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Abstract:

While the number of species described greatly exceeds the number of human pathogens, eight species affecting humans currently included in this genus are , , , , , , , and . , , and were formerly included in the genus but have recently been reclassified into the genus (formerly ) based on molecular taxonomy. In the absence of the recently reclassified species, significant genetic diversity still exists in the genus. may be found as part of the commensal bacterial flora of the mucosal surfaces of the upper respiratory tracts (URT) of many healthy individuals. Several molecular methods, including 16S rRNA gene sequencing, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and fluorescence in-site hybridization have been described in the literature as being effective tools for the species identification of when performed on organisms recovered in culture. Other molecular methods for typing have also been applied to species. In one study evaluating the performance of intergenic dyad sequence (IDS)-PCR with 69 NTHi isolates, the assay demonstrated 65 different banding patterns that were epidemiologically classified as fingerprints similar to those obtained by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).

Citation: Ledeboer N, Doern G. 2011. , p 588-602. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch34

Key Concept Ranking

Lower Respiratory Tract Infections
0.42542684
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
0.41945663
Outer Membrane Protein D
0.41064453
Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques
0.4099277
0.42542684
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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Electron micrographs depicting an encapsulated type b strain (left) and a nonencapsulated, nontypeable strain (right) of .

Citation: Ledeboer N, Doern G. 2011. , p 588-602. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch34
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Gram stain of present in CSF.

Citation: Ledeboer N, Doern G. 2011. , p 588-602. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch34
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Colony morphologies of type b encapsulated (left) and nonencapsulated (right) strains of when propagated on enriched chocolate agar.

Citation: Ledeboer N, Doern G. 2011. , p 588-602. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch34
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Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Colony morphologies of type b encapsulated (left and right) and nonencapsulated (center) strains of when propagated on Levinthal's agar. Note the conspicuous iridescence apparent with the encapsulated strain.

Citation: Ledeboer N, Doern G. 2011. , p 588-602. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch34
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Image of FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5

Colony growth from an expectorated-sputum specimen containing from a patient with cystic fibrosis propagated on enriched chocolate agar (left) and enriched chocolate agar

Citation: Ledeboer N, Doern G. 2011. , p 588-602. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch34
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Image of FIGURE 6
FIGURE 6

Satellite phenomenon observed when is propagated next to a streak of on a 5% sheep blood agar plate.

Citation: Ledeboer N, Doern G. 2011. , p 588-602. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch34
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Image of FIGURE 7
FIGURE 7

Use of X and V factor disks and strips in determining the growth factor requirements of Haemophilus influenzae (left disks) and H. parainfluenzae (right disks).

Citation: Ledeboer N, Doern G. 2011. , p 588-602. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch34
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Image of FIGURE 8
FIGURE 8

Positive (top) and negative (bottom) porphyrin tests.

Citation: Ledeboer N, Doern G. 2011. , p 588-602. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch34
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Image of FIGURE 9
FIGURE 9

Conventional biochemicals depicting positive and negative reactions for indole, urease, and ornithine decarboxylase production (left to right) by spp.

Citation: Ledeboer N, Doern G. 2011. , p 588-602. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch34
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Differential characteristics of species

Indole, urease, and ornithine decarboxylase production are the basis for biotyping schemes with and as depicted in Table 2 .

A delayed positivereaction occurs in more than 90% of strains.

Delayed development of hemolysis occurs in 11 to 89% of strains.

Elevated concentrations of CO of ≥10% enhance growth.

+, positive; –, negative; v, variable reaction; w, weak reaction; uk, unknown.

Citation: Ledeboer N, Doern G. 2011. , p 588-602. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch34
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Biotypes of Haemophilus influenzae and H. parainfluenzae

Citation: Ledeboer N, Doern G. 2011. , p 588-602. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch34

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