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Chapter 26 : Coryneform Gram-Positive Rods

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Abstract:

This chapter deals with aerobically growing, asporogenous, irregularly shaped, non-partially acid-fast, gram-positive rods generally called "coryneforms." The bacteria discussed in the chapter all belong to the class , the genera of which are characterized by specific 16S rRNA gene signature nucleotides. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing data demonstrate that the genera and are more closely related to the partially acid-fast bacteria and to the genus than to the other coryneform organisms covered in the chapter. The chapter discusses descriptions of genera and species. Detection of antibodies directed against diphtheria toxin is the only established serologic test for coryneform bacteria. Toxin neutralization assays using a Vero cell culture system have been replaced mainly by enzyme immunoassays. The susceptibility patterns for each taxon were given with the descriptions of each taxon. Since the antimicrobial susceptibility of coryneform bacteria is not predictable in every case, susceptibility testing should always be performed with clinically significant isolates.

Citation: Funke G, Bernard K. 2011. Coryneform Gram-Positive Rods, p 413-442. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch26

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Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
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Gram-Positive Cocci
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Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Gram stain morphologies of Corynebacterium diphtheriae ATCC 14779 after 48 h of incubation (a), Turicella otitidis DSM 8821 (48 h) (b), Dermabacter hominis ATCC 51325 (48 h) (c), Gardnerella vaginalis ATCC 14018 (48 h) (d), Corynebacterium durum DMMZ 2544 (72 h) (e), and Corynebacterium matruchotii ATCC 14266 (24 h) (f), Corynebacterium aurimucosum HC-NML 91-0032 (24 h) (g), and black-pigmented Rothia dentocariosa HC-NML 77-0298 (24 h) (h).

Citation: Funke G, Bernard K. 2011. Coryneform Gram-Positive Rods, p 413-442. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch26
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

CAMP reactions of different coryneform bacteria after 24 h. (Top) DMMZ 891 (positive reaction); (middle) ATCC 14779 (negative reaction); (bottom) ATCC 9345 (CAMP inhibition reaction). The vertical streak is ATCC 25923.

Citation: Funke G, Bernard K. 2011. Coryneform Gram-Positive Rods, p 413-442. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch26
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Colony morphologies of different coryneform bacteria after 48 h of incubation on SBA. (a) LCDC 91-0077; (b) ATCC 14779; (c) LCDC 97-0202; (d) ATCC 6940; (e) ATCC 51325; (f ) LCDC 95-0154; (g) HC-NML 91-0032 (after 96 h); (h) black-pigmented HC-NML 77- 0298 (after 96 h); (i) biotype gravis colonies on a Tinsdale agar plate. The last photo was kindly provided by C. Hinnebusch and M. Cohen, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA.

Citation: Funke G, Bernard K. 2011. Coryneform Gram-Positive Rods, p 413-442. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch26
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Some chemotaxonomic features of the bacteria covered in this chapter

-DAP, -diaminopimelic acid; LYS, lysine; ORN, ornithine; DAB, diaminobutyric acid.

Exceptions: , , and .

ND, no data.

Citation: Funke G, Bernard K. 2011. Coryneform Gram-Positive Rods, p 413-442. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch26
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Most frequently reported disease associations of coryneform bacteria in humans

Taxa shown without references are from our observations or from references and .

Citation: Funke G, Bernard K. 2011. Coryneform Gram-Positive Rods, p 413-442. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch26
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Identification of medically relevant spp.

Abbreviations and symbols: F, fermentation; O, oxidation; +, positive, –, negative, V, variable; ( ), delayed or weak reaction; ND, no data; REV, CAMP inhibition reaction; TBSA, tuberculostearic acid.

Propionic acid as a glucose fermentation product.

A blood culture isolate ( ) was also -nitrophenyl-β-d-galactopyranoside positive, oxidase positive, and weakly maltose positive but negative by the API Coryne system; propionic acid was not detected; β-galactosidase was not observed using two methods (API Coryne and API Zym systems); the API Coryne system code obtained is 0101104.

biotype mitis is nitrate reductase positive, and C. diphtheriae biotype belfanti is nitrate reductase negative.

( ) is a strong nitrite reducer at low and high concentrations; nitrate reduction may appear to be negative unless further tested using zinc dust; one strain was catalase negative ( ).

Citation: Funke G, Bernard K. 2011. Coryneform Gram-Positive Rods, p 413-442. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch26
Generic image for table
TABLE 4

Identification of medically relevant coryneform bacteria other than spp.

Abbreviations and symbols: +, positive reaction; – negative reaction; v, variable reaction; O, oxidation; F, fermentation. See also references , and .

Citation: Funke G, Bernard K. 2011. Coryneform Gram-Positive Rods, p 413-442. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch26

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