Chapter 33 : , and Other Fastidious or Rarely Encountered Gram-Negative Rods

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This chapter covers bacterial genera which are taxonomically diverse and belong to the families , , , , , and , but common traits justify their discussion as a group. It discusses only species that can be isolated from humans. The consist of several genera, of which four are known to contain human pathogens: , , , and . Phenotypic identification of fastidious gram-negative rods presents several challenges. Triple sugar iron or Kligler's agar may not support the growth of fastidious genera (e.g., ). Detection of antibodies directed against any of the bacteria discussed in the chapter has been tried on a small scale only and does not seem to offer much value. With specimens normally colonized with aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, as well as with specimens from wounds, e.g., bite wounds, the significance of the bacteria discussed in the chapter depends on their predominance and the absence of other potentially pathogenic bacteria. If these conditions are met, identification to the species level is needed for adequate interpretation and reporting as infectious agents and for susceptibility testing. If none of these conditions is present, a repeat culture and close cooperation between the microbiology laboratory and the physician are necessary for interpretation, for identification to the species or genus level, and for susceptibility testing.

Citation: Zbinden R, von Graevenitz A. 2011. , and Other Fastidious or Rarely Encountered Gram-Negative Rods , p 574-587. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch33

Key Concept Ranking

Gram-Negative Bacteria
Gram-Negative Cocci
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
Upper Respiratory Tract Infections
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(a) . Gram stain of a 48-h culture grown on sheep blood agar (Institute of Medical Microbiology, University of Zurich). (b) . Gram stain of a 48-h culture grown on sheep blood agar (Institute of Medical Microbiology, University of Zurich). (c) . Gram stain of a 48-h culture grown on sheep blood agar (Institute of Medical Microbiology, University of Zurich). (d) . Gram stain of a 48-h culture grown on sheep blood agar (Institute of Medical Microbiology, University of Zurich). (e) . Gram stain of a 48-h culture grown in Trypticase soy broth (Institute of Medical Microbiology, University of Zurich). (f) . Gram stain of a 48-h culture grown on sheep blood agar (Institute of Medical Microbiology, University of Zurich).

Citation: Zbinden R, von Graevenitz A. 2011. , and Other Fastidious or Rarely Encountered Gram-Negative Rods , p 574-587. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch33
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Generic image for table

Differentiation between and rod-shaped species

Data are from references , and . +, ≥90% of strains positive; –, ≥90% of strains negative; ND, no data available; v, variable; w, weak.

API zym ( ).

is negative.

is positive only in O/F media.

Citation: Zbinden R, von Graevenitz A. 2011. , and Other Fastidious or Rarely Encountered Gram-Negative Rods , p 574-587. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch33
Generic image for table

Biochemical reactions of Actinobacillus and Aggregatibacter spp.

Data are from references , and and http://www.bacterio.cict.fr.index.html. +, ≥90% of strains positive; –, ≥90% of strains negative; D, delayed reaction; ONPG, -nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside; v, variable; w, weak; /, or. All species are indole negative and reduce nitrate to nitrite.

Citation: Zbinden R, von Graevenitz A. 2011. , and Other Fastidious or Rarely Encountered Gram-Negative Rods , p 574-587. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch33
Generic image for table

Biochemical reactions of spp., and related species, and

Data are from references , and . +, ≥90% of strains positive; –, ≥90% of strains negative; ND, no data; v, variable. All species are negative for urease and ornithine decarboxylase and form acid from glucose (sometimes only with addition of serum).

The isolates of were catalase and indole positive and showed a higher percentage of C and a lower percentage of C than ( ). and “” (one strain) differ in a few reactions in the Api Rapid ID32A system ( ).

ONPG, ortho-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside.

Citation: Zbinden R, von Graevenitz A. 2011. , and Other Fastidious or Rarely Encountered Gram-Negative Rods , p 574-587. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch33
Generic image for table

Biochemical reactions of some rod-shaped species of the and of the

Data are from references , and . +, ≥90% of strains positive; –, ≥90% of strains negative; G, gas; LD, lysine decarboxylase; ND, no data; v, variable; w, weak. All species are negative for urease and acid production from lactose and D-xylose.

API ZYM system ( ).

Some strains form small amounts of gas.

Weakly positive reactions may be observed in O/F media.

Citation: Zbinden R, von Graevenitz A. 2011. , and Other Fastidious or Rarely Encountered Gram-Negative Rods , p 574-587. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch33
Generic image for table

Biochemical reactions of human Pasteurella and related species

Data are from references and and http://www.bacterio.cict.fr./index.html. +, ≥90% of strains positive; –, ≥90% of strains negative; v, variable; w, weak. All species reduce nitrate to nitrite and are negative for arginine dihydrolase and esculin hydrolysis.

The three subspecies, , , and , can be separated on the basis of sorbitol and dulcitol fermentation (+/– in subsp. , –/– in subsp. , and –/+ in the mostly avian subsp. ); weakly sorbitol-positive strains of subsp. multocida can be recognized by a specific PCR profile ( ).

Citation: Zbinden R, von Graevenitz A. 2011. , and Other Fastidious or Rarely Encountered Gram-Negative Rods , p 574-587. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch33

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