1887

Chapter 39 : and Related Organisms

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

and Related Organisms , Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap39-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap39-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter focuses on the various species that cause disease in humans. is the type genus for the family, and , the causative agent of pandemic cholera, is the type species. The genera covered in the chapter are primarily isolated from marine environments. Recent studies have shown that in mixed populations of nonculturable and culturable cells of , the latter appear to be the main contributors to human infections. The majority of persons ingesting toxigenic O1 have asymptomatic infections. Most of the advantages of PCR-based assays over culture methods apply to vibrios and include the ability to freeze stools for epidemiological studies for delayed testing. Molecular identification of vibrios is commonplace in surveys and in research studies. However, it is not commonly employed in clinical laboratories for routine identification because vibrios are relatively rare pathogens in noncoastal areas or regions where cholera is not endemic. The clinical significance of strains in other specimens, particularly stool, may be more difficult to determine and requires prompt consultation with the attending physician to better understand the clinical context. isolates should also be submitted to public health laboratories, as they are monitored under the CDC’s International Emerging Infections Program and Vibrio Surveillance System; they may also be needed for confirmation and toxin testing. Misidentification of species and their relatives can be a problem in the literature unless investigators used methods that are very sensitive in differentiating all of the species in the family .

Citation: Abbott S, Janda J, Farmer J. 2011. and Related Organisms , p 666-676. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch39

Key Concept Ranking

Traveler's Diarrhea
0.56559664
Ocular Infections
0.49565423
Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing
0.47501773
Vibrio cholerae
0.43402824
0.56559664
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555816728.chap39
1. Ahmed, A. M.,, S. Shinoda,, and T. Shimamoto. 2005. A variant type of Vibrio cholerae SXT element in a multi-drug resistant strain of Vibrio fluvialis. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 242: 241 247.
2. Aigbivbalu, L.,, and N. Maraqa. 2009. Photobacterium damsela wound infection in a 14-year-old surfer. South. Med. J. 102: 425 426.
3. Albert, M. J.,, and G. B. Nair. 2005. Vibrio cholerae O139—10 years on. Rev. Med. Microbiol. 16: 135 143.
4. Ali, A.,, J. G. Morris,, and J. A. Johnson. 2005. Sugars inhibit expression of the rugose phenotype of Vibrio cholerae. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43: 1426 1429.
5. Alton, D. R.,, M. A. Forgione, Jr.,, and S. P. Gros. 2006. Cholera-like presentation in Vibrio fluvialis enteritis. South. Med. J. 99: 765 767.
6. Alvarez, J. R.,, S. Lamba,, K. Y. Dyer,, and J. J. Apuzzio. 2006. An unusual case of urinary tract infection in a pregnant woman with Photobacterium damsela. Infect. Dis. Obstet. Gynecol. 2006: 80682.
7. Arnett, M. V.,, S. L. Fraser,, and P. E. McFadden. 2008. Non-O1 Vibrio cholerae epidural brain infection in a 12-yearold boy after a depressed skull fracture. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 27: 284 285.
8. Barton, J. C.,, and R. C. Ratard. 2006. Vibrio vulnificus bacteremia associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, hypogammaglobulinemia, and hepatic cirrhosis: relation to host and exposure factors in 252 V. vulnificus infections reported in Louisiana. Am. J. Med. Sci. 332: 216 220.
9. Bhoopong, P.,, P. Palittapongarnpim,, R. Pomwised,, A. Kiatkittipong,, M. Kamruzzaman,, Y. Nakaguchi,, M. Nishibuchi,, M. Ishibashi,, and V. Vuddhakul. 2007. Variability of properties of Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains isolated from individual patients. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45: 1544 1550.
10. Binsztein, N.,, M. C. Costagliola,, M. Pichel,, V. Jurquiza,, F. C. Ramírez,, R. Akselman,, M. Vacchino,, A. Huq,, and R. R. Colwell. 2004. Viable but nonculturable Vibrio cholerae O1 in the aquatic environment. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70: 7481 7486.
11. Campos, E.,, H. Bolaños,, M. T. Acuña,, G. Díaz,, M. C. Matamoros,, H. Raventós,, L. M. Sanchez,, C. Barquero, and Red Nacional de Laboratorios para Colera, Costa Rica. 1996. Vibrio mimicus diarrhea following ingestion of raw turtle eggs. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62: 1141 1144.
12. Centers for Disease Controland Prevention. 1999. Laboratory Methods for the Diagnosis of EpidemicDysentery and Cholera. Centers for Disease Control andPrevention. Atlanta, GA. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dbmd/diseaseinfo/ cholera/complete.pdf or http://www.cdc.gov.ncidod/dbmd/diseaseinfo/cholera_lab_manual.htm.
13. Chakraborty, R.,, S. Chakraborty,, K. De,, S. Sinha,, A. K. Mukhopadhyay,, J. Khanam,, T. Ramamurthy,, Y. Takeda,, S. K. Bhattcharya,, and G. B. Nair. 2005. Cytotoxic and cell vacuolating activity of Vibrio fluvialis isolated from paediatric patients with diarrheoa. J. Med. Microbiol. 54: 707 716.
14. Chiang, S.-R.,, and Y.-C. Chuang. 2003. Vibrio vulnificus infection: clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, and antimicrobial therapy. J. Microbiol. Immunol. 36: 81 88.
15. Chien, J. Y.,, J. T. Shih,, P. R. Hsueh,, P. C. Yang,, and K. T. Luh. 2002. Vibrio alginolyticus as the cause of pleural empyema and bacteremia in an immunocompromised patient. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 21: 401 403.
16. Chitov, T.,, P. Kirikaew,, P. Yungyune,, N. Ruengprapan,, and K. Sontikum. 2009. An incidence of large foodborne outbreak associated with Vibrio mimicus. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 28: 421 424.
17.Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. 2006. Methods for Antimicrobial Dilution and Disk Susceptibility Testing of In-frequently Isolated or Fastidious Bacteria; Approved Guideline. CLSI document M45-A. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, PA.
18.Clinical and Laboratory StandardsInstitute. 2009. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; Nineteenth Informational Supplement. CLSI document M100-S19. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, PA.
19. Colodner, R.,, R. Raz,, I. Meir,, T. Lazarovich,, L. Lerner,, J. Kopelowitz,, Y. Keness,, W. Sakran,, S. Ken-Dror,, and N. Bisharat. 2004. Identification of the emerging pathogen Vibrio vulnificus biotype 3 by commercially available phenotypic methods. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42: 4137 4140.
20. Colwell, R. R. 2004. Infectious disease and environment: cholera as a paradigm for waterborne disease. Int. Microbiol. 7: 285 289.
21. Croci, L.,, E. Suffredini,, L. Cozzi,, D. Ottaviani,, C. Pruzzo,, P. Serratore,, R. Fischetti,, E. Goffredo,, G. Loffredo,, R. Mioni, and the Vibrio parahaemolyticus Working Group. 2007. Comparison of different biochemical and molecular methods for the identification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. J. Appl. Microbiol. 102: 229 237.
22. Crump, J. A.,, C. A. Bopp,, K. D. Greene,, K. A. Kubota,, R. L. Middendorf,, J. G. Wells,, and E. D. Mintz. 2003. Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae serogroup O141-associated cholera-like diarrhea and bloodstream infection in the United States. J. Infect. Dis. 187: 866 888.
23. Dalsgaard, A.,, P. Glerup,, L.-L. Hoybe,, A.-M. Paarup,, R. Meza,, M. Bernal,, T. Shimada,, and D. N. Taylor. 1997. Vibrio furnissii isolated from humans in Peru: a possible human pathogen? Epidemiol. Infect. 119: 143 149.
24. DePaola, A.,, J. Ulaszek,, C. A. Kaysner,, B. J. Tenge,, J. L. Nordstrom,, J. Wells,, N. Puhr,, and S. M. Gendel. 2003. Molecular, serological, and virulence characteristics of Vi-brio parahaemolyticus isolated from environmental, food, and clinical resources in North America and Asia. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69: 3999 4005.
25. Farmer, J.J., III,, J. M. Janda,, F. W. Brenner,, D. N. Cameron,, and K. M. Birkhead,. 2005. Genus I. Vibrio Pacini1854, 411 AL, p. 494 546. In D. Brenner,, N. Krieg,, J. T. Staley,, and G. Garrity (ed.), Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 2. The Proteobacteria, Part B. The Gammaproteobacteria. Springer, New York, NY.
26. Faruque, S. H.,, M. J. Albert,, and J. J. Mekalanos. 1998. Epidemiology, genetics, and ecology of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 62: 1301 1314.
27. Faruque, S. M.,, N. Chowdhury,, M. Kamruzzaman,, Q. S. Ahmad,, A. S. G. Faruque,, M. A. Salam,, T. Ramamurthy,, G. B. Nair,, A. Weintraub,, and D. A. Sack. 2003. Reemergence of epidemic Vibrio cholerae O139, Bangladesh. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9: 1116 1122.
28. Feldhusen, F. 2000. The role of seafood in bacterial food-borne diseases. Microbes Infect. 2: 1651 1660.
29. Goodell, K. H.,, M. R. Jordan,, R. Graham,, C. Cassidy,, and S. A. Nasraway. 2004. Rapidly advancing necrotizing fasciitis caused by Photobacterium (Vibrio) damsela: a hyperaggressive variant. Crit. Care Med. 32: 278 281.
30. Hara-Kudo, Y.,, T. Nishina,, H. Nakagawa,, H. Konuma,, J. Hasegawa,, and S. Kumagai. 2001. Improved method for detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafood. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67: 5819 5823.
31. Hinestrosa, F.,, R. G. Madeira,, and P. P. Bourbeau. 2007. Severe gastroenteritis and hypovolemic shock caused by Grimontia ( Vibrio) hollisae infection. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45: 3462 3463.
32. Hoshino, K.,, S. Yamasaki,, A. K. Mukhopadhyay,, S. Chakraborty,, A. Basu,, S. K. Bhattacharya,, G. B. Nair,, T. Shimada,, and Y. Takeda. 1998. Development and evaluation of a multiplex PCR assay for rapid detection of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 20: 201 207.
33. Huang, K.-C.,, and R. W.-W. Hsu. 2005. Vibrio fluvialis hemorrhagic cellulitis and cerebritis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 40: e75 e77.
34. Jones, M. K.,, and J. D. Oliver. 2009. Vibrio vulnificus: disease and pathogenesis. Infect. Immun. 77: 1723 1733.
35. Jung, S.-Y.,, Y.-T. Jung,, T.-K. Oh,, and J.-H. Yoon. 2007. Photobacterium lutimaris sp. nov., isolated from a tidal flat sediment in Korea. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 57: 332 336.
36. Kam, K.M.,, C. K. Y. Leuy,, M. B. Parsons,, K. L. F. Cooper,, G. B. Nair,, M. Alam,, M. A. Islam,, D. T. L. Cheung,, Y. W. Chu,, T. Ramamurthy,, G. P. Pazhani,, S. K. Bhattacharya,, H. Watanabe,, J. Terajima,, E. Arakawa,, O.-A. Ratchtrachenchai,, S. Huttayananont,, E. M. Ribot,, P. Gerner-Smidt,, and B. Swaminathan for the Vibrio parahaemolyticus PulseNet Protocol Working Group. 2008. Evaluation and validation of a PulseNet standardized pulsed-field gel electrophoresis protocol for subtyping Vibrio parahaemolyticus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46: 2766 2773.
37. Kaper, J. B.,, J. G. Morris,, and M. M. Levine. 1995. Cholera. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 8: 48 86.
38. Khuntia, H. K.,, B. B. Pal,, and G. P. Chhotray. 2008. Quadruplex PCR for simultaneous detection of serotype, biotype, toxigenic potential, and central regulating factor of Vibrio cholerae. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46: 2399 2401.
39. Kim, D.-M.,, Y. Lym,, S. J. Jang,, H. Han,, Y. G. Kim,, C.-H. Chung,, and S. P. Hong. 2005. In vitro efficacy of the combination of ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime against Vibrio vulnificus. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 49: 3489 3491.
40. King, A. A.,, E.-L. Ionides,, M. Pascual,, and M. J. Bouma. 2008. Inapparent infections and cholera dynamics. Nature 454: 877 880.
41. Knight-Madden, J. M.,, M. Barton,, N. Gandretti,, and A. M. Nicholson. 2005. Photobacterium damselae bacteremia in a child with sickle-cell disease. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 24: 654 655.
42. Ko, W.-C.,, Y.-C. Chuang,, G.-C. Huang,, and S.-Y. Hsu. 1998. Infections due to non-O1 Vibrio cholerae in southern Taiwan: predominance in cirrhotic patients. Clin. Infect. Dis. 27: 774 780.
43. Kotetishvili, M.,, O. C. Stine,, Y. Chen,, A. Kreger,, A. Sulakvelidze,, S. Sozhamannan,, and J. G. Morris. 2003. Multilocus sequence typing has better discriminatory ability for typing Vibrio cholerae than does pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and provides a measure of phylogenetic relatedness. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41: 2191 2196.
44. Lai, C. H.,, C. K. Hwang,, C. Chin,, H. H. Lin,, W. W. Wong,, and C. Y. Liu. 2005. Severe watery diarrhea and bacteraemia caused by Vibrio fluvialis: a first case report. J. Infect. 52: e95 e98.
45. Lee, D.-Y.,, S.-Y. Moon,, S.-O. Lee,, H.-Y. Yang,, H.-J. Lee,, and M. S. Lee. 2008. Septic shock due to Vibrio alginolyticus in a cirrhotic patient: the first case in Korea. Yonsei Med. J. 49: 329 332.
46. Lee, J. Y.,, J. S. Park,, S. H. Oh,, H. R. Kim,, J. N. Lee,, and J. H. Shin. 2008. Acute infectious peritonitis caused by Vibrio fluvialis. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 62: 216 218.
47. Linde, H.-J.,, R. Kobuch,, S. Jayasinghe,, U. Reischl,, N. Lehn,, S. Kaulfuss,, and L. Beutin. 2004. Vibrio metschnikovii, a rare cause of wound infection. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42: 4909 4911.
48. Lipp, E. K.,, and J. B. Rose. 1997. The role of seafood in foodborne diseases in the United States of America. Rev. Sci. Tech. 16: 620 640.
49. Losonsky, G.A.,, and M. M. Levine,. 1997. Immunologic methods for diagnosis of infections caused by diarrheagenic members of the families Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae, p. 484 497. In N. R. Rose,, E. C. de Macario,, J. D. Folds,, H. C. Lane,, and R. M. Nakamura (ed.), Manual of Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 5th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
50. Marano, N. N.,, N. A. Daniels,, A. N. Easton,, A. McShan,, B. Ray,, J. G. Wells,, P. M. Griffin,, and F. J. Angulo. 2000. A survey of stool culturing practices for Vibrio species at clinical laboratories in Gulf Coast states. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 2267 2270.
51. Martinez-Urtaza, J.,, A. Lozano-Leon,, A. Vina-Feas,, J. de Novoa,, and O. Garcia-Martin. 2006. Differences in the API 20E biochemical patterns of clinical and environmental V. parahaemolyticus isolates. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 255: 75 81.
52. McCarter, L. L. 2001. Polar flagellar motility of the Vibrionaceae. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 65: 445 462.
53. McLaughlin, J. B.,, A. DePaola,, C. A. Bopp,, K. A. Martinek,, N. P. Napolilli,, C. G. Allison,, S. L. Murray,, E. C. Thompson,, M. M. Bird,, and J. P. Middaugh. 2005. Outbreak of Vibrio parahaemolyticus gastroenteritis associated with Alaskan oysters. N. Engl. J. Med. 353: 1463 1470.
54. Mintz, E. D.,, and R. L. Guerrant. 2009. A lion in our village—the unconscionable tragedy of cholera in Africa. N. Engl. J. Med. 360: 1060 1063.
55. Moreno, C. O.,, J. Romero,, and R. T. Espejo. 2002. Polymorphism in repeated 16S rRNA genes is a common property of type strains and environmental isolates of the genus. Microbiology 148: 1233 1239.
56. Morris, J. G. , Jr. 2003. Cholera and other types of vibriosis: a story of human pandemics and oysters on the half shell. Clin. Infect. Dis. 37: 272 280.
57. Morris, J. G., Jr.,, and G. B. Nair,. 2002. “Non-cholera” Vibrio infections, p. 557 571. In M. J. Blaser,, P. D. Smith,, J. I. Ravdin,, H. B. Greenberg,, and R. L. Guerrant (ed.), Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract, 2nd ed. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
58. Nagao, M.,, Y. Shimizu,, Y. Kawada,, H. Baba,, K. Yamada,, K. Torii,, and M. Ohta. 2006. Two cases of sucrose-fermenting Vibrio vulnificus infection in which 16S rRNA sequencing was useful for diagnosis. Jpn. J. Infect. Dis. 59: 108 110.
59. Nair, G. B.,, T. Ramamurthy,, S. K. Bhattacharya,, B. Dutta,, Y. Takeda,, and D. A. Sack. 2007. Global dissemination of Vibrio parahaemolyticus serotype O3:K6 and its serovariants. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 20: 39 48.
60. Nakamura, Y.,, M. Uchihira,, M. Ichimiya,, K. Morita,, and M. Muto. 2008. Necrotizing fasciitis of the leg due to Photobacterium damselae. J. Dermatol. 35: 44 45.
61. Nelson, E. J.,, J. B. Harris,, J. G. Morris, Jr.,, S. B. Calderwood,, and A. Camilli. 2009. Cholera transmission: the host, pathogen and bacteriophage dynamic. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 7: 693 702.
62. Nguyen, B. M.,, J. H. Lee,, N. T. Cuong,, S. Y. Choi,, N. T. Hien,, D. D. Anh,, H. R. Lee,, M. Ansaruzzaman,, H. P. Endtz,, J. Chun,, A. L. Lopez,, C. Czerkinsky,, J. D. Clemens,, and D. W. Kim. 2009. Cholera outbreaks caused by an altered Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor biotype strain producing classical cholera toxin B in Vietnam in 2007 and 2008. J. Clin. Microbiol. 47: 1568 1571.
63. O’Hara, C. M. 2005. Manual and automated instrumentation for identification of Enterobacteriaceae and other aerobic gram-negative bacilli. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 18: 147 162.
64. O’Hara, C. M.,, E. G. Sowers,, C. A. Bopp,, S. B. Duda,, and N. A. Strockbine. 2003. Accuracy of six commercially available systems for identification of members of the family Vibrionaceae. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41: 5654 5659.
65. Patel, N. M.,, M. Wong,, E. Little,, A. X. Ramos,, G. Kolli,, K. M. Fox,, J. Melvin,, A. Moore,, and R. Manch. 2008. Vibrio cholerae non-O1 infection in cirrhotics: case report and literature review. Transpl. Infect. Dis. 11: 54 56.
66. Pavia, A. T.,, J. A. Bryan,, K. L. Maher,, T. R. Hester, Jr.,, and J. J. Farmer III. 1989. Vibrio carchariae infection after a shark bite. Ann. Intern. Med. 111: 85 86.
67. Ratnaraja, N.,, T. Blackmore,, J. Byrne,, and S. Shi. 2005. Vibrio fluvialis peritonitis in a patient receiving continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43: 514 515.
68. Sack, D. A.,, R. B. Sack,, G. B. Nair,, and A. K. Siddique. 2004. Cholera. Lancet 363: 223 233.
69. San Juan, E.,, B. Fouz,, J. D. Oliver,, and C. Amaro. 2009. Evaluation of genotypic and phenotypic methods to distinguish clinical from environmental Vibrio vulnificus strains. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 75: 1604 1613.
70. Schets, F. M.,, H. H. J. L. van den Berg,, A. A. Demeulmeester,, E. van Dijk,, S. A. Rutjes,, H. J. P. van Hooijdonk,, and A. M. de Roda Husman. 2006. Vibrio alginolyticus infections in the Netherlands after swimming in the North Sea. Euro. Surveill. 11(45): pii=3077.
71. Sciortino, C. V.,, J. A. Johnson,, and A. Hamad. 1996. Vitek system antimicrobial susceptibility testing of O1, O139, and non-O1 Vibrio cholerae. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34: 897 900.
72. Serichantalergs, O.,, N. A. Bhuiyan,, G. B. Nair,, O. Chivaratanond,, A. Srijan,, L. Bodhidatta,, S. Anuras,, and C. J. Mason. 2007. The dominance of pandemic serovars of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in expatriates and sporadic cases of diarrhoea in Thailand, and new emergent serovar (O3:K6) with pandemic traits. J. Med. Microbiol. 56: 608 613.
73. Shimada, T.,, E. Arakawa,, K. Itoh,, T. Okitsu,, A. Matushima,, Y. Asai,, S. Yamai,, T. Nakazato,, G. B. Nair,, M. J. Albert,, and Y. Takeda. 1994. Extended serotyping scheme for Vibrio cholerae. Curr. Microbiol. 28: 175 178.
74. Shimada, T.,, and R. Sakazaki. 1984. On the serology of Vibrio vulnificus. Jpn. J. Med. Sci. Biol. 37: 241 246.
75. Su, Y. C.,, and C. Liu. 2007. Vibrio parahaemolyticus: a concern for seafood safety. Food Microbiol. 24: 549 558.
76. Tang, H.-J.,, M.-C. Chang,, W.-C. Ko,, K.-Y. Huang,, C.-L. Lee,, and Y.-C. Chuang. 2002. In vitro and in vivo activities of newer fluoroquinolones against Vibrio vulnificus. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46: 3580 3584.
77. Tarr, C. L.,, J. S. Patel,, N. D. Puhr,, E. G. Sowers,, C. A. Bopp,, and N. A. Strockbine. 2007. Identification of Vibrio isolates by multiplex PCR assay and rpoB sequence determination. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45: 134 140.
78. Thompson, F. L.,, T. Iida,, and J. Swings. 2004. Biodiversity of vibrios. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 68: 403 431.
79. Thyssen, A.,, and F. Ollevier,. 2005. Genus II. Photobacterium Beijerinck 1889, 401 AL, p. 546 552. In D. Brenner,, N. Krieg,, J. T. Staley,, and G. Garrity (ed.), Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 2. The Proteobacteria, Part B. The Gammaproteobacteria. Springer, New York, NY.
80. Tobin-D’Angelo, M.,, A. R. Smith,, S. N. Bulens,, S. Thomas,, M. Hodel,, H. Izumiya,, E. Arakawa,, M. Morita,, H. Watanabe,, C. Marin,, M. B. Parsons,, K. Greene,, K. Cooper,, D. Haydel,, C. Bopp,, P. Yu,, and E. Mintz. 2008. Severe diarrhea caused by cholera toxin-producing Vibrio cholerae serogroup O75 infections acquired in the southeastern United States. Clin. Infect. Dis. 47: 1035 1040.
81. Udden, S. M. N.,, M. S. H. Zahid,, K. Biswas,, Q. S. Ahmad,, A. Cravioto,, G. B. Nair,, J. J. Mekalanos,, and S. M. Faruque. 2008. Acquisition of classical CTX prophage from Vibrio cholerae O141 by El Tor strains aided by lytic phages and chitin-induced competence. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105: 11951 11956.
82. Uh, Y.,, J.-S. Park,, G.-Y. Hwang,, I. H. Jang,, K.-J. Yoon,, H.-C. Park,, and S.-O. Hwang. 2001. Vibrio alginolyticus gastroenteritis: report of two cases. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 7: 104 106.
83. Urbanczyk, H.,, J. C. Ast,, M. J. Higgins,, J. Carson,, and P. V. Dunlap. 2007. Reclassification of Vibrio fischeri, Vibrio logei, Vibrio salmonicida and Vibrio wodanis as Aliivibrio fischeri gen. nov., comb. nov., Aliivibrio logei comb. nov., Aliivibrio salmonicida comb. nov. and Aliivibrio wodanis comb. nov. Int J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 57: 2823 2829.
84. Wallet, F.,, M. Tachon,, S. Nseir,, R. J. Courcol,, and M. Roussel-Delvallez. 2005. Vibrio metschnikovii pneumonia. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 11: 1641 1642.
85. Wilkins, S.,, M. Millar,, S. Hemsworth,, G. Johnson,, S. Warwick,, and B. Pizer. 2007. Vibrio harveyi sepsis in a child with cancer. Pediatr. Blood Cancer 50: 891 892.
86. World HealthOrganization. 2008. Cholera, 2007. Wkly. Epidemiol. Rec. 83: 269283.
87. Wuthe, H.-H.,, S. Aleksic,, and W. Hein. 1993. Contributionsto some phenotypical characteristics of Vibrio cincinnatiensis. Studies in one strain of a diarrhoeic human patient and in two isolates from aborted bovine feces. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. 279: 458 465.
88. Yamamoto, T.,, G. B. Nair,, M. J. Albert,, C. C. Parodi,, and Y. Takeda. 1995. Survey of in vitro susceptibilities of Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 to antimicrobial agents. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 39: 241 244.
89. Yamane, K.,, J. Asato,, N. Kawade,, H. Takahashi,, B. Kimura,, and Y. Arakawa. 2004. Two cases of fatal necrotizing fasciitis caused by Photobacterium damselae in Japan. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42: 1370 1372.
90. Yildiz, F. H.,, and G. K. Schoolnik. 1999. Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor: identification of a gene cluster required for the rugose colony type, exopolysaccharide production, chlorine resistance, and biofilm formation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96: 4028 4033.
91. Zaiderstein, R.,, C. Sadik,, L. Lerner,, L. Valinsky,, J. Kopelwitz,, R. Yishai,, V. Agmon,, M. Parsons,, C. Bopp,, and M. Weinberger. 2008. Clinical characteristics and molecular subtyping of Vibrio vulnificus illnesses, Israel. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14: 1875 1882.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Properties of the genus and its relatives: differentiation from other organisms that are phenotypically similar

These are general properties of the genera and/or family, but there are exceptions. The properties of Vibrio apply to the species that occur in human clinical specimens and may not apply to all nonclinical species. Symbols: +, most strains positive; –, most strains negative.

Strains of typically grow poorly or not at all on TCBS agar; those that grow may have a reduced plating efficiency.

O/129, 2, 4-diamino-6, 7-diisopropylpteridine phosphate (commercially available, 150-µg disks).

Resistance to O/129 has become common in strains isolated from India and Bangladesh; O139 strains are resistant.

Citation: Abbott S, Janda J, Farmer J. 2011. and Related Organisms , p 666-676. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch39
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Biochemical test results and other properties of the 12 species that occur in human clinical specimens

Abbreviations: HIB, heart infusion broth; VP, Voges-Proskauer; ONPG, -nitrophenyl-β-d-galactopyranoside; NaCl, sodium chloride; NA, not available.

Percentage of strains positive after 48 h of incubation at 36°C unless otherwise indicated. Most positive reactions occur within 24 h.

1% NaCl added to all media except salt tolerance tests.

This organism is oxidase negative and does not reduce nitrate to nitrite.

Biogroup 1 strains.

Zone of inhibition present (disk content, 150 µg). Data for are from the Microbial Diseases Laboratory.

Citation: Abbott S, Janda J, Farmer J. 2011. and Related Organisms , p 666-676. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch39

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error