1887

Chapter 36 :

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap36-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap36-2.gif

Abstract:

The pathogenic species, , , and , are zoonotic agents that cause disease in humans ranging from mild gastroenteritis to life-threatening plague. Several dozen virulence genes, their environment- dependent expression control, and the complex mechanisms of their product action and coordination, which enable immune system evasion and disease progression, have been actively investigated and described. Several species can be differentiated by a number of phenotypic methods, and the four biovars of can be separated based on differential reactivity with glycerol, nitrate, and arabinose. Recent evidence suggests that biovars based on phenotypic methods do not show a strict correlation to groupings as determined by genotyping methods. Methods used for the evaluation of the relatedness of species include a number of different phenotypic methods, including serotyping, biotyping, antibiogram analysis, and bacteriophage typing. Genotyping methods include pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), which has long been considered the gold standard for typing of species. Isolation rates vary based on geographic locations, with the highest incidence in temperate regions, so the decision to routinely rule out these organisms in stool cultures should be evaluated in individual laboratories after consultation with the infectious disease physicians.

Citation: Schriefer M, Petersen J. 2011. , p 627-638. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch36

Key Concept Ranking

Outer Membrane Proteins
0.48651418
Peyer's Patches
0.45454085
Yersinia pestis
0.44579968
0.48651418
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

(A) Giemsa stain of a blood smear from a patient with infection. Note the bipolar-staining “closed safety pin”-shaped cells. (B) Direct fluorescent antibody (F1 conjugate) staining of .

Citation: Schriefer M, Petersen J. 2011. , p 627-638. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch36
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Typical fried-egg-shaped colonies of on sheep blood agar.

Citation: Schriefer M, Petersen J. 2011. , p 627-638. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch36
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555816728.chap36
1. Achtman, M.,, G. Morelli,, and P. Zhu. 2004. Micro-evolution and history of the plague bacillus, Yersinia pestis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101: 17837 17842.
2. Achtman, M.,, K. Zurth,, G. Morelli,, G. Torrea,, A. Guiyoule,, and E. Carniel. 1999. Yersinia pestis, the cause of plague, is a recently emerged clone of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96: 14043 14048.
3. American Society for Microbiology. 11June 2010, posting date. Sentinel Level Clinical Microbiology LaboratoryGuidelines: Yersinia pestis. American Society forMicrobiology, Washington, DC. http://www.asm.org.
4. Begier, E.M.,, G. Asiki,, Z. Anywaine,, B. Yockey,, M. E. Schriefer,, P. Aleti,, A. Ogden-Odoi,, J. E. Staples,, C. Sexton,, S. W. Bearden,, and J. L. Kool. 2006. Pneumonic plague cluster, Uganda, 2004. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12: 460 467.
5. Ber, R.,, E. Mamroud,, M. Aftalion,, A. Tidhar,, D. Gur,, Y. Flashner,, and S. Cohen. 2003. Development of an improved selective agar medium for isolation of Yersinia pestis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69: 5787 5792.
6. Bogdanovich, T.,, E. Carniel,, H. Fukushima,, and M. Skurnik. 2003. Use of O-antigen gene cluster-specific PCRs for the identification and O-genotyping of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41: 5103 5112.
7. Boulanger, L.L.,, P. Ettestad,, J. D. Fogarty,, D. T. Dennis,, D. Romig,, and G. Mertz. 2004. Gentamicin and tetracyclines for the treatment of human plague: review of 75 cases in New Mexico, 1985-1999. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38: 663 669.
8. Bowen, J. H.,, and S. D. Kominos. 1979. Evaluation of a pectin agar medium for isolation of Yersinia enterocolitica within 48 hours. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 72: 586 590.
9. Bruneteau, M.,, and S. Minka. 2003. Lipopolysaccharides of bacterial pathogens from the genus Yersinia: a mini-review. Biochimie 85: 145 152.
10. Butler, T. 2009. Plague into the 21st century. Clin. Infect. Dis. 49: 736 742.
11. Capilla, S.,, J. Ruiz,, P. Goni,, J. Castillo,, M. C. Rubio,, M. T. Jimenez de Anta,, R. Gomez-Lus,, and J. Vila. 2004. Characterization of the molecular mechanisms of quinolone resistance in Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 clinical isolates. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 53: 1068 1071.
12. Centers for Disease Controland Prevention. 2003. Yersinia enterocolitica gastroenteritis among infants exposed to chitterlings—Chicago, Illinois, 2002. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 52: 956958.
13. Chain, P. S.,, E. Carniel,, F. W. Larimer,, J. Lamerdin,, P. O. Stoutland,, W. M. Regala,, A. M. Georgescu,, L. M. Vergez,, M. L. Land,, V. L. Motin,, R. R. Brubaker,, J. Fowler,, J. Hinnebusch,, M. Marceau,, C. Medigue,, M. Simonet,, V. Chenal-Francisque,, B. Souza,, D. Dacheux,, J. M. Elliott,, A. Derbise,, L. J. Hauser,, and E. Garcia. 2004. Insights into the evolution of Yersinia pestis through whole-genome comparison with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101: 13826 13831.
14. Chanteau, S.,, L. Rahalison,, L. Ralafiarisoa,, J. Foulon,, M. Ratsitorahina,, L. Ratsifasoamanana,, E. Carniel,, and F. Nato. 2003. Development and testing of a rapid diagnostic test for bubonic and pneumonic plague. Lancet 361: 211 216.
15. Chatzipanagiotou, S.,, J. N. Legakis,, F. Boufidou,, V. Petroyianni,, and C. Nicolaou. 2001. Prevalence of Yersinia plasmid-encoded outer protein (Yop) class-specific antibodies in patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 7: 138 143.
16. Chen, C. L.,, J. C. Yu,, S. Holme,, M. R. Jacobs,, R. Yomtovian,, and C. P. McDonald. 2008. Detection of bacteria in stored red cell products using a culture-based bacterial detection system. Transfusion 48: 1550 1557.
17. Cheyne, B. M.,, M. I. Van Dyke,, W. B. Anderson,, and P. M. Huck. 2009. An evaluation of methods for the isolation of Yersinia enterocolitica from surface waters in the Grand River watershed. J. Water Health 7: 392 403.
18. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. 2009. Perfor-mance Standards Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing: Nineteenth Informational Supplement. M100-S19, vol. 29, no. 3. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, PA.
19. Cornelis, G. R. 2002. Yersinia type III secretion: send in the effectors. J. Cell Biol. 158: 401 408.
20. Craven, R. B.,, G. O. Maupin,, M. L. Beard,, T. J. Quan,, and A. M. Barnes. 1993. Reported cases of human plague infections in the United States, 1970-1991. J. Med. Entomol. 30: 758 761.
21. Deacon, A. G.,, A. Hay,, and J. Duncan. 2003. Septicemia due to Yersinia pseudotuberculosis: a case report. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 9: 1118 1119.
22. Deng, W.,, V. Burland,, G. Plunkett III,, A. Boutin,, G. F. Mayhew,, P. Liss,, N. T. Perna,, D. J. Rose,, B. Mau,, S. Zhou,, D. C. Schwartz,, J. D. Fetherston,, L. E. Lindler,, R. R. Brubaker,, G. V. Plano,, S. C. Straley,, K. A. McDonough,, M. L. Nilles,, J. S. Matson,, F. R. Blattner,, and R. D. Perry. 2002. Genome sequence of Yersinia pestis KIM. J. Bacteriol. 184: 4601 4611.
23. Depaolo, R. W.,, F. Tang,, I. Kim,, M. Han,, N. Levin,, N. Ciletti,, A. Lin,, D. Anderson,, O. Schneewind,, and B. Jabri. 2008. Toll-like receptor 6 drives differentiation of tolerogenic dendritic cells and contributes to LcrV-mediated plague pathogenesis. Cell Host Microbe 4: 350 361.
24. Falcao, J. P.,, M. Brocchi,, J. L. Proenca-Modena,, G. O. Acrani,, E. F. Correa,, and D. P. Falcao. 2004. Virulence characteristics and epidemiology of Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersiniae other than Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. pestis isolated from water and sewage. J. Appl. Microbiol. 96: 1230 1236.
25. Fetherston, J. D.,, and R. D. Perry. 1994. The pigmentation locus of Yersinia pestis KIM61is flanked by an insertion sequence and includes the structural genes for pesticin sensitivity and HMWP2. Mol. Microbiol. 13: 697 708.
26. Frean, J.,, K. P. Klugman,, L. Arntzen,, and S. Bukofzer. 2003. Susceptibility of Yersinia pestis to novel and conventional antimicrobial agents. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 52: 294 296.
27. Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M.,, and H. Korkeala. 2003. Low occurrence of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in clinical, food, and environmental samples: a methodological problem. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 16: 220 229.
28. Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M.,, A. Stolle,, and H. Korkeala. 2006. Molecular epidemiology of Yersinia enterocolitica infections. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 47: 315 329.
29. Gage, K. L.,, D. T. Dennis,, K. A. Orloski,, P. Ettestad,, T. L. Brown,, P. J. Reynolds,, W. J. Pape,, C. L. Fritz,, L. G. Carter,, and J. D. Stein. 2000. Cases of cat-associated human plague in the Western US, 1977-1998. Clin. Infect. Dis. 30: 893 900.
30. Gage, K. L.,, D. T. Dennis,, and T. F. Tsai. 1996. Prevention of plague: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 45( RR-14): 1 15.
31. Galimand, M.,, A. Guiyoule,, G. Gerbaud,, B. Rasoamanana,, S. Chanteau,, E. Carniel,, and P. Courvalin. 1997. Multidrug resistance in Yersinia pestis mediated by a transferable plasmid. N. Engl. J. Med. 337: 677 680.
32. Gould, L. H.,, J. Pape,, P. Ettestad,, K. S. Griffith,, and P. S. Mead. 2008. Dog-associated risk factors for human plague. Zoonoses Public Health 55: 448 454.
33. Hinnebusch, B. J.,, A. E. Rudolph,, P. Cherepanov,, J. E. Dixon,, T. G. Schwan,, and A. Forsberg. 2002. Role of Yersinia murine toxin in survival of Yersinia pestis in the midgut of the flea vector. Science 296: 733 735.
34. Homewood, R.,, C. P. Gibbons,, D. Richards,, A. Lewis,, P. D. Duane,, and A. P. Griffiths. 2003. Ileitis due to Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in Crohn’s disease. J. Infect. 47: 328 332.
35. Huang, X. Z.,, M. P. Nikolich,, and L. E. Lindler. 2006. Current trends in plague research: from genomics to virulence . Clin. Med. Res. 4: 189 199.
36. Inglesby, T. V.,, D. T. Dennis,, D. A. Henderson,, J. G. Bartlett,, M. S. Ascher,, E. Eitzen,, A. D. Fine,, A. M. Friedlander,, J. Hauer,, J. F. Koerner,, M. Layton,, J. McDade,, M. T. Osterholm,, T. O’Toole,, G. Parker,, T. M. Perl,, P. K. Russell,, M. Schoch-Spana,, K. Tonat, and the Working Group on Civilian Biodefense. 2000. Plague as a biological weapon: medical and public health management. JAMA 283: 2281 2290.
37. Janda, J. M.,, and S. L. Abbott. 2005. The Enterobacteria, 2nd ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
38. Jenkins, A. L.,, P. L. Worsham,, and S. L. Welkos. 2009. A strategy to verify the absence of the pgm locus in Yersinia pestis strain candidates for select agent exemption. J. Microbiol. Methods 77: 316 319.
39. Jones, T. F. 2003. From pig to pacifier: chitterling-associated yersiniosis outbreak among black infants. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9: 1007 1009.
39a.. Kandolo, K.,, and G. Wauters. 1985. Pyrazinamidase activity in Yersinia enterocolitica and related organisms. J. Clin. Micro-biol. 21: 980 982.
40. Kangas, S.,, J. Takkinen,, M. Hakkinen,, U. M. Nakari,, T. Johansson,, H. Henttonen,, L. Virtaluoto,, A. Siitonen,, J. Ollgren,, and M. Kuusi. 2008. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis O:1 traced to raw carrots, Finland. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14: 1959 1961.
41. Kendrick, C. J.,, B. Baker,, A. J. Morris,, and P. W. O’Toole. 2001. Identification of Yersinia-infected blood donors by anti-Yop IgA immunoassay. Transfusion 41: 1365 1372.
42. Kool, J. L. 2005. Risk of person-to-person transmission of pneumonic plague. Clin. Infect. Dis. 40: 1166 1172.
43. Laukkanen, R.,, M. Hakkinen,, J. Lunden,, M. Fredriksson-Ahomaa,, T. Johansson,, and H. Korkeala. 2009. Evaluation of isolation methods for pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica from pig intestinal content. J. Appl. Microbiol. 108: 956 964.
44. Leclercq, A.,, L. Martin,, M. L. Vergnes,, N. Ounnoughene,, J. F. Laran,, P. Giraud,, and E. Carniel. 2005. Fatal Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 4 serovar O:3 sepsis after red blood cell transfusion. Transfusion 45: 814 818.
45. Lee, V. T.,, C. Tam,, and O. Schneewind. 2000. LcrV, a substrate for Yersinia enterocolitica type III secretion, is required for toxin targeting into the cytosol of HeLa cells. J. Biol. Chem. 275: 36869 36875.
46. Li, B.,, and R. Yang. 2008. Interaction between Yersinia pestis and the host immune system. Infect. Immun. 76: 1804 1811.
47. Lindler, L. E. 2009. Typing methods for the plague pathogen, Yersinia pestis . J. AOAC Int. 92: 1174 1183.
48. Loftus, C. G.,, G. C. Harewood,, F. R. Cockerill III,, and J. A. Murray. 2002. Clinical features of patients with novel Yersinia species. Dig. Dis. Sci. 47: 2805 2810.
49. Lorange, E.A.,, B. L. Race,, F. Sebbane,, and B. J. Hinnebusch. 2005. Poor vector competence of fleas and the evolution of hypervirulence in Yersinia pestis. J. Infect. Dis. 191: 1907 1912.
50. Matero, P.,, T. Pasanen,, R. Laukkanen,, P. Tissari,, E. Tarkka,, M. Vaara,, and M. Skurnik. 2009. Real-time multiplex PCR assay for detection of Yersinia pestis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. APMIS 117: 34 44.
51. McNabb, S. J.,, R. A. Jajosky,, P. A. Hall-Baker,, D. A. Adams,, P. Sharp,, C. Worshams,, W. J. Anderson,, A. J. Javier,, G. J. Jones,, D. A. Nitschke,, A. Rey,, and M. S. Wodajo. 2008. Summary of notifiable diseases—United States, 2006. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 55: 1 92.
52. Minnich, S. A.,, and H. N. Rohde. 2007. A rationale for repression and/or loss of motility by pathogenic Yersinia in the mammalian host. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 603: 298 310.
53. Neubauer, H.,, M. Molitor,, L. Rahalison,, S. Aleksic,, H. Backes,, S. Chanteau,, and H. Meyer. 2000. A miniaturised semiautomated system for the identification of Yersinia species within the genus Yersinia. Clin. Lab. 46: 561 567.
54. Neubauer, H.,, T. Sauer,, H. Becker,, S. Aleksic,, and H. Meyer. 1998. Comparison of systems for identification and differentiation of species within the genus Yersinia. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 3366 3368.
55. Nuorti, J. P.,, T. Niskanen,, S. Hallanvuo,, J. Mikkola,, E. Kela,, M. Hatakka,, M. Fredriksson-Ahomaa,, O. Lyytikainen,, A. Siitonen,, H. Korkeala,, and P. Ruutu. 2004. A widespread outbreak of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis O:3 infection from iceberg lettuce. J. Infect. Dis. 189: 766 774.
56. O’Hara, C. M. 2005. Manual and automated instrumentation for identification of Enterobacteriaceae and other aerobic gram-negative bacilli. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 18: 147 162.
57. Parkhill, J.,, B. W. Wren,, N. R. Thomson,, R. W. Titball,, M. T. Holden,, M. B. Prentice,, M. Sebaihia,, K. D. James,, C. Churcher,, K. L. Mungall,, S. Baker,, D. Basham,, S. D. Bentley,, K. Brooks,, A. M. Cerdeno-Tarraga,, T. Chillingworth,, A. Cronin,, R. M. Davies,, P. Davis,, G. Dou-gan,, T. Feltwell,, N. Hamlin,, S. Holroyd,, K. Jagels,, A. V. Karlyshev,, S. Leather,, S. Moule,, P. C. Oyston,, M. Quail,, K. Rutherford,, M. Simmonds,, J. Skelton,, K. Stevens,, S. White-head,, and B. G. Barrell. 2001. Genome sequence of Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague. Nature 413: 523 527.
58. Perry, R. D.,, and S. W. Bearden. 2008. Isolation and confirmation of Yersinia pestis mutants exempt from select agent regulations. Curr. Protoc. Microbiol. Chapter 5, Unit 5B.2. doi:10.1002/9780471729259.mc05b02s11.
59. Perry, R. D.,, and J. D. Fetherston. 1997. Yersinia pestis— etiologic agent of plague. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 10: 35 66.
60. Pham, J. N.,, S. M. Bell,, L. Martin,, and E. Carniel. 2000. The beta-lactamases and beta-lactam antibiotic susceptibility of Yersinia enterocolitica. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 46: 951 957.
61. Rastawicki, W. 2006. Humoral response to selected antigens of Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in the course of yersiniosis in humans. I. Occurrence of antibodies to Yersinia Yop proteins by Western-blot. Med. Dosw. Mikrobiol. 58: 321 328.
62. Ratsitorahina, M.,, S. Chanteau,, L. Rahalison,, L. Ratsi-fasoamanana,, and P. Boisier. 2000. Epidemiological and diagnostic aspects of the outbreak of pneumonic plague in Madagascar. Lancet 355: 111 113.
63. Saebo, A.,, E. Vik,, O. J. Lange,, and L. Matuszkiewicz. 2005. Inflammatory bowel disease associated with Yersinia enteroco-litica O:3 infection. Eur. J. Intern. Med. 16: 176 182.
64. Sen, K. 2000. Rapid identification of Yersinia enterocolitica in blood by the 59nuclease PCR assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 1953 \.
65. Shao, F. 2008. Biochemical functions of Yersinia type III effectors. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 11: 21 29.
66. Sharma, S.,, P. Ramnani,, and J. S. Virdi. 2004. Detection and assay of beta-lactamases in clinical and non-clinical strains of Yersinia enterocolitica biovar 1A. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 54: 401 405.
67. Skurnik, M.,, and J. A. Bengoechea. 2003. The biosynthesis and biological role of lipopolysaccharide O-antigens of pathogenic Yersiniae. Carbohydr. Res. 338: 2521 2529.
68. Smiley, S. T. 2008. Current challenges in the development of vaccines for pneumonic plague. Expert Rev. Vaccines 7: 209 221.
69. Splettstoesser, W. D.,, L. Rahalison,, R. Grunow,, H. Neubauer,, and S. Chanteau. 2004. Evaluation of a standardized F1 capsular antigen capture ELISA test kit for the rapid diagnosis of plague. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 41: 149 155.
70. Steward, J.,, M. S. Lever,, P. Russell,, R. J. Beedham,, A. J. Stagg,, R. R. Taylor,, and T. J. Brooks. 2004. Efficacy of the latest fluoroquinolones against experimental Yersinia pestis. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 24: 609 612.
71. Stock, I.,, and B. Wiedemann. 2003. Natural antimicrobial susceptibilities and biochemical profiles of Yersinia enterocolitica-like strains: Y. frederiksenii, Y. intermedia, Y. kristensenii and Y. rohdei. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 38: 139 152.
72. Strobel, E.,, J. Heesemann,, G. Mayer,, J. Peters,, S. Muller-Weihrich,, and P. Emmerling. 2000. Bacteriological and serological findings in a further case of transfusion-mediated Yersinia enterocolitica sepsis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 2788 2790.
73. Sulakvelidze, A. 2000. Yersiniae other than Y. enterocolitica, Y. pseudotuberculosis, and Y. pestis: the ignored species. Mi-crobes Infect. 2: 497 513.
74. Thisted-Lambertz, S.,, and M.-L. Danielsson-Tham. 2005. Identification and characterization of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica isolates by PCR and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71: 3674 3681.
75. Thoerner, P.,, C. I. Bin Kingombe,, K. Bogli-Stuber,, B. Bissig-Choisat,, T. M. Wassenaar,, J. Frey,, and T. Jemmi. 2003. PCR detection of virulence genes in Yersinia entero-colitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and investigation of virulence gene distribution. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69: 1810 1816.
76. Thomson, N. R.,, S. Howard,, B. W. Wren,, M. T. Holden,, L. Crossman,, G. L. Challis,, C. Churcher,, K. Mungall,, K. Brooks,, T. Chillingworth,, T. Feltwell,, Z. Abdellah,, H. Hauser,, K. Jagels,, M. Maddison,, S. Moule,, M. Sanders,, S. Whitehead,, M. A. Quail,, G. Dougan,, J. Parkhill,, and M. B. Prentice. 2006. The complete genome sequence and comparative genome analysis of the high pathogenicity Yersinia enterocolitica strain 8081. PLoS Genet. 2: e206.>
77. Vadyvalkoo, V.,, C. Jarrett,, D. Sturdevant,, F. Sebbane,, and B. J. Hinnebusch. 2007. Analysis of Yersinia pestis gene expression in the flea vector. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 603: 192 200.
78. Viboud, G. I.,, and J. B. Bliska. 2005. Yersinia outer proteins: role in modulation of host cell signalling responses and pathogenesis. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 59: 69 89.
79. Wanger, A., 1998. Yersinia, p. 1051 1063. In A. Balows, and B. Duerden (ed.), Topley & Wilson’s Microbiology and Microbial Infections, vol. 2. Arnold, London, United Kingdom.
79a.. Wauters, G.,, K. Kandolo,, and M. Janssens. 1987. Revised biogrouping scheme of Yersinia enterocolitica. Contrib. Micro-biol. Immunol. 9: 14 21.
80. Wong, D.,, M. A. Wild,, M. A. Walburger,, C. L. Higgins,, M. Callahan,, L. A. Czarnecki,, E. W. Lawaczeck,, C. E. Levy,, J. G. Patterson,, R. Sunenshine,, P. Adem,, C. D. Paddock,, S. R. Zaki,, J. M. Petersen,, M. E. Schriefer,, R. J. Eisen,, K. L. Gage,, K. S. Griffith,, I. B. Weber,, T. R. Spraker,, and P. S. Mead. 2009. Primary pneumonic plague contracted from a mountain lion carcass. Clin. Infect. Dis. 49: e33 38.
81. Wren, B. W. 2003. The yersiniae—a model genus to study the rapid evolution of bacterial pathogens. Nat. Rev. Micro-biol. 1: 55 64.
82. Zhou, D.,, Y. Han,, Y. Song,, P. Huang,, and R. Yang. 2004. Comparative and evolutionary genomics of Yersinia pestis. Microbes Infect. 6: 1226 1234.
83. Zhou, D.,, Z. Tong,, Y. Song,, Y. Han,, D. Pei,, X. Pang,, J. Zhai,, M. Li,, B. Cui,, Z. Qi,, L. Jin,, R. Dai,, Z. Du,, J. Wang,, Z. Guo,, P. Huang,, and R. Yang. 2004. Genetics of metabolic variations between Yersinia pestis biovars and the proposal of a new biovar, microtus. J. Bacteriol. 186: 5147 5152.
84. Zietz, B. P.,, and H. Dunkelberg. 2004. The history of the plague and the research on the causative agent Yersinia pestis. Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health 207: 165 178.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Biochemical reactivity of species

From references and .

Incubation is at 35°C except where indicated. VP, Voges-Proskauer; V, variable; ND, not done; –, negative; +, positive.

Citation: Schriefer M, Petersen J. 2011. , p 627-638. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch36
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Reactions of biotypes of after incubation at 25°C for 48 h

Modified from reference with permission of the publisher, S. Karger AG, Basel, Switzerland.

+, ≥90% of strains are positive; d, 11 to 89% of strains are positive; –, ≥90% of strains are negative; (+), weakly positive reaction.

According to Kandolo and Wauters ( ).

Citation: Schriefer M, Petersen J. 2011. , p 627-638. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch36
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Biochemical identification of biovars

Citation: Schriefer M, Petersen J. 2011. , p 627-638. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch36

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error