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Chapter 30 : Clinical and Laboratory Characteristics of Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria

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Abstract:

Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are generally defined as nontuberculous species that grow within 7 days on laboratory media. The RGM are opportunistic pathogens that produce disease in a variety of clinical settings. Traumatic wound infections, especially open fractures, often involve species within the third biovariant complex. The current proposal for clinical laboratories is that biochemical testing of RGM should be replaced with molecular methods. The INNO LiPA multiplex probe assay is based on the principle of reverse hybridization. Generally, the identification of mycobacteria, including RGM, focuses on two main hypervariable domains known as region A and region B, located on the 5' end of the 16S rRNA gene. A recent Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) document has recommended guidelines for 16S rRNA gene sequencing in order to identify sp in a consistently practical manner. Although the 65-kDa heat shock protein gene () is highly conserved among species of mycobacteria, it exhibits greater interspecies and intraspecies polymorphism than the 16S rRNA gene sequence. Serotyping has not been suitable for routine species identification of mycobacteria, including RGM, and early studies served to emphasize the complexity of the antigenic compositions of mycobacteria, as many antigens are shared by more than one species. The major species of RGM have different levels of virulence in different clinical settings and different drug susceptibilities.

Citation: Brown-Elliott B, Wallace R. 2011. Clinical and Laboratory Characteristics of Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria, p 525-538. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch30

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FIGURE 1

PRA patterns of commonly encountered species of RGM. Lanes (left to right): lane 1, BstEII; lane 2, subsp. BstEII; lane 3, subsp. BstEII; lane 4, BstEII; lane 5, 100-bp ladder; lane 6, pGem ladder; lane 7, HaeIII; lane 8, subsp. HaeIII; lane 9, subsp. HaeIII; lane 10, HaeIII.

Citation: Brown-Elliott B, Wallace R. 2011. Clinical and Laboratory Characteristics of Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria, p 525-538. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch30
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Six major groups of RGM

Citation: Brown-Elliott B, Wallace R. 2011. Clinical and Laboratory Characteristics of Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria, p 525-538. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch30
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Currently recognized species of RGM

Formerly .

Formerly .

is 100% identical to , while (type I) is 100% identical to .

” is currently a nonvalidated species.

RGM at 30°C/slowly growing at 35°C.

16S rRNA gene sequence is identical to the sequence of the unvalidated species “.”

Grows at 65°C.

Grows on or degrades a variety of organic substrates.

Pathogenic for fish.

ND, no data available.

Citation: Brown-Elliott B, Wallace R. 2011. Clinical and Laboratory Characteristics of Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria, p 525-538. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch30

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