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Key Concept Ranking

Traveler's Diarrhea
beta-Lactam Antibiotics
Infectious Diseases
Klebsiella pneumoniae
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Nomenclature, isolation source, and significance of selected genera of the family

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Other members of the family

References given in parentheses. Genomospecies listed cannot be biochemically separated from other species within their genus and/or only a single strain exists.

Rare human isolates of no, or questionable, significance.

Environmental isolates; fish, marine, animal, or bird isolates; insect isolates or pathogens; plant isolates or phytopathogens.

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Separation of members of the genus

Abbreviations and symbols: ODC, ornithine decarboxylase; +, ≥85%; V, 15 to 84%; –, <15%.

Fermentation reactions in commercial systems should be similar to reactions in conventional fermentation broths (1% carbohydrate in broth with indicator).

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Differentiation of and members of the genus ,

See the text for and subsp. and identification.

Abbreviations and symbols: LDC, lysine decarboxylase; ADH, arginine dihydrolase; ODC, ornithine decarboxylase; VP, Voges-Proskauer; +, ≥90%; V, 11 to 89%; –, ≤10%.

See Table 3 , footnote b.

Separated from P. agglomerans by a negative malonate reaction and fermentation of d-sorbitol( ).

Separated from E. gergoviae by positive reactions in potassium cyanide broth and myo-inositol.

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Separation of some members of the genera and ,

biochemicals not available; only a single strain known.

Abbreviations and symbols: ODC, ornithine decarboxylase; VP, Voges-Proskauer; ONPG, -nitrophenyl-β-d-galactopyranoside; NA, not available; +, ≥90%; V, 11 to 89%; –, ≤10%.

See Table 3, footnote .

A negative adonitol reaction may be an indication that the strain is but this must be confirmed with gene sequencing ( ).

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Biochemical characterization of members of the genus ,

subsp. is reportedly a spore-forming organism; is urea positive; only a single strain is known.

Abbreviations and symbols: LDC, lysinedecarboxylase; ODC, ornithine decarboxylase; Mal, malonate; l-Rham, l-rhamnose; d-Xyl, d-xylose; Suc, sucrose; Adon, adonitol; d-Sorb, d-sorbitol; Cello, cellobiose; +, ≥90%; V, 11 to 89%; –, ≤10%; NA, information not available.

See Table 3, footnote .

Growth at 37°C but biochemical characterization optimal at 30°C.

May fail to grow at 37°C.

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Separation of members of the genera and

Abbreviations and symbols: Ind, indole; HS, hydrogen sulfide; ODC, ornithine decarboxylase; +, ≥90%; V, 11 to 89%; –, ≤10%.

See Table 3, footnote .

genomospecies 4, 5, and 6 cannot be differentiated phenotypically.

Some members of some biogroups are HS positive.

Some members of some biogroups are ornithine decarboxylase negative.

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Separation of from selected and species (VP, ADH, and ODC variable or positive)

Abbreviations and symbols: VP, Voges-Proskauer; ADH, arginine dihydrolase; ODC, ornithine decarboxylase; +, ≥90%; V, 11 to 89%; –, ≤10%.

See Table 3, footnote .

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Differentiation of Kluyvera from commonly seen indole-positive, VP-negative organismsa

Abbreviations and symbols: VP, Voges-Proskauer; LDC, lysine decarboxylase; KCN, potassium cyanide; +, ≥90%; V, 11 to 89%; –, ≤10%. and are also indole positive and VP negative and can be found in Tables 10and 12, respectively.

Includes ( and combined) ( ).

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Separation of LDC-, ODC-, and ADH-negative unusual found in clinical specimens

Abbreviations and symbols: LDC, lysine decarboxylase; ODC, ornithine decarboxylase; ADH, arginine dihydrolase; KCN, potassium cyanide; VP, Voges-Proskauer; +, ≥90%; V, 11 to 89%; –, ≤10%. is also LDC, ODC, and ADH negative and can be found in Table 12.

See Table 3, footnote .

subsp. can be separated from subsp. by fermentation of maltose and glycerol.

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Table 11

Separation of from

Abbreviations and symbols: VP, Voges-Proskauer; +, ≥90%; V, 11 to 89%; –, ≤10%. Data from reference .

See Table 3, footnote .

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Separation of that may be H2S positive

Abbreviations and symbols: LDC, lysine decarboxylase; ODC, ornithine decarboxylase; KCN, potassium cyanide; ONPG, -nitrophenol-β-d-galactopyranoside; +, ≥90%; V, 11 to 89%; –, ≤10%.

See Table 3, footnote .

is positive, is negative.

Found in clinical specimens but of questionable or no significance.

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Resistance mediators of the

Abbreviations: S, susceptible; R, resistant, BMD, broth microdilution; TEM, from patient's name Temoneira; SHV, sulfhydryl reagent variable; CTX-M, active on cefotaxime, isolated in Munich; CMY, active on cephamycins; MOX, active on moxalactam; FOX, active on cefoxitin; DHA, discovered at Dhahran; KPC, carbapenemase; GES, Guiana-extended spectrum; SME, enzyme; IMI, imipenem-hydrolyzing β-lactamase; NMC, not metalloenzyme carbapenemase; IMP, active on meropenem; VIM,Verona integron-encoded metallo-β-lactamase. Data are from references , and .

Class A and C mediators are serine β-lactamases, and class B mediators are metallo-β-lactamases (named for serine or zinc, respectively, present at the active site involved in hydrolysis of the beta-lactam ring).


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