1887

Chapter 28 : General Characteristics, Laboratory Detection, and Staining Procedures

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

General Characteristics, Laboratory Detection, and Staining Procedures , Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap28-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap28-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter deals with the only genus in the family and related to other mycolic acid-containing genera. The genus includes obligate pathogens, opportunistic pathogens, and saprophytes. Ben Salah et al. found clinical M. avium complex (MAC) isolates that appear to represent three other new species: , , and . Many different types of clinical specimens may be collected for mycobacteriological analyses. A majority of clinical specimens originate from the respiratory tract (sputum, tracheal and bronchial aspirates, and bronchoalveolar lavage specimens), but urine, gastric aspirates, tissues, biopsy specimens, and normally sterile body fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid and pleural and pericardial aspirates are other commonly submitted specimens. A majority of disseminated mycobacterial infections are due to MAC. Appropriate pretreatment and processing procedures (homogenization, decontamination, concentration, culture media, and conditions of incubation) must be selected to facilitate optimum recovery of mycobacteria. With the advent of molecular techniques designed for molecular epidemiology, cross-contamination either linked to laboratory procedures or, more rarely, to contaminated bronchoscopes can easily be proven. Laboratory aspects of cross-contamination are addressed in the chapter. Quality control (QC) is vital for monitoring a laboratory’s effectiveness in detecting and isolating mycobacteria. Accurate identification of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) will prevent rarely encountered pathogens from being mistaken for nonpathogenic species.

Citation: Pfyffer G, Palicova F. 2011. General Characteristics, Laboratory Detection, and Staining Procedures , p 472-502. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch28

Key Concept Ranking

Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha
0.43149006
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
0.4083599
0.43149006
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

(top left) on Middlebrook 7H10 agar. Note the dry and rough colonies with sometimes a nodular or wrinkled surface.

Citation: Pfyffer G, Palicova F. 2011. General Characteristics, Laboratory Detection, and Staining Procedures , p 472-502. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch28
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

(top right) BCG on Middlebrook 7H10 agar. Colonies may be flat as well as round with irregular edges.

Citation: Pfyffer G, Palicova F. 2011. General Characteristics, Laboratory Detection, and Staining Procedures , p 472-502. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch28
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

(bottom left) Acid-fast staining (Ziehl-Neelsen) of . Note the characteristic curved (“croissant-like”) microscopic morphology.

Citation: Pfyffer G, Palicova F. 2011. General Characteristics, Laboratory Detection, and Staining Procedures , p 472-502. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch28
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

(bottom right) on Middlebrook 7H10 agar. Note the heterogeneous colony morphology consisting of some flat and smooth but predominantly domed and glossy colonies (photograph kindly provided by D. van Soolingen).

Citation: Pfyffer G, Palicova F. 2011. General Characteristics, Laboratory Detection, and Staining Procedures , p 472-502. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch28
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555816728.chap28
1. Abramowsky, C.,, B. Gonzalez,, and R. U. Sorensen. 1993. Disseminated Bacillus Calmette-Guérin infections in patients with primary immunodeficiencies. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 100:5256.
2. Allen, S.,, J. Batungwanayo,, K. Kerlikowske,, A. R. Lifson,, W. Wolf,, R. Granich,, H. Taelman,, P. van de Perre,, A. Serufilira,, J. Bogaerts, et al. 1993. Two-year incidence of tuberculosis in cohorts of HIV-infected and uninfected urban Rwandan women. Am. Respir. Dis. 146:14391444.
3.American Thoracic Society. 2000. Diagnostic standards and classification of tuberculosis in adults and children. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 161:13761395.
4.American Thoracic Society. 2007. Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of nontuberculous mycobacterial diseases. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 175:367416.
5. Aranaz, A.,, E. Liebana,, E. Gomez-Mampaso,, J. C. Galan,, D. Cousins,, A. Ortega,, J. Blazquez,, F. Baquero,, A. Mateos,, G. Suarez,, and L. Dominguez. 1999. Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp. caprae subsp. nov.: a taxonomic study of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolated from goats in Spain. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 49:12631273.
6. Archibald, L. K.,, L. C. McDonald,, R. M. Addison,, C. McKnight,, T. Byrne,, H. Dobbie,, O. Nwanyanwu,, P. Kezembe,, L. B. Reller,, and W. R. Jarvis. 2000. Comparison of BACTEC MYCO/F LYTIC and WAMPOLE ISOLATOR 10 (lysis-centrifugation) systems for detection of bacteremia, mycobacteremia, and fungemia in a developing country. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:29942997.
7.Association of State and Territorial Public Health Laboratory Directors and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1997. Recognition and Prevention of False- Positive Test Results in Mycobacteriology. A Laboratory Training Program. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.
8. Attorri, S.,, S. Dunbar,, and J. E. Clarridge III. 2000. Assessment of morphology for rapid presumptive identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium kansasii. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:14261429.
9. Bang, D.,, T. Herlin,, M. Stegger,, A. B. Andersen,, P. Torkko,, E. Tortoli,, and V. O. Thomsen. 2008. Mycobacterium arosiense sp. nov., a slowly growing, scotochromogenic species causing osteomyelitis in an immunocompromised child. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 58:23982402.
10. Behr, M. A.,, and P. M. Small. 1999. A historical and molecular phylogeny of BCG strains. Vaccine 17:915922.
11. Bennett, S. N.,, D. E. Peterson,, D. R. Johnson,, W. N. Hall,, B. Robinson-Dunn,, and S. Dietrich. 1994. Bronchoscopyassociated Mycobacterium xenopi pseudoinfections. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 150:245250.
12. Ben Salah, I.,, C. Cayrou,, D. Raoult,, and M. Drancourt. 2009. Mycobacterium marseillense sp. nov., Mycobacterium timonense sp. nov. and Mycobacterium bouchedurhonense sp. nov., novel species in the Mycobacteriun avium complex. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 59:28032808.
13. Bergamini, B. M.,, M. Losi,, F. Valenti,, R. D’Amico,, B. Meccugni,, M. Meacci,, D. de Giovanni,, F. Rumianesi,, L. M. Fabbri,, F. Balli,, and L. Richeldi. 2009. Performance of commercial blood tests for the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection in children and adolescents. Pediatrics 123:e419e424.
14. Best, M.,, S. A. Sattar,, V. S. Springthorpe,, and M. E. Kennedy. 1990. Efficacies of selected disinfectants against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28:22342239.
15. Bignardi, G. E.,, S. P. Barrett,, R. Hinkins,, P. A. Jenkins,, and M. P. Rebec. 1994. False-positive Mycobacterium aviumintracellulare cultures with the BACTEC 460 TB system. J. Hosp. Infect. 26:203210.
16. Bobadilla-del-Valle, M.,, A. Ponce-de-Leon,, M. Kato-Maeda,, A. Hernandez-Cruz,, J. J. Calva-Mercado,, B. Chavez- Mazari,, B. A. Caballero-Rivera,, J. C. Nolasco-Garcia,, and J. Sifuentes-Osornio. 2003. Comparison of sodium bicarbonate, cetyl-pyridinium chloride, and sodium borate for preservation of sputa for culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:4874488.
17. Brosch, R.,, S. V. Gordon,, T. Garnier,, K. Eiglmeier,, W. Frigui,, P. Valenti,, S. Dos Santos,, S. Duthoy,, S. Lacroix,, C. Garcia-Pelayo,, J. K. Inwald, et al. 2007. Genome plasticity of BCG and impact on vaccine efficacy. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104:55965601.
18. Brosch, R.,, S. V. Gordon,, M. Marmiesse,, P. Brodin,, C. Buchrieser,, K. Eiglmeier,, T. Garnier,, C. Gutierrez,, G. Hewinson,, K. Kremer,, L. M. Parsons, et al. 2002. A new evolutionary scenario for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99:36843689.
19. Bruijnesteijn van Coppenraet, L. E. S.,, P. E. W. deHaas,, J. A. Lindeboom,, E. J. Kuijper,, and D. van Soolingen. 2008. Lymphadenitis in children is caused by Mycobacterium avium hominissuis and not related to “bird tuberculosis.” Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 27:293299.
20. Bruijnesteijn van Coppenraet, L. E. S.,, E. J. Kuijper,, J. A. Lindeboom,, J. M. Prins,, and E. C. Class. 2005. Mycobacterium haemophilum in immunocompromised patients. Clin. Infect. Dis. 33:330337.
21. Burman, W. J.,, and R. R. Reves. 2000. Review of falsepositive cultures for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and recommendations for avoiding unnecessary treatment. Clin. Infect. Dis. 31:13901395.
22. Cattamanchi, A.,, J. L. Davis,, W. Worodria,, S. Yoo,, J. Matovu,, J. Kiidha,, F. Nankya,, R. Kyeyune,, A. Andama,, M. Joloba,, D. Osmond, et al. 2008. Poor performance of universal sample processing method for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis by smear microscopy and culture in Uganda. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46:33253329.
23.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1996. Nucleic acid amplification tests for tuberculosis. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 45:950952.
24.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1997. Multiple misdiagnoses of tuberculosis resulting from laboratory error—Wisconsin 1996. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 46:797801.
25.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention —National Institutes of Health. 2007. Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, 5th ed. L. C. Chosewood, and D. E. Wilson (ed.). U. S. Government Printing Office,Washington, DC. http://www.cdc.gov/od/ohs.
26. Chee, C. B. E.,, S. H. Gan,, K. W. KhinMar,, T. M. Barkham,, C. K. Koh,, S. Liang,, and Y. T. Wang. 2008. Comparison of sensitivities of two commercial gamma interferon release assays for pulmonary tuberculosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46:19351940.
27. Chroneou, A.,, S. K. Zimmerman,, S. Cook,, S. Willey,, J. Eyre-Kelly,, N. Zias,, D. S. Shapiro,, J. F. Beamis, Jr.,, and D. E. Craven. 2008. Molecular typing of Mycobacterium chelonae isolates from a pseudo-outbreak involving an automated bronchoscope washer. Infect. Contr. Hosp. Epidemiol. 29:10881090.
28.Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. 2006. Molecular Diagnostic Methods for Infectious Diseases. Document MM03-A2. CLSI,Wayne, PA.
29.Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. 2008. Laboratory Detection and Identification of Mycobacteria. Document M48-A. CLSI,Wayne, PA.
30.Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. 2009. Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacteria, Nocardiae, and Other Aerobic Actinomycetes. Document M24-A2. CLSI,Wayne, PA.
31. Cohen, Y. H.,, A. Jacob,, S. Ashkenazi,, T. Edlitz-Markus,, Z. Samra,, L. Kaufmann,, and A. Zeharia. 2008. Mycobacterium haemophilum and lymphadenitis in immunocompetent children, Israel. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14:14371439.
32. Cole, S. T.,, R. Brosch,, J. Parkhill,, T. Garnier,, C. Churcher,, D. Harris,, S. V. Gordon,, K. Eiglmeier,, S. Gas,, C. E. Barry III,, F. Tekaia, et al. 1998. Deciphering the biology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from the complete genome sequence. Nature 393:537544.
33. Cole, S. T.,, K. Eiglmeier,, J. Parkhill,, K. D. James,, N. R. Thomson,, P. R. Wheeler,, N. Honoré,, T. Garnier,, C. Churcher,, D. Harris,, K. Mungall, et al. 2001. Massive gene decay in the leprosy bacillus. Nature 409:10071011.
34. Conville, P. S.,, and F. G. Witebsky,. 2005. Nocardia and other aerobic actinomycetes, p. 11371180. In S. P. Boriello,, P. R. Murray,, and G. Funke (ed.), Topley & Wilson’s Microbiology and Microbial Infections, Bacteriology, 10th ed., vol. 2. Hodder Arnold, London, England.
35. Corbett, E. L.,, M. Hay,, G. J. Churchyard,, T. Clayton,, B. G. Williams,, D. Hayes,, D. Mulder,, and K. M. de Cock. 1999. Mycobacterium kansasii and M. scrofulaceum isolates from HIVnegative South African gold miners: incidence, clinical significance and radiology. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 3:501507.
36. Cousins, D. V.,, R. Bastida,, A. Cataldi,, V. Quse,, S. Redrobe,, S. Dow,, P. Duignan,, A. Murray,, C. Dupont,, N. Ahmed,, D. M. Collins, et al. 2003. Tuberculosis in seals caused by a novel member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex: Mycobacterium pinnipedii sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 53:13051314.
37. Coyle, M. B.,, L. Carlson,, C. Wallis,, R. Leonard,, V. Raisys,, J. Kilburn,, M. Samadpour,, and E. Böttger. 1992. Laboratory aspects of Mycobacterium genavense, a proposed species isolated from AIDS patients. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:32063212.
38. Cruciani, M.,, C. Scarpaio,, M. Malena,, O. Bosco,, G. Serpelloni,, and C. Mengoli. 2004. Meta-analysis of BACTEC MGIT 960 and BACTEC 460 TB, with or without solid media, for detection of mycobacteria. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:23212325.
39. Crump, J. A.,, D. C. Tanner,, S. Mirrett,, C. M. McKnight,, and L. B. Reller. 2003. Controlled comparison of BACTEC 13A, MYCO/F LYTIC, BacT/ALERT MB, and ISOLATOR 10 systems for detection of mycobacteremia. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:19871990.
40. de Lastours, V.,, R. Guillemain,, J.-L. Mainardi,, A. Aubert,, P. Chevalier,, A. Lefort,, and I. Podglajen. 2008. Early diagnosis of disseminated Mycobacterium genavense infection. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14:346347.
41. Demangel, C.,, T. P. Stinear,, and S. T. Cole. 2009. Buruli ulcer: reductive evolution enhances pathogenicity of Mycobacterium ulcerans. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 7:5060.
42. Desmond, E.,, A. T. Ahmed,, W. S. Probert,, J. Ely,, Y. Jang,, C. A. Sanders,, S.-Y. Lin,, and J. Flood. 2004. Mycobacterium africanum cases, California. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10:921923.
43. Detjen, A. K.,, L. Loebenberg,, H. M. Grewal,, K. Stanley,, A. Gutschmidt,, C. Kruger,, N. Du Plessis,, M. Kidd,, N. Beyers,, G. Walzl,, and A. C. Hesseling. 2009. Short-term reproducibility of a commercial interferon gamma release assay. Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 16:11701175.
44. Dhillon, S. S.,, and C. Watanakunakorn. 2000. Lady Windermere syndrome: middle lobe bronchiectasis and Mycobacterium avium complex infection due to voluntary cough suppression. Clin. Infect. Dis. 30:572575.
45. Diel, R.,, R. Loddenkemper,, K. Meywald-Walter,, R. Gottschalk,, and A. Nienhaus. 2009. Comparative performance of tuberculin test, QuantiFERON-TB-Gold In Tube assay, and T-Spot.TB test in contact investigations for tuberculosis. Chest 135:10101018.
46. Djelouadji, Z.,, J. Orehek,, and M. Drancourt. 2009. Rapid detection of laboratory cross-contamination with Mycobacterium tuberculosis using multispacer sequence typing. BMC Microbiol. 9:4751.
47. Eckburg, P. B.,, E. O. Buadu,, P. Stark,, P. S. A. Sarinas,, R. K. Chitkara,, and W. G. Kuschner. 2000. Clinical and chest radiographic findings among persons with sputum culture positive for Mycobacterium gordonae. Chest 117:96102.
48. Edson, R. S.,, C. L. Terrell,, W. M. Brutinel,, and N. L. Wengenack. 2006. Mycobacterium intermedium granulomatous dermatitis from hot tub exposure. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12:821823.
49. Emmanuel, F. X.,, A.-L. Seagar,, C. Doig,, A. Rayner,, P. Claxton,, and I. Laurenson. 2007. Human and animal infections with Mycobacterium microti, Scotland. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 13:19241927.
50.European Society of Mycobacteriology. 1991. Diagnostic Public Health Mycobacteriology, p. 5764. M. D. Yates,, and D. G. Groothuis (ed.). Bureau of Hygiene and Tropical Disease,London, United Kingdom.
51. Fabre, M.,, J.-L. Koeck,, P. Le Flèche,, F. Simon,, V. Hervé,, G. Vergnaud,, and C. Pourcel. 2004. High genetic diversity revealed by variable-number tandem repeat genotyping and analysis of hsp65 gene polymorphism in a large collection of “Mycobacterium canettii” strains indicates that the M. tuberculosis complex is a recently emerged clone of “M. canettii.” J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:32483255.
52. Falkinham, J. O. 1996. Epidemiology of infection by nontuberculous mycobacteria. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 9:178215.
53. Fanti, F.,, E. Tortoli,, L. Hall,, G. D. Roberts,, R. M. Kroppenstedt,, I. Dodi,, S. Conti,, L. Polonelli,, and C. Chezzi. 2004. Mycobacterium parmense sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 54:11231127.
54. Feller, M.,, K. Huwiler,, R. Stephan,, E. Altpeter,, A. Shang,, H. Furrer,, G. E. Pfyffer,, T. Jemmi,, A. Baumgartner,, and M. Egger. 2007. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and Crohn’s disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect. Dis. 7:607613.
55. Fergie, J. E.,, T. W. Milligan,, B. M. Henderson,, and W. W. Stafford. 1997. Intrathoracic Mycobacterium avium complex infection in immunocompetent children: case report and review. J. Infect. Dis. 24:250253.
56. Ferroni, A.,, H. Vu-Thien,, P. Lanotte,, M. Le Bourgeois,, I. Sermet-Gaudelus,, B. Fauroux,, S. Marchand,, F. Varaigne,, P. Berche,, J.-L. Gaillard,, and C. Offredo. 2006. Value of the chlorhexidine decontamination method for recovery of nontuberculous mycobacteria from sputum samples of patients with cystic fibrosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:22372239.
57. Fite, G. L.,, F. J. Cambre,, and M. H. Hunt. 1947. Procedures for demonstrating lepra bacilli in paraffin sections. Arch. Pathol. 43:624625.
58. Fleming, D. O.,, and D. L. Hunt. 2006. Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, 4th ed. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
59. Frota, C. C.,, D. M. Hunt,, R. S. Buxton,, L. Rickman,, J. Hinds,, K. Kremer,, D. van Soolingen,, and M. J. Colston. 2004. Genome structure in the vole bacillus, Mycobacterium microti, a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex with a low virulence for humans. Microbiology 15:15191527.
60. Frothingham, R.,, P. L. Strickland,, G. Bretzel,, S. Ramaswamy,, J. M. Musser,, and D. L. Williams. 1999. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Mycobacterium africanum isolates from West Africa. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:19211926.
61. Fukuoka, M.,, Y. Matsumura,, S. Kore-eda,, Y. Iinuma,, and Y. Miyachi. 2008. Cutaneous infection due to Mycobacterium interjectum in an immunosuppressed patient with microscopic polyangitis. Br. J. Dermatol. 159:13821384.
62. Fyfe, J. A.,, C. J. Lavender,, P. D. Johnson,, M. Globan,, A. Sievers,, J. Azuolas,, and T. P. Stinear. 2007. Development and application of two multiplex real-time PCR assays for the detection of Mycobacterium ulcerans in clinical and environmental samples. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73:47334740.
63. Gagneux, S.,, K. DeRiemer,, T. Van,, M. Kato-Maeda,, B. C. de Jong,, S. Narayanan,, M. Nicol,, S. Niemann,, K. Kremer,, M. C. Gutierrez,, M. Hilty, et al. 2006. Variable host- pathogen compatibility in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103:28692873.
64. Gandhi, N. R.,, A. Moll,, A. W. Sturm,, R. Pawinski,, T. Govender,, U. Lalloo,, K. Zeller,, J. Andrews,, and G. Friedland. 2006. Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis as a cause of death in patients co-infected with tuberculosis and HIV in a rural area of South Africa. Lancet 368:15751580.
65. Garnier, T.,, K. Eigelmeier,, J.-C. Camus,, N. Medina,, H. Mansoor,, M. Pryor,, S. Duthoy,, S. Grondlin,, C. Lacroix,, C. Monsempe,, S. Simon, et al. 2003. The complete genome sequence of Mycobacterium bovis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100:78777882.
66. Ghosh, J.,, P. Larsson,, B. Singh,, B. M. Pettersson,, N. M. Islam,, S. N. Sarkar,, S. Dasgupta,, and L. A. Kirsebom. 2009. Sporulation in mycobacteria. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106:1078110786.
67. Gillespie, E. E.,, D. Kotsanas,, and R. L. Stuart. 2008. Microbiological monitoring of endoscopes: 5-year review. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 23:10691074.
68. Godreuil, S.,, H. Marchandin,, D. Terru,, V. Le Moing,, M. Chammas,, V. Vincent,, E. Jumas-Bilak,, P. van de Perre,, and C. Carriere. 2006. Mycobacterium heckeshornense tenosynovitis. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 38:10981101.
69. Goh, K. S.,, E. Legrand,, C. Sola,, and N. Rastogi. 2001. Rapid differentiation of “Mycobacterium canettii” from other Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms by PCR-restriction analysis of the hsp65 gene. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:37053708.
70. Guerra, H.,, J. C. Palomino,, E. Falconi,, F. Bravo,, N. Donaires,, E. van Marck,, and F. Portaels. 2008. Mycobacterium ulcerans disease, Peru. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14:373377.
71. Gutierrez, M. C.,, S. Brisse,, R. Brosch,, M. Fabre,, B. Omaïs,, M. Marmiesse,, P. Supply,, and V. Vincent. 2005. Ancient origin and gene mosaicism of the progenitor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PLoS Pathog. 1:e5.
72. Han, X. Y.,, Y. H. Seo,, K. C. Sizer,, T. Schoberle,, G. S. May,, J. S. Spencer,, W. Li,, and R. G. Nair. 2008. A new Mycobacterium species causing diffuse lepromatous leprosy. Am. Clin. Pathol. 130:856864.
73. Hanna, B. A.,, A. Ebrahimzadeh,, L. B. Elliott,, M. A. Morgan,, S. M. Novak,, S. Rüsch-Gerdes,, M. Acio,, D. F. Dunbar,, T. M. Holmes,, C. H. Rexer,, C. Savthyakumar, et al. 1999. Multicenter evaluation of the BACTEC MGIT 960 System for recovery of mycobacteria. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:748752.
74. Hänscheid, T. 2008. The future looks bright: low-cost fluorescent microscopes for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Coccidiae. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 102:520521.
75. Hänscheid, T.,, C. Monteiro,, J. Melo Cristino,, L. Marques Lito,, and M. J. Salgano. 2005. Growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in conventional BacT/ALERT FA blood culture bottles allows reliable diagnosis of mycobacteremia. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:890891.
76. Hänscheid, T.,, C. M. Ribeiro,, H. M. Shapiro,, and N. G. Perlmutter. 2007. Fluorescence microscopy for tuberculosis diagnosis. Lancet Infect. Dis. 6:570581.
77. Hastings, R. C.,, T. P. Gillis,, J. L. Krahenbuhl,, and S. G. Franzblau. 1988. Leprosy. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 1:330348.
78. Havlik, J. A.,, B. Metchock,, S. E. Thompson III,, K. Barrett,, D. Rimland,, and C. R. Horsburgh, Jr. 1993. A prospective evaluation of Mycobacterium avium complex colonization of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts of persons with human immunodeficiency virus infection. J. Infect. Dis. 168:10451048.
79. Hawkins, J. E.,, R. C. Good,, G. P. Kubica,, P. R. J. Gangadharam,, H. M. Gruft,, K. D. Stottmeier,, H. M. Sommers,, and L. G. Wayne. 1983. Levels of laboratory services for mycobacterial diseases: official statement of the American Thoracic Society. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 128:213.
80. Heifets, L.,, T. Linder,, T. Sanchez,, D. Spencer,, and J. Brennan. 2000. Two liquid medium systems, Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube and MB Redox Tube, for Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolation from sputum specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:12271230.
81. Hillebrand-Haverkort, M. E.,, A. H. Kolk,, L. F. Kox,, J. J. ten Velden,, and J. H. ten Veen. 1999. Generalized Mycobacterium genavense infection in HIV-infected patients: detection of the mycobacterium in hospital tap water. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 31:6368.
82. Hines, N.,, J. B. Payeur,, and L. J. Hoffman. 2006. Comparison of the recovery of Mycobacterium bovis isolates using the BACTEC MGIT 960 System, BACTEC 460 System, and Middlebrook7H10 and 7H11 solid media. J. Vet. Diagn. Investig. 18:243250.
83. Hoefsloot, W.,, M. J. Boeree,, J. van Ingen,, S. Bendien,, C. Magis,, W. de Lange,, P. N. Dekhuijzen,, and D. van Soolingen. 2008. The rising incidence and clinical relevance of Mycobacterium malmoense: a review of the literature. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 12:987993.
84. Hoop, R. K.,, E. C. Böttger,, and G. E. Pfyffer. 1996. Etiological agents of mycobacterioses in pet birds between 1986 and 1995. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:991992.
85. Hopewell, P. C.,, and R. M. Jasmer,. 2005. Overview of clinical tuberculosis, p. 1531. In S. T. Cole,, K. D. Eisenach,, D. N. McMurray,, and W. R. Jacobs, Jr. (ed.), Tuberculosis and the Tubercle Bacillus. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
86. Horsburgh, C.,, B. Metchock,, J. McGowan, Jr.,, and S. Thompson. 1992. Clinical implications of recovery of Mycobacterium avium complex from the stool or respiratory tract of HIV-infected individuals. AIDS 6:512514.
87. Horsburgh, C. R., Jr.,, U. G. Mason III,, D. C. Farhi,, and M. D. Iseman. 1985. Disseminated infection with Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare. A report of 13 cases and review of the literature. Medicine 64:3648.
88. Huber, J.,, E. Richter,, L. Binder,, M. Maass,, R. Eberl,, and W. Zenz. 2008. Mycobacterium bohemicum and cervical lymphadenitis. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14:11581159.
89. Inderlied, C.,, C. Kempler,, and L. Bermudez. 1993. The Mycobacterium avium complex. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 6:266310.
90. Isenberg, H. D. 2004. Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 2nd ed. American Society for Microbiology,Washington, DC.
91. Isenberg, H. D.,, R. F. D’Amato,, L. Heifets,, P. R. Murray,, M. Scardamaglia,, M. C. Jacobs,, P. Alperstein,, and A. Niles. 1991. Collaborative feasibility study of a biphasic system (Roche Septi-Chek AFB) for rapid detection and isolation of mycobacteria. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29:17191722.
92. Jassal, M.,, and W. R. Bishai. 2009. Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. Lancet Infect. Dis. 9:1930.
93. Jauréguy, F.,, V. Ioos,, P. Arzouk,, M. Hornstein,, B. Picard,, M. C. Gutierrez,, and D. Valeyre. 2007. Mycobacterium heckeshornense: an emerging pathogen responsible for a recurrent lung infection. J. Infect. 54:e33e35.
94. Jensen, P. A.,, L. A. Lamber,, M. F. Iademarco,, and R. Rizon. 2005. Guidelines for preventing transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in health care settings. MMWR Recommend. Rep. 54(RR-17):1139.
95. Joseph, S.,, E. Vaichulis,, and V. Houk. 1967. Lack of auramine-rhodamine fluorescence of Runyon group IV mycobacteria. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 95:114115.
96. Kamboj, M.,, E. Louie,, T. Kiehn,, G. Papanicolaou,, M. Glickman,, and K. Sepkowitz. 2008. Mycobacterium haemophilum infection after alemtuzumab treatment. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14:18211823.
97. Kampmann, B.,, E. Whittaker,, A. Williams,, S. Walters,, A. Gordon,, N. Martinez-Alier,, B. Williams,, A. M. Crook,, A. M. Hutton,, and S. T. Anderson. 2009. Interferon-gamma release assays do not identify more children with active TB than TST. Eur. Respir. J. 33:13741382.
98. Kent, P. T.,, and G. P. Kubica. 1985. Public Health Mycobacteriology: a Guide for the Level III Laboratory. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA.
99. Kiers, A.,, A. Klarenbeek,, B. Mendelts,, D. van Soolingen,, and G. Koëter. 2008. Transmission of Mycobacterium pinnipedii to humans in a zoo with marine mammals. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 12:14691473.
100. Killeen, A. A. 2009. Laboratory sanctions for proficiency testing sample referral and result communication: a review of actions from 1993-2006. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 133:979982.
101. Kim, T. C.,, R. S. Blackman,, K. M. Heatwole,, T. Kim,, and D. F. Rochester. 1984. Acid-fast bacilli in sputum smears of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Prevalence and significance of negative smears pretreatment and positive smears post-treatment. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 129:264268.
102. Kirby, J. E.,, M. Delaney,, Q. Qian,, and H. S. Gold. 2009. Optimal use of Myco/F Lytic and standard BACTEC blood culture bottles for detection of yeast and mycobacteria. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 133:9396.
103. Kobashi, Y.,, T. Sugiu,, H. Shimizu,, Y. Ohue,, K. Mouri,, Y. Obase,, N. Miyashita,, and M. Oka. 2009. Clinical evaluation of the T-SPOT.TB Test for patients with indeterminate results on the QuantiFERON TB-2G Test. Intern. Med. 48:137142.
104. Koukila-Kähkölä, P.,, L. Paulin,, E. Brander,, E. Jantzen,, M. Eho-Remes,, and M. L. Katila. 2000. Characterization of a new isolate of Mycobacterium shimoidei from Finland. J. Med. Microbiol. 49:937940.
105. Kremer, L.,, and G. S. Besra,. 2005. A waxy tale, by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, p. 287305. In S. T. Cole,, K. D. Eisenach,, D. N. McMurray,, and W. R. Jacobs, Jr. (ed.), Tuberculosis and the Tubercle Bacillus. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
106. Kubica, T.,, S. Rüsch-Gerdes,, and S. Niemann. 2003. Mycobacterium bovis subsp. caprae caused one-third of human M. bovis-associated tuberculosis cases reported in Germany between 1999 and 2001. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:30703077.
107. Lalande, V.,, F. Barbut,, A. Vernerot,, M. Febvre,, D. Nesa,, S. Wadel,, V. Vincent,, and J. C. Petit. 2001. Pseudo- outbreak of Mycobacterium gordonae associated with water from refrigerated fountains. J. Hosp. Infect. 48:7679.
108. Levy, I.,, G. Grisaru-Soen,, L. Lerner-Geva,, E. Kerem,, H. Blau,, L. Bentur,, M. Aviram,, J. Rivlin,, E. Picard,, A. Lavy,, Y. Yahav, et al. 2008. Multicenter cross-sectional study of nontuberculous mycobacterial infections among cystic fibrosis patients, Israel. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14:378384.
109. Lewis, M. T.,, B. J. Marsh,, and C. Fordham von Reyn. 2003. Fish tank exposure and cutaneous infections due to Mycobacterium marinum: tuberculin skin testing, treatment, and prevention. Clin. Infect. Dis. 37:390397.
110. Lipsky, B. A.,, J. Gates,, F. C. Tenover,, and J. J. Plorde. 1984. Factors affecting the clinical value of microscopy for acid-fast bacilli. Rev. Infect. Dis. 6:214222.
111. Loughry, W. J.,, R. W. Trumman,, C. M. McDonough,, M. K. Tilak,, S. Garnier,, and F. Delsuc. 2009. Is leprosy spreading among nine-banded armadillos in the southeastern United States? J. Wildl. Dis. 45:144152.
112. Mahapatra, S.,, J. Basu,, P. J. Brennan,, and D. C. Crick,. 2005. Structure, biosynthesis, and genetics of the mycolic acid-arabinogalactan-peptidoglycan complex, p. 275285. In S. T. Cole,, K. D. Eisenach,, D. N. McMurray,, and W. R. Jacobs, Jr. (ed.), Tuberculosis and the Tubercle Bacillus. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
113. Manarolla, G.,, E. Liandris,, G. Pisoni,, D. Sassera,, G. Grilli,, D. Gallazzi,, G. Sironi,, P. Moroni,, R. Piccinini,, and T. Rampin. 2008. Avian mycobacteriosis in companion birds: 20-year survey. Vet. Microbiol. 133:323327.
114. Maoz, C.,, D. Shitrit,, Z. Samra,, N. Peled,, L. Kaufman,, M. R. Kramer,, and J. Bishara. 2008. Pulmonary Mycobacterium simiae infection: comparison with pulmonary tuberculosis. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 27:945950.
115. Marais, B. J.,, W. Brittle,, K. Painczyk,, A. C. Hesseling,, N. Beyers,, E. Wasserman,, D. van Soolingen,, and R. M. Warren. 2008. Use of light-emitting diode fluorescence microscopy to detect acid-fast bacilli in sputum. Clin. Infect. Dis. 47:203207.
116. Marmiesse, M.,, P. Brodin,, C. Buchrieser,, C. Gutierrez,, N. Simoes,, V. Vincent,, P. Glaser,, S. T. Cole,, and R. Brosch. 2004. Macro-array and bioinformatics analyses reveal mycobacetrial “core” genes, variation in the ESAT-6 gene family and new phylogenetic markers for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Microbiology 150:483496.
117. Martin, A.,, M. Herranz,, M. M. Lirola,, R. F. Fernandez,, INDAL-TB Group, E. Bouza,, and D. Garcia de Viedma. 2008. Optimized molecular resolution of cross-contamination alerts in clinical mycobacteriology laboratories. BMC Microbiol. 8:3034.
118. Masaki, T.,, K. Ohkusu,, H. Hata,, N. Fujiwara,, H. Iihara,, M. Yamada-Noda,, P. H. Nhung,, M. Hayashi,, Y. Asano,, Y. Kawamura,, and T. Ezaki. 2006. Mycobacterium kumamotonense sp. nov., recovered from clinical specimen and the first isolation report of Mycobacterium arupense in Japan: novel slowly growing, non-chromogenic clinical isolates related to Mycobacterium terrae complex. Microbiol. Immunol. 50:889897.
119. Mase, S. R.,, A. Ramsay,, V. Ng,, M. Henry,, P. C. Hopewell,, J. Cunningham,, R. Urbanczik,, M. D. Perkins,, M. A. Aziz,, and M. Pai. 2007. Yield of serial sputum specimen examinations in the diagnosis of tuberculosis: a systematic review. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 11:485495.
120. Mayall, B.,, V. Gurtler,, L. Irving,, A. Marzec,, and D. Leslie. 1999. Identification of Mycobacterium shimoidei by molecular techniques: case report and summary of the literature. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 3:169173.
121. Mazurek, G.H.,, J. Jerab,, P. Lobue,, M. F. Iademarco,, B. Metchock,, and A. Vernon. 2005. Guidelines for using the QuantiFERON-TB Gold test for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. MMWR Recommend. Rep. 54(RR-15):4955.
122. McBride, S. J.,, S. L. Taylor,, S. K. Pandey,, and D. J. Holland. 2009. First case of Mycobacterium heckeshornense lymphadenitis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 47:268270.
123. Menzies, D.,, M. Pai,, and G. Comstock. 2007. Meta-analysis: new tests for the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection: areas of uncertainty and recommendations for research. Ann. Intern. Med. 146:340354.
124. Meybeck, A.,, C. Fortin,, S. Abgrall,, H. Adle-Biassette,, G. Hayem,, R. Ruimy,, and P. Yeni. 2005. Spondylitis due to Mycobacterium xenopi in a human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patient: case report and review of the literature. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:14651466.
125. Mijs, W.,, P. de Haas,, R. Rossau,, T. van der Laan,, L. Rigouts,, F. Portaels,, and D. van Soolingen. 2002. Molecular evidence to support a proposal to reserve the designation Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium for the bird-type isolates and M. avium subsp. hominissuis for the human/ porcine type of M. avium. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 52:15051518.
126. Miltgen, J.,, M. Morillon,, J. L. Koeck,, A. Varnerot,, J. F. Briant,, G. Nguyen,, D. Verrot,, D. Bonnet,, and V. Vincent. 2002. Two cases of pulmonary tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp. canettii. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8:13501352.
127. Mitscherlich, E.,, and E. H. Marth. 1984. Microbial Survival in the Environment, p. 232266. Springer Verlag, New York, NY.
128. Mixides, G.,, V. Shende,, L. D. Teeter,, R. Awe,, J. M. Musser,, and E. A. Graviss. 2005. Number of negative acidfast smears needed to adequately assess infectivity of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Chest 128:108115.
129. Mohamed, A.M.,, P. C. Iwen,, S. Tarantolo,, and S. H. Hinrichs. 2004. Mycobacteriumnebraskense sp. nov., a novel slowly growing scotochromogenic species. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 54:20572060.
130. Monkongdee, P.,, K. D. McCarthy,, K. P. Cain,, T. Tasaneepayan,, N. H. Dung,, N. T. Lan,, N. T. Yen,, N. Teeratakulpisarn,, N. Udomsantisuk,, C. Heilig,, and J. K. Varma. 2009. Yield of acid-fast smear and mycobacterial culture for tuberculosis diagnosis in people with human immunodeficiency virus. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 180:903908.
131. Morris, A.,, L. B. Reller,, M. Salfinger,, K. Jackson,, A. Sievers,, and B. Dwyer. 1993. Mycobacteria in stool specimens: the nonvalue of smears for predicting culture results. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31:13851387.
132. Morris, A. J.,, and L. B. Reller. 1993. Reliability of cord formation in BACTEC media for presumptive identification of mycobacteria. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31:25332534.
133. Moser, I.,, W. M. Prodinger,, H. Hotzel,, R. Greenwald,, K. P. Lyashchenko,, D. Bakker,, D. Gomis,, T. Seidler,, C. Ellenberger,, U. Hetzel,, K. Wuennemann, et al. 2008. Mycobacterium pinnipedii: transmission from South American sea lion (Otaria byronia) to Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus bactrianus) and Malayan tapirs (Tapirus indicus). Vet. Microbiol. 127:399406.
134. Mostowy, S.,, A. Onipede,, S. Gagneux,, S. Niemann,, K. Kremer,, E. P. Desmond,, M. Kato-Maeda,, and M. Behr. 2004. Genomic analysis distinguishes Mycobacterium africanum. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:35943599.
135. Mun, H. S.,, H. J. Kim,, E. J. Oh,, H. Kim,, G. H. Bai,, H. K. Yu,, Y. G. Park,, C. Y. Cha,, Y. H. Kook,, and B. J. Kim. 2007. Mycobacterium seoulense sp. nov., a slowly growing scotochromogenic species. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 57:594599.
136. Mun, H. S.,, J. H. Park,, H. Kim,, H. K. Yu,, Y. G. Park,, C. Y. Cha,, Y. H. Kook,, and B. J. Kim. 2008. Mycobacterium senuense sp. nov., a slowly growing, nonchromogenic species closely related to the Mycobacterium terrae complex. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 58:641646.
137. Murcia, M.I.,, E. Tortoli,, M. C. Menendez,, E. Palenque,, and M. J. Garcia. 2006. Mycobacterium colombiense sp. nov., a novel member of the Mycobacterium avium complex and description of MAC-X as a new ITS genetic variant. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 56:20492054.
138. Murray, S. J.,, A. Barrett,, J. G. Magee,, and R. Freeman. 2003. Optimisation of acid-fast smears for the direct detection of mycobacteria in clinical samples. J. Clin. Pathol. 56:613615.
139. Niemann, S.,, T. Kubica,, F. C. Bange,, O. Adjei,, E. N. Browne,, M. A. Chinbuah,, R. Diel,, J. Gyapong,, R. D. Horstmann,, M. L. Joloba,, C. G. Meyer, et al. 2004. The species Mycobacterium africanum in the light of new molecular markers. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:39583962.
140. Noeske, J.,, E. Dopico,, G. Torrea,, H. Wang,, and A. van Deun. 2009. Two vs. three sputum samples for microscopic detection of tuberculosis in a high HIV prevalence population. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 13:842847.
141. Noordhoek, G. T.,, S. Mulder,, P. Wallace,, and A. M. van Loon. 2004. Multicentre quality control study for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in clinical samples by nucleic amplification methods. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 10:295301.
142. Oevermann, A.,, G. E. Pfyffer,, P. Zanolari,, M. Meylan,, and N. Robert. 2004. Generalized tuberculosis in llamas (Lama glama) due to Mycobacterium microti. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:18181821.
143. Okazaki, M.,, K. Ohkusu,, H. Hata,, H. Ohnisi,, K. Sugahara,, C. Kawamura,, N. Fujiwara,, S. Matsumoto,, Y. Nishiuchi,, K. Toyoda,, H. Saito, et al. 2009. Mycobacterium kyorinense sp. nov., a novel slow-growing species, related to Mycobacterium celatum, isolated from human clinical specimens. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 59:13361341.
144. O’Reilly, L. M.,, and C. J. Daborn. 1995. The epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis infections in animals and man: a review. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 76(Suppl.1):S146.
145. Ostergaard Thompson, V.,, U. B. Dragsted,, J. Bauer,, K. Fuursted,, and J. Lundgren. 1999. Disseminated infection with Mycobacterium genavense: a challenge to physicians and mycobacteriologists. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:39013905.
146. Padilla, E.,, J. M. Manterola,, V. Gonzalez,, C. G. Thornton,, M. D. Quesada,, M. D. Sanchez,, M. Perez,, and V. Ausina. 2005. Comparison of the sodium hydroxide specimen processing method with the C18-carboxypropylbetaine specimen processing method using independent specimens with auramine smear, the MB/BacT liquid culture system, and the COBAS AMPLICOR MTB Test. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:60916097.
147. Pai, M.,, and R. O’Brien. 2007. Serial testing for tuberculosis: can we make sense of T cell assay conversions and reversions? PLOS Med. 4:980983.
148. Pai, M.,, A. Zwerling,, and D. Menzies. 2008. Systematic review: T-cell-based assays for the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection: an update. Ann. Intern. Med. 149:177184.
149. Palmore, T. N.,, Y. R. Shea,, P. S. Conville,, F. G. Witebsky,, V. L. Anderson,, I. P. Rupp Hodge,, and S. M. Holland. 2009. “Mycobacterium tilburgii,” a newly described, uncultivated opportunistic pathogen. J. Clin. Microbiol. 47:15851587.
150. Palomino, J. C.,, and F. Portaels. 1998. Effects of decontamination methods and culture conditions on viability of Mycobacterium ulcerans in the BACTEC system. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:402408.
151. Parrish, N.,, K. Dionne,, A. Sweeney,, A. Hedgepeth,, and K. Carroll. 2009. Differences in time to detection and recovery of Mycobacterium spp. between the MGIT 960 and the BacT/ALERT MB automated culture systems. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 63:342345.
152. Pascopella, L.,, S. Kellam,, J. Ridderhof,, D. P. Chin,, A. Reingold,, E. Desmond,, J. Flood,, and S. Royce. 2004. Laboratory reporting of tuberculosis test results and patient treatment initiation in California. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:42094213.
153. Pfyffer, G. E.,, R. Auckenthaler,, J. D. A. van Embden,, and D. van Soolingen. 1998. Mycobacterium canettii, the smooth variant of M. tuberculosis, isolated from a Swiss patient exposed in Africa. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 4:631634.
154. Pfyffer, G.E.,, and V. Vincent,. 2005. Mycobacteriumtuberculosis complex, Mycobacterium leprae, and other slowly growingmycobacteria, p. 11811235. In S. P. Boriello,, P. R. Murray,, and G. Funke (ed.), Topley & Wilson’s Microbiology and Microbial Infections, Bacteriology, 10th ed., vol. 2. Hodder Arnold, London, England.
155. Pfyffer, G. E.,, H. M. Welscher,, and P. Kissling. 1997. Pretreatment of clinical specimens with sodium dodecyl (lauryl) sulfate is not suitable for the Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube cultivation method. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:21422144.
156. Pfyffer, G. E.,, H. M. Welscher,, P. Kissling,, C. Cieslak,, M. J. Casal,, J. Gutierrez,, and S. Rüsch-Gerdes. 1997. Comparison of the Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) with radiometric and solid culture for recovery of acid-fast bacilli. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:364368.
157. Phillips, R. O.,, F. S. Sarfo,, F. Osei-Sarpong,, A. Oateng,, I. Tetteh,, A. Lartey,, E. Adentwe,, W. Opare,, K. B. Asiedu,, and M. Wansbrough-Jones. 2009. Sensitivity of PCR targeting Mycobacterium ulcerans by use of fine-needle aspirates for diagnosis of Buruli ulcer. J. Clin. Microbiol. 47:924926.
158. Pierre-Audigier, C.,, A. Ferroni,, I. Sermet-Gaudelus,, M. Le Bourgeois,, C. Offredo,, H. Vu-Thien,, B. Fauroux,, P. Mariani,, A. Munck,, E. Bingen,, D. Guillemot, et al. 2005. Age-related prevalence and distribution of nontuberculous mycobacterial species among patients with cystic fibrosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:34673470.
159. Piersimoni, C.,, C. Scarparo,, A. Callegaro,, C. Passerini Tosi,, D. Nista,, S. Bornigia,, M. Scagnelli,, A. Rigon,, G. Ruggiero,, and A. Goglio. 2001. Comparison of MB/BacT ALERT 3D System with radiometric BACTEC System and Löwenstein-Jensen medium for recovery and identification of mycobacteria from clinical specimen: a multicenter study. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:651657.
160. Pinho, L.,, J. Santos,, G. Oliveira,, and M. Pestana. 2009. Mycobacterium gordonae urinary infection in a renal transplant recipient. Transpl. Infect. Dis. 11:253256.
161. Portaels, F.,, K. Chemlal,, P. Elsen,, P. D. R. Johnson,, J. A. Hayman,, J. Hibble,, R. Kirkwood,, and W. M. Meyers. 2001. Mycobacterium ulcerans in wild animals. Rev. Sci. Tech. Off. Int. Epizoot. 20:252264.
162. Portaels, F.,, M. T. Silva,, and W. M. Meyers. 2009. Buruli ulcer. Clin. Dermatol. 27:291305.
163. Primm, T. P.,, C. A. Lucero,, and J. O. Falkinham III. 2004. Health impacts of environmental mycobacteria. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 17:98106.
164. Prodinger, W. M.,, A. Brandstätter,, L. Naumann,, M. Pacciarini,, T. Kubica,, M. L. Boschiroli,, A. Aranaz,, G. Nagy,, Z. Cvetnic,, M. Ocepek,, A. Skrypnyk, et al. 2005. Characterization of Mycobacterium caprae isolates from Europe by mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit genotyping. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:49844992.
165. Ramos, M.,, H. Soini,, G. C. Roscanni,, M. Jaques,, M. C. Villares,, and J. M. Musser. 1999. Extensive cross- contamination of specimens with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a reference laboratory. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:916919.
166. Realini, L.,, K. de Ridder,, B. Hirschel,, and F. Portaels. 1999. Blood and charcoal added to acidified agar media promote growth of Mycobacterium genavense. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 34:4550.
167. Realini, L.,, K. de Ridder,, J. Palomino,, B. Hirschel,, and F. Portaels. 1998. Microaerophilic conditions promote growth of Mycobacterium genavense. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:25652570.
168. Remacha, M. A.,, A. Esteban,, M. I. Parra,, and M. S. Jiménez. 2007. Cervical lymphadenitis due to Mycobacterium interjectum. Pediatr. Pulmonol. 42:398399.
169. Ridderhof, J. C.,, L. O. Williams,, S. Legois,, P. A. Shult,, B. Metchock,, L. N. Kubista,, J. H. Handsfield,, R. J. Fehd,, and P. H. Robinson. 2003. Assessment of laboratory performance of nucleic acid amplification tests for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:52585261.
170. Roberts, G. D.,, N. L. Goodman,, L. Heifets,, H. W. Larsh,, T. H. Lindner,, J. K. McClatchy,, M. R. McGinnis,, S. H. Siddiqi,, and P. Wright. 1983. Evaluation of the BACTEC radiometric method for recovery of mycobacteria and drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from acidfast smear-positive specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 18:689696.
171. Rudeeaneskin, J.,, S. Srisungngam,, P. Sawanpanyalert,, T. Sittiwakin,, S. Likanonsakul,, S. Pasadorn,, P. Palittapongarnpim,, P. J. Brennan,, and B. Phetsuksiri. 2008. Light- Cycler real-time PCR for rapid detection and quantitation of Mycobacterium leprae in skin specimens. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 54:263270.
172. Rynkiewicz, D. L.,, G. D. Cage,, W. R. Butler,, and N. M. Ampel. 1998. Clinical and microbiological assessment of Mycobacterium simiae isolates from a single laboratory in southern Arizona. Clin. Infect. Dis. 26:625630.
173. Saceanu, C.,, N. Pfeiffer,, and T. McLean. 1993. Evaluation of sputum smears concentrated by cytocentrifugation for detection of acid-fast bacilli. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31:23712374.
174. Saito, H.,, K. Toda,, I. Matsumoto,, K. Matsuo,, K. Nakanaga,, and N. Ishii. 2004. Bacteriological features of Mycobacterium haemophilum isolated from skin lesions in an immunodeficient patient. Kansenshogaku Zasshi 78:389397.
175. Sakamuri, R. M.,, M. Kimura,, W. Li,, H. C. Kim,, H. Lee,, K. Madanahally,, W. C. Blackiv IV,, M. Balagon,, R. Gelber,, S. N. Cho,, P. J. Brennan, et al. 2009. Population-based molecular epidemiology of leprosy in Cebu, Philippines. J. Clin. Microbiol. 47:28442854.
176. Salfinger, M.,, and F. Kafader. 1987. Comparison of two pretreatment methods for the detection of mycobacteria of BACTEC and Löwenstein-Jensen slants. J. Microbiol. Methods 6:315321.
177. Samra, Z.,, L. Kaufman,, J. Bechor,, and J. Bahar. 2000. Comparative study of three culture systems for optimal recovery of mycobacteria from different clinical specimens. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 19:750754.
178. Saubolle, M. A.,, T. E. Kiehn,, M. H. White,, M. F. Rudinsky,, and D. Armstrong. 1996. Mycobacterium haemophilum: microbiology and expanding clinical and geographic spectra of diseases in humans. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 9:435447.
179. Schoch, O. D.,, G. E. Pfyffer,, D. Buhl,, and A. Paky. 2003. False-positive Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture revealed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Infection 31:189191.
180. Schweickert, B.,, O. Goldenberg,, E. Richter,, U. B. Göbel,, A. Petrich,, P. Buchholz,, and A. Moter. 2008. Occurrence and clinical relevance of Mycobacterium chimaera sp. nov., Germany. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14:14431446.
181. Selvarangan, R.,, W.-K. Wu,, T. T. Nguyen,, L. D. C. Carlson,, C. K. Wallis,, S. K. Stiglich,, Y.-C. Chen,, K. C. Jost, Jr., J. L. Prentice, R. J. Wallace, Jr., S. L. Rassoulian Barrett, et al. 2004. Characterization of a novel group of mycobacteria and proposal of Mycobacterium sherrisii sp. nov. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:5259.
182. Shapiro, H.M.,, and N. G. Perlmutter. 2007. Killer applications: toward affordable rapid cell-based diagnostics for malaria and tuberculosis. Cytometry B 74(Suppl. 1):S152^–S164.
183. Shirit, D.,, N. Peled,, J. Bishara,, R. Priess,, S. Pitlik,, Z. Samra,, and M. R. Kramer. 2008. Clinical and radiological features of Mycobacterium kansasii infection and Mycobacterium simiae infection. Respir. Med. 102:15981603.
184. Somoskövi, A.,, J. Dormandy,, A. R. Mayrer,, M. Carter,, N. Hooper,, and M. Salfinger. 2009. Mycobacterium canettii” isolated from a human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient: first case recognized in the United States. J. Clin. Microbiol. 47:255257.
185. Somoskövi, A.,, J. E. Hotaling,, M. Fitzgerald,, D. O’Donnell,, L. M. Parsons,, and M. Salfinger. 2001. Lessons from a proficiency testing event for acid-fast microscopy. Chest 120:250257.
186. Somoskövi, A.,, and P. Magyar. 1999. Comparison of the Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube with MB Redox, Löwenstein-Jensen, and Middlebrook 7H11 media for recovery of mycobacteria in clinical specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:13661369.
187. Stephan, C.,, T. Wolf,, U. Goetsch,, O. Bellinger,, G. Nisius,, G. Oremek,, Z. Rakus,, R. Gottschalk,, S. Stark,, H. R. Brodt,, and S. Staszewski. 2009. Comparing QuantiFERONtuberculosis Gold, T-SPOT tuberculosis and tuberculin skin test in HIV-infected individuals from a low prevalence tuberculosis country. AIDS 22:24712479.
188. Stinear, T. P.,, T. Seeman,, P. F. Harrison,, G. A. Jenkin,, J. K. Davies,, P. D. Johnson,, Z. Abdellah,, C. Arrowsmith,, T. Chillingworth,, C. Churcher,, K. Clarke, et al. 2008. Insights from the complete genome sequence of Mycobacterium marinum on the evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Genome Res. 18:729741.
189. Supply, P.,, E. Mazars,, S. Lesjean,, V. Vincent,, B. Gicquel,, and C. Locht. 2000. Variable human minisatellite-like regions in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome. Mol. Microbiol. 36:762771.
190. Taillard, C.,, G. Greub,, R. Weber,, G. E. Pfyffer,, T. Bodmer,, S. Zimmerli,, R. Frei,, S. Bassetti,, P. Rohner,, J. C. Piffaretti,, E. Bernasconi,, J. Bille,, A. Telenti,, and G. Prod’hom. 2003. Clinical implications of Mycobacterium kansasii species heterogeneity: Swiss national survey. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:12401244.
191. Talati, N. J.,, U. Seybold,, B. Humphrey,, A. Aina,, J. Tapia,, P. Weinfurter,, R. Albalak,, and H. M. Blumberg. 2009. Poor concordance between interferon-gamma release assays and tuberculin tests in diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection among HIV-infected individuals. BMC Infect. Dis. 9:1524.
192. Tavast, E.,, E. Salo,, I. Seppälä,, and T. Tuuminen. 2009. IGRA tests perform similarly to TST but cause no adverse reactions: pediatric experience in Finland. BMC Res. Notes 2:918.
193. Taylor, L. Q.,, A. J. Williams,, and S. Santiago. 1990. Pulmonary disease caused by Mycobacterium asiaticum. Tubercle 71:303305.
194. Thorel, M.-F.,, M. Krichevsky,, and V. Levy-Frébault. 1990. Numerical taxonomy of mycobactin-dependent mycobacteria, emended description of Mycobacterium avium, and description of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium subsp. nov., Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis subsp. nov., and Mycobacterium avium subsp. silvaticum subsp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 40:254260.
195. Tortoli, E. 2003. Impact of genotypic studies in mycobacterial taxonomy: the new mycobacteria of the 1990s. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 16:319354.
196. Tortoli, E.,, F. Brunello,, A. E. Cagni,, D. Colombrita,, D. Dionisio,, L. Grisendi,, V. Manfrin,, M. Moroni,, C. Passerini Tosi,, G. Pinsi,, C. Scarparo,, and M. Tullia Simonetti. 1998. Mycobacterium genavense in AIDS patients, report of 24 cases in Italy and review of the literature. Eur. J. Epidemiol. 14:219224.
197. Tortoli, E.,, R. Mattei,, C. Russo,, and C. Scarparo. 2006. Mycobacterium lentiflavum, an emerging pathogen? J. Infect. 52:185187.
198. Tortoli, E.,, C. Piersimoni,, R. M. Kroppenstedt,, J. I. Montoya-Burgos,, U. Reischl,, A. Giacometti,, and S. Emler. 2001. Mycobacterium doricum sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 51:20072012.
199. Tortoli, E.,, L. Rindi,, M. J. Garcia,, P. Chiaradonna,, R. Dei,, C. Garzelli,, R. M. Kroppenstedt,, N. Lari,, R. Mattei,, A. Mariottini,, G. Mazzarelli, et al. 2004. Proposal to elevate the genetic variant MAC-A, included in the Mycobacterium avium complex, to species rank as Mycobacterium chimaera sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 54:12771285.
200. Tortoli, E.,, L. Rindi,, K. S. Goh,, M. L. Katila,, A. Mariottini,, R. Mattei,, G. Mazzarelli,, S. Suomalainen,, P. Torkko,, and N. Rastogi. 2005. Mycobacterium florentinum sp. nov., isolated from humans. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 55:11011106.
201. Tortoli, E.,, M. Tullia Simonetti,, D. Dionisio,, and M. Meli. 1994. Cultural studies on two isolates of Mycobacterium genavense from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 18:712.
202. Trifiro, S.,, A.-M. Bourgault,, F. Lebel,, and P. René. 1990. Ghost mycobacteria on Gram stain. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28:146.
203. Tsai, T. F.,, C. C. Lai,, C. H. Chang,, C. H. Hsiao,, and P. R. Hsueh. 2006. Tenosynovitis caused by Mycobacterium arupense in a patient with diabetes mellitus. Clin. Infect. Dis. 47:861863.