckler,, A. Steigerwalt,, S. Kathariou,, S. Yildirim,, D. Volokhov,, A. Rasooly,, V. Chizhikov,, M. Wiedmann,, E. Fortes,, R. E. Duvall,, and A. D. Hitchins. 2004. Natural atypical Listeria innocua strains with Listeria monocytogenes pathogenicity island 1 genes. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:42564266.
48. Jones, D., 1986. GenusErysipelothrix Rosenbach 1909, p. 12451249. In P. H. A. Sneath,, N. S. Mair,, M. E. Shape,, and J. G. Holt (ed.), Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 2. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD.
49. Lecuit, M.,, D. M. Nelson,, S. D. Smith,, H. Khun,, M. Huerre,, M. C. Vacher-Lavenu,, J. I. Gordon,, and P. Cossart. 2004. Targeting and crossing of the human maternofetal barrier by Listeria monocytogenes: role of internalin interaction with trophoblast E-cadherin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101: 61526157.
50. Lee, W. H.,, and D. McClain. 1986. Improved Listeria monocytogenes selective agar. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 52: 12151217.
51. Ludwig, W.,, K.-H. Schleifer,, and W. B. Whitman,. 2009. Revised road map to the phylum Firmicutes. In P. De Vos et al. (ed.), Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd ed., vol. 3. The Firmicutes. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY.
52. Martin, P.,, C. Jacquet,, V. Goulet,, V. Vaillant,, and V. H. De. 2006. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of Listeria monocytogenes strains: the PulseNet Europe Feasibility Study. Foodborne Pathog. Dis. 3:303308.
53. McLauchlin, J.,, and J. C. Low. 1994. Primary cutaneous listeriosis in adults: an occupational disease of veterinarians and farmers. Vet. Rec. 135:615617.
54. Murphy, M.,, D. Corcoran,, J. F. Buckley,, M. O’Mahony,, P. Whyte,, and S. Fanning. 2007. Development and application of multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) to subtype a collection of Listeria monocytogenes. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 115:187194.
55. Nagai, S.,, H. To,, and A. Kanda. 2008. Differentiation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae strains by nucleotide sequence analysis of a hypervariable region in the spaA gene: discrimination of a live vaccine strain from field isolates. J. Vet. Diagn. Investig. 20:336342.
56. Ninet, B.,, E. Bannerman,, and J. Bille. 1992. Assessment of the Accuprobe Listeria monocytogenes culture identification reagent kit for rapid colony confirmation and its application in various enrichment broths. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58:40554059.
57. Odumeru, J. A.,, M. Steele,, L. Fruhner,, C. Larkin,, J. Jiang,, E. Mann,, and W. B. McNab. 1999. Evaluation of accuracy and repeatability of identification of food-borne pathogens by automated bacterial identification systems. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:944949.
58. Okatani, T. A.,, M. Ishikawa,, S. Yoshida,, M. Sekiguchi,, K. Tanno,, M. Ogawa,, T. Horikita,, T. Horisaka,, T. Taniguchi,, Y. Kato,, and H. Hayashidani. 2004. Automated ribotyping, a rapid typing method for analysis of Erysipelothrix spp. strains. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 66:729733.
59. Ooi, S. T.,, and B. Lorber. 2005. Gastroenteritis due to Listeria monocytogenes. Clin. Infect. Dis. 40:13271332.
60. Piper, K. E.,, J. M. Steckelberg,, and R. Patel. 2005. In vitro activity of daptomycin against clinical isolates of Grampositive bacteria. J. Infect. Chemother. 11:207209.
61. Reboli, A. C.,, and W. E. Farrar. 1989. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae: an occupational pathogen. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 2:354359.
62. Reissbrodt, R. 2004. New chromogenic plating media for detection and enumeration of pathogenic Listeria spp.—an overview. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 95:19.
63. Renneberg, J.,, K. Persson,, and P. Christensen. 1990. Western blot analysis of the antibody response in patients with Listeria monocytogenes meningitis and septicemia. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 9:659663.
64. Restaino, L.,, E. W. Frampton,, R. M. Irbe,, G. Schabert,, and H. Spitz. 1999. Isolation and detection of Listeria monocytogenes using fluorogenic and chromogenic substrates for phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C. J. Food Prot. 62:244251.
65. Roberts, A. J.,, and M. Wiedmann. 2003. Pathogen, host and environmental factors contributing to the pathogenesis of listeriosis. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 60:904918.
66. Salas, C.,, J. Calvo,, and L. Martinez-Martinez. 2008. Activity of tigecycline against coryneform bacteria of clinical interest and Listeria monocytogenes. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52:15031505.
67. Salcedo, C.,, L. Arreaza,, B. Alcala,, L. de la Fuente,, and J. A. Vazquez. 2003. Development of a multilocus sequence typing method for analysis of Listeria monocytogenes clones. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:757762.
68. Schlech, W. F., III,, P. M. Lavigne,, R. A. Bortolussi,, A. C. Allen,, E. V. Haldane,, A. J. Wort,, A. W. Hightower,, S. E. Johnson,, S. H. King,, E. S. Nicholls,, and C. V. Broome. 1983. Epidemic listeriosis—evidence for transmission by food. N. Engl. J. Med. 308:203206.
69. Schuchat, A.,, C. Lizano,, C. V. Broome,, B. Swaminathan,, C. Kim,, and K. Winn. 1991. Outbreak of neonatal listeriosis associated with mineral oil. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 10:183189.
70. Shimoji, Y. 2000. Pathogenicity of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae: virulence factors and protective immunity. Microbes Infect. 2:965972.
71. Smith, M. A.,, K. Takeuchi,, G. Anderson,, G. O. Ware,, H. M. McClure,, R. B. Raybourne,, N. Mytle,, and M. P. Doyle. 2008. Dose-response model for Listeria monocytogenesinduced stillbirths in nonhuman primates. Infect. Immun. 76:726731.
72. Snapir, Y. M.,, E. Vaisbein,, and F. Nassar. 2006. Low virulence but potentially fatal outcome-Listeria ivanovii. Eur. J. Intern. Med. 17:286287.
73. Sperry, K. E.,, S. Kathariou,, J. S. Edwards,, and L. A. Wolf. 2008. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis as a tool for subtyping Listeria monocytogenes strains. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46:14351450.
74. Streit, J. M.,, R. N. Jones,, and H. S. Sader. 2004. Daptomycin activity and spectrum: a worldwide sample of 6737 clinical Grampositive organisms. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 53:669674.
75. Swaminathan, B.,, S. B. Hunter,, P. M. Desmarchelier,, P. Gerner-Smidt,, L. M. Graves,, S. Harlander,, R. Hubner,, C. Jacquet,, B. Pedersen,, K. Reineccius,, A. Ridley,, N. A. Saunders,, and J. A. Webster. 1996. WHO-sponsored international collaborative study to evaluate methods for subtyping Listeria monocytogenes: restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis using ribotyping and Southern hybridization with two probes derived from L. monocytogenes chromosome. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 32:263278.
76. Takahashi, H.,, S. Handa-Miya,, B. Kimura,, M. Sato,, A. Yokoi,, S. Goto,, I. Watanabe,, T. Koda,, K. Hisa,, and T. Fujii. 2007. Development of multilocus single strand conformation polymorphism (MLSSCP) analysis of virulence genes of Listeria monocytogenes and comparison with existing DNA typing methods. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 118:274284.
77. Takahashi, T.,, T. Fujisawa,, A. Umeno,, T. Kozasa,, K. Yamamoto,, and T. Sawada. 2008. A taxonomic study on Erysipelothrix by DNA-DNA hybridization experiments with numerous strains isolated from extensive origins. Microbiol. Immunol. 52:469478.
78. Takeshi, K.,, S. Makino,, T. Ikeda,, N. Takada,, A. Nakashiro,, K. Nakanishi,, K. Oguma,, Y. Katoh,, H. Sunagawa,, and T. Ohyama. 1999. Direct and rapid detection by PCR of Erysipelothrix sp. DNAs prepared from bacterial strains and animal tissues. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:40934098.
79. To, H.,, and S. Nagai. 2007. Genetic and antigenic diversity of the surface protective antigen proteins of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 14:813820.
80. Traer, E. A.,, M. R. Williams,, and J. N. Keenan. 2008. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection of a total knee arthroplasty an occupational hazard. J. Arthroplasty 23:609611.
81. Troxler, R.,, A. vonGraevenitz,, G. Funke,, B. Wiedemann,, and I. Stock. 2000. Natural antibiotic susceptibility of Listeria species: L. grayi, L. innocua, L. ivanovii, L. monocytogenes, L. seeligeri and L. welshimeri strains. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 6:525535.
82.U.S. Department of Agriculture. 2008. Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (online), Chapter 8.06, 19.02.2008. http://www.fsis.usda.gov/Science/Microbiological_Lab_Guidebook/index.asp.
83.U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2003. Bacteriological Analytical Manual: Listeria monocytogenes. http://www.fda.gov/ Food/ScienceResearch/LaboratoryMethods/Bacteriological AnalyticalManualBAM/default.htm.
84. van Netten, P.,, I. Perales,, A. van de Moosdijk,, G. D. Curtis,, and D. A. Mossel. 1989. Liquid and solid selective differential media for the detection and enumeration of L. monocytogenes and other Listeria spp. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 8:299316.
85. Vazquez-Boland, J. A.,, L. Dominguez,, J. F. Fernandez,, E. F. Rodriguez-Ferri,, V. Briones,, M. Blanco,, and G. Suarez. 1990. Revision of the validity of CAMP tests for Listeria identification. Proposal of an alternative method for the determination of haemolytic activity by Listeria strains. Acta Microbiol. Hung. 37:201206.
86. Verbarg, S.,, H. Rheims,, S. Emus,, A. Fruhling,, R. M. Kroppenstedt,, E. Stackebrandt,, and P. Schumann. 2004. Erysipelothrix inopinata sp. nov., isolated in the course of sterile filtration of vegetable peptone broth, and description of Erysipelotrichaceae fam. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 54:221225.
87. Vitas, A. I.,, R. M. Sanchez,, V. Aguado,, and I. Garcia- Jalon. 2007. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from food and clinical cases in Navarra, Spain. J. Food Prot. 70:24022406.
88. Vlaemynck, G.,, V. Lafarge,, and S. Scotter. 2000. Improvement of the detection of Listeria monocytogenes by the application of ALOA, a diagnostic, chromogenic isolation medium. J. Appl. Microbiol. 88:430441.
89. Voetsch, A. C.,, F. J. Angulo,, T. F. Jones,, M. R. Moore,, C. Nadon,, P. McCarthy,, B. Shiferaw,, M. B. Megginson,, S. Hurd,, B. J. Anderson,, A. Cronquist,, D. J. Vugia,, C. Medus,, S. Segler,, L. M. Graves,, R. M. Hoekstra,, and P. M. Griffin. 2007. Reduction in the incidence of invasive listeriosis in foodborne diseases active surveillance network sites, 1996-2003. Clin. Infect. Dis. 44:513520.
90. Volokhov, D.,, J. George,, C. Anderson,, R. E. Duvall,, and A. D. Hitchins. 2006. Discovery of natural atypical nonhemolytic Listeria seeligeri isolates. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72:24392448.
91. Ward, T. J.,, T. F. Ducey,, T. Usgaard,, K. A. Dunn,, and J. P. Bielawski. 2008. Multilocus genotyping assays for single nucleotide polymorphism-based subtyping of Listeria monocytogenes isolates. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74: 76297642.
92. Yamazaki, Y. 2006. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction for discriminating Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae from Erysipelothrix tonsillarum. J. Vet. Diagn. Investig. 18:384387.
93. You, Y.,, C. Fu,, X. Zeng,, D. Fang,, X. Yan,, B. Sun,, D. Xiao,, and J. Zhang. 2008. A novel DNA microarray for rapid diagnosis of enteropathogenic bacteria in stool specimens of patients with diarrhea. J. Microbiol. Methods 75: 566571.
94. Zhang, W.,, B. M. Jayarao,, and S. J. Knabel. 2004. Multivirulence- locus sequence typing of Listeria monocytogenes. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:913920.


Generic image for table

Biochemical differentiation of species in the genus

Symbols and abbreviations: +, ≥90% of strains are positive; –, ≥90% of strains are negative; ND, not determined; V, variable; US, undesignated serotype; S, specific.

++, usually a wide zone or multiple zones.

See text and Fig. 2 .

Citation: Wellinghausen N. 2011. and , p 403-412. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch25

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error