1887

Chapter 39 : and Related Organisms

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

and Related Organisms , Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap39-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap39-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter focuses on the various species that cause disease in humans. is the type genus for the family, and , the causative agent of pandemic cholera, is the type species. The genera covered in the chapter are primarily isolated from marine environments. Recent studies have shown that in mixed populations of nonculturable and culturable cells of , the latter appear to be the main contributors to human infections. The majority of persons ingesting toxigenic O1 have asymptomatic infections. Most of the advantages of PCR-based assays over culture methods apply to vibrios and include the ability to freeze stools for epidemiological studies for delayed testing. Molecular identification of vibrios is commonplace in surveys and in research studies. However, it is not commonly employed in clinical laboratories for routine identification because vibrios are relatively rare pathogens in noncoastal areas or regions where cholera is not endemic. The clinical significance of strains in other specimens, particularly stool, may be more difficult to determine and requires prompt consultation with the attending physician to better understand the clinical context. isolates should also be submitted to public health laboratories, as they are monitored under the CDC’s International Emerging Infections Program and Vibrio Surveillance System; they may also be needed for confirmation and toxin testing. Misidentification of species and their relatives can be a problem in the literature unless investigators used methods that are very sensitive in differentiating all of the species in the family .

Citation: Abbott S, Janda J, Farmer J. 2011. and Related Organisms , p 666-676. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch39

Key Concept Ranking

Traveler's Diarrhea
0.56559664
Ocular Infections
0.49565423
Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing
0.47501773
Vibrio cholerae
0.43402824
0.56559664
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555816728.chap39
1. Ahmed, A. M.,, S. Shinoda,, and T. Shimamoto. 2005. A variant type of Vibrio cholerae SXT element in a multi-drug resistant strain of Vibrio fluvialis. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 242:241247.
2. Aigbivbalu, L.,, and N. Maraqa. 2009. Photobacterium damsela wound infection in a 14-year-old surfer. South. Med. J. 102:425426.
3. Albert, M. J.,, and G. B. Nair. 2005. Vibrio cholerae O139—10 years on. Rev. Med. Microbiol. 16:135143.
4. Ali, A.,, J. G. Morris,, and J. A. Johnson. 2005. Sugars inhibit expression of the rugose phenotype of Vibrio cholerae. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:14261429.
5. Alton, D. R.,, M. A. Forgione, Jr.,, and S. P. Gros. 2006. Cholera-like presentation in Vibrio fluvialis enteritis. South. Med. J. 99:765767.
6. Alvarez, J. R.,, S. Lamba,, K. Y. Dyer,, and J. J. Apuzzio. 2006. An unusual case of urinary tract infection in a pregnant woman with Photobacterium damsela. Infect. Dis. Obstet. Gynecol. 2006:80682.
7. Arnett, M. V.,, S. L. Fraser,, and P. E. McFadden. 2008. Non-O1 Vibrio cholerae epidural brain infection in a 12-yearold boy after a depressed skull fracture. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 27:284285.
8. Barton, J. C.,, and R. C. Ratard. 2006. Vibrio vulnificus bacteremia associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, hypogammaglobulinemia, and hepatic cirrhosis: relation to host and exposure factors in 252 V. vulnificus infections reported in Louisiana. Am. J. Med. Sci. 332:216220.
9. Bhoopong, P.,, P. Palittapongarnpim,, R. Pomwised,, A. Kiatkittipong,, M. Kamruzzaman,, Y. Nakaguchi,, M. Nishibuchi,, M. Ishibashi,, and V. Vuddhakul. 2007. Variability of properties of Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains isolated from individual patients. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45:15441550.
10. Binsztein, N.,, M. C. Costagliola,, M. Pichel,, V. Jurquiza,, F. C. Ramírez,, R. Akselman,, M. Vacchino,, A. Huq,, and R. R. Colwell. 2004. Viable but nonculturable Vibrio cholerae O1 in the aquatic environment. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:74817486.
11. Campos, E.,, H. Bolaños,, M. T. Acuña,, G. Díaz,, M. C. Matamoros,, H. Raventós,, L. M. Sanchez,, C. Barquero, and Red Nacional de Laboratorios para Colera, Costa Rica. 1996. Vibrio mimicus diarrhea following ingestion of raw turtle eggs. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62:11411144.
12.Centers for Disease Controland Prevention. 1999. Laboratory Methods for the Diagnosis of EpidemicDysentery and Cholera. Centers for Disease Control andPrevention. Atlanta, GA. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dbmd/diseaseinfo/ cholera/complete.pdf or http://www.cdc.gov.ncidod/dbmd/diseaseinfo/cholera_lab_manual.htm.
13. Chakraborty, R.,, S. Chakraborty,, K. De,, S. Sinha,, A. K. Mukhopadhyay,, J. Khanam,, T. Ramamurthy,, Y. Takeda,, S. K. Bhattcharya,, and G. B. Nair. 2005. Cytotoxic and cell vacuolating activity of Vibrio fluvialis isolated from paediatric patients with diarrheoa. J. Med. Microbiol. 54:707716.
14. Chiang, S.-R.,, and Y.-C. Chuang. 2003. Vibrio vulnificus infection: clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, and antimicrobial therapy. J. Microbiol. Immunol. 36:8188.
15. Chien, J. Y.,, J. T. Shih,, P. R. Hsueh,, P. C. Yang,, and K. T. Luh. 2002. Vibrio alginolyticus as the cause of pleural empyema and bacteremia in an immunocompromised patient. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 21:401403.
16. Chitov, T.,, P. Kirikaew,, P. Yungyune,, N. Ruengprapan,, and K. Sontikum. 2009. An incidence of large foodborne outbreak associated with Vibrio mimicus. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 28:421424.
17.Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. 2006. Methods for Antimicrobial Dilution and Disk Susceptibility Testing of In-frequently Isolated or Fastidious Bacteria; Approved Guideline. CLSI document M45-A. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, PA.
18.Clinical and Laboratory StandardsInstitute. 2009. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; Nineteenth Informational Supplement. CLSI document M100-S19. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, PA.
19. Colodner, R.,, R. Raz,, I. Meir,, T. Lazarovich,, L. Lerner,, J. Kopelowitz,, Y. Keness,, W. Sakran,, S. Ken-Dror,, and N. Bisharat. 2004. Identification of the emerging pathogen Vibrio vulnificus biotype 3 by commercially available phenotypic methods. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:41374140.
20. Colwell, R. R. 2004. Infectious disease and environment: cholera as a paradigm for waterborne disease. Int. Microbiol. 7:285289.
21. Croci, L.,, E. Suffredini,, L. Cozzi,, D. Ottaviani,, C. Pruzzo,, P. Serratore,, R. Fischetti,, E. Goffredo,, G. Loffredo,, R. Mioni, and the Vibrio parahaemolyticus Working Group. 2007. Comparison of different biochemical and molecular methods for the identification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. J. Appl. Microbiol. 102:229237.
22. Crump, J. A.,, C. A. Bopp,, K. D. Greene,, K. A. Kubota,, R. L. Middendorf,, J. G. Wells,, and E. D. Mintz. 2003. Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae serogroup O141-associated cholera-like diarrhea and bloodstream infection in the United States. J. Infect. Dis. 187:866888.
23. Dalsgaard, A.,, P. Glerup,, L.-L. Hoybe,, A.-M. Paarup,, R. Meza,, M. Bernal,, T. Shimada,, and D. N. Taylor. 1997. Vibrio furnissii isolated from humans in Peru: a possible human pathogen? Epidemiol. Infect. 119:143149.
24. DePaola, A.,, J. Ulaszek,, C. A. Kaysner,, B. J. Tenge,, J. L. Nordstrom,, J. Wells,, N. Puhr,, and S. M. Gendel. 2003. Molecular, serological, and virulence characteristics of Vi-brio parahaemolyticus isolated from environmental, food, and clinical resources in North America and Asia. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:39994005.
25. Farmer, J.J., III,, J. M. Janda,, F. W. Brenner,, D. N. Cameron,, and K. M. Birkhead,. 2005. Genus I. Vibrio Pacini1854, 411AL, p. 494546. In D. Brenner,, N. Krieg,, J. T. Staley,, and G. Garrity (ed.), Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 2. The Proteobacteria, Part B. The Gammaproteobacteria. Springer, New York, NY.
26. Faruque, S. H.,, M. J. Albert,, and J. J. Mekalanos. 1998. Epidemiology, genetics, and ecology of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 62:13011314.
27. Faruque, S. M.,, N. Chowdhury,, M. Kamruzzaman,, Q. S. Ahmad,, A. S. G. Faruque,, M. A. Salam,, T. Ramamurthy,, G. B. Nair,, A. Weintraub,, and D. A. Sack. 2003. Reemergence of epidemic Vibrio cholerae O139, Bangladesh. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9:11161122.
28. Feldhusen, F. 2000. The role of seafood in bacterial food-borne diseases. Microbes Infect. 2:16511660.
29. Goodell, K. H.,, M. R. Jordan,, R. Graham,, C. Cassidy,, and S. A. Nasraway. 2004. Rapidly advancing necrotizing fasciitis caused by Photobacterium (Vibrio) damsela: a hyperaggressive variant. Crit. Care Med. 32:278281.
30. Hara-Kudo, Y.,, T. Nishina,, H. Nakagawa,, H. Konuma,, J. Hasegawa,, and S. Kumagai. 2001. Improved method for detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafood. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67:58195823.
31. Hinestrosa, F.,, R. G. Madeira,, and P. P. Bourbeau. 2007. Severe gastroenteritis and hypovolemic shock caused by Grimontia (Vibrio) hollisae infection. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45:34623463.
32. Hoshino, K.,, S. Yamasaki,, A. K. Mukhopadhyay,, S. Chakraborty,, A. Basu,, S. K. Bhattacharya,, G. B. Nair,, T. Shimada,, and Y. Takeda. 1998. Development and evaluation of a multiplex PCR assay for rapid detection of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 20:201207.
33. Huang, K.-C.,, and R. W.-W. Hsu. 2005. Vibrio fluvialis hemorrhagic cellulitis and cerebritis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 40:e75e77.
34. Jones, M. K.,, and J. D. Oliver. 2009. Vibrio vulnificus: disease and pathogenesis. Infect. Immun. 77:17231733.
35. Jung, S.-Y.,, Y.-T. Jung,, T.-K. Oh,, and J.-H. Yoon. 2007. Photobacterium lutimaris sp. nov., isolated from a tidal flat sediment in Korea. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 57:332336.
36. Kam, K.M.,, C. K. Y. Leuy,, M. B. Parsons,, K. L. F. Cooper,, G. B. Nair,, M. Alam,, M. A. Islam,, D. T. L. Cheung,, Y. W. Chu,, T. Ramamurthy,, G. P. Pazhani,, S. K. Bhattacharya,, H. Watanabe,, J. Terajima,, E. Arakawa,, O.-A. Ratchtrachenchai,, S. Huttayananont,, E. M. Ribot,, P. Gerner-Smidt,, and B. Swaminathan for the Vibrio parahaemolyticus PulseNet Protocol Working Group. 2008. Evaluation and validation of a PulseNet standardized pulsed-field gel electrophoresis protocol for subtyping Vibrio parahaemolyticus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46:27662773.
37. Kaper, J. B.,, J. G. Morris,, and M. M. Levine. 1995. Cholera. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 8:4886.
38. Khuntia, H. K.,, B. B. Pal,, and G. P. Chhotray. 2008. Quadruplex PCR for simultaneous detection of serotype, biotype, toxigenic potential, and central regulating factor of Vibrio cholerae. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46:23992401.
39. Kim, D.-M.,, Y. Lym,, S. J. Jang,, H. Han,, Y. G. Kim,, C.-H. Chung,, and S. P. Hong. 2005. In vitro efficacy of the combination of ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime against Vibrio vulnificus. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 49:34893491.
40. King, A. A.,, E.-L. Ionides,, M. Pascual,, and M. J. Bouma. 2008. Inapparent infections and cholera dynamics. Nature 454:877880.
41. Knight-Madden, J. M.,, M. Barton,, N. Gandretti,, and A. M. Nicholson. 2005. Photobacterium damselae bacteremia in a child with sickle-cell disease. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 24:654655.
42. Ko, W.-C.,, Y.-C. Chuang,, G.-C. Huang,, and S.-Y. Hsu. 1998. Infections due to non-O1 Vibrio cholerae in southern Taiwan: predominance in cirrhotic patients. Clin. Infect. Dis. 27:774780.
43. Kotetishvili, M.,, O. C. Stine,, Y. Chen,, A. Kreger,, A. Sulakvelidze,, S. Sozhamannan,, and J. G. Morris. 2003. Multilocus sequence typing has better discriminatory ability for typing Vibrio cholerae than does pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and provides a measure of phylogenetic relatedness. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:21912196.
44. Lai, C. H.,, C. K. Hwang,, C. Chin,, H. H. Lin,, W. W. Wong,, and C. Y. Liu. 2005. Severe watery diarrhea and bacteraemia caused by Vibrio fluvialis: a first case report. J. Infect. 52:e95e98.
45. Lee, D.-Y.,, S.-Y. Moon,, S.-O. Lee,, H.-Y. Yang,, H.-J. Lee,, and M. S. Lee. 2008. Septic shock due to Vibrio alginolyticus in a cirrhotic patient: the first case in Korea. Yonsei Med. J. 49:329332.
46. Lee, J. Y.,, J. S. Park,, S. H. Oh,, H. R. Kim,, J. N. Lee,, and J. H. Shin. 2008. Acute infectious peritonitis caused by Vibrio fluvialis. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 62:216218.
47. Linde, H.-J.,, R. Kobuch,, S. Jayasinghe,, U. Reischl,, N. Lehn,, S. Kaulfuss,, and L. Beutin. 2004. Vibrio metschnikovii, a rare cause of wound infection. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:49094911.
48. Lipp, E. K.,, and J. B. Rose. 1997. The role of seafood in foodborne diseases in the United States of America. Rev. Sci. Tech. 16:620640.
49. Losonsky, G.A.,, and M. M. Levine,. 1997. Immunologic methods for diagnosis of infections caused by diarrheagenic members of the families Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae, p. 484497.In N. R. Rose,, E. C. de Macario,, J. D. Folds,, H. C. Lane,, and R. M. Nakamura (ed.), Manual of Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 5th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
50. Marano, N. N.,, N. A. Daniels,, A. N. Easton,, A. McShan,, B. Ray,, J. G. Wells,, P. M. Griffin,, and F. J. Angulo. 2000. A survey of stool culturing practices for Vibrio species at clinical laboratories in Gulf Coast states. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:22672270.
51. Martinez-Urtaza, J.,, A. Lozano-Leon,, A. Vina-Feas,, J. de Novoa,, and O. Garcia-Martin. 2006. Differences in the API 20E biochemical patterns of clinical and environmental V. parahaemolyticus isolates. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 255:7581.
52. McCarter, L. L. 2001. Polar flagellar motility of the Vibrionaceae. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 65:445462.
53. McLaughlin, J. B.,, A. DePaola,, C. A. Bopp,, K. A. Martinek,, N. P. Napolilli,, C. G. Allison,, S. L. Murray,, E. C. Thompson,, M. M. Bird,, and J. P. Middaugh. 2005. Outbreak of Vibrio parahaemolyticus gastroenteritis associated with Alaskan oysters. N. Engl. J. Med. 353:14631470.
54. Mintz, E. D.,, and R. L. Guerrant. 2009. A lion in our village—the unconscionable tragedy of cholera in Africa. N. Engl. J. Med. 360:10601063.
55. Moreno, C. O.,, J. Romero,, and R. T. Espejo. 2002. Polymorphism in repeated 16S rRNA genes is a common property of type strains and environmental isolates of the genus. Microbiology 148:12331239.
56. Morris, J. G., Jr. 2003. Cholera and other types of vibriosis: a story of human pandemics and oysters on the half shell. Clin. Infect. Dis. 37:272280.
57. Morris, J. G., Jr.,, and G. B. Nair,. 2002. “Non-cholera” Vibrio infections, p. 557571. In M. J. Blaser,, P. D. Smith,, J. I. Ravdin,, H. B. Greenberg,, and R. L. Guerrant (ed.), Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract, 2nd ed. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
58. Nagao, M.,, Y. Shimizu,, Y. Kawada,, H. Baba,, K. Yamada,, K. Torii,, and M. Ohta. 2006. Two cases of sucrose-fermenting Vibrio vulnificus infection in which 16S rRNA sequencing was useful for diagnosis. Jpn. J. Infect. Dis. 59:108110.
59. Nair, G. B.,, T. Ramamurthy,, S. K. Bhattacharya,, B. Dutta,, Y. Takeda,, and D. A. Sack. 2007. Global dissemination of Vibrio parahaemolyticus serotype O3:K6 and its serovariants. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 20:3948.
60. Nakamura, Y.,, M. Uchihira,, M. Ichimiya,, K. Morita,, and M. Muto. 2008. Necrotizing fasciitis of the leg due to Photobacterium damselae. J. Dermatol. 35:4445.
61. Nelson, E. J.,, J. B. Harris,, J. G. Morris, Jr.,, S. B. Calderwood,, and A. Camilli. 2009. Cholera transmission: the host, pathogen and bacteriophage dynamic. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 7:693702.
62. Nguyen, B. M.,, J. H. Lee,, N. T. Cuong,, S. Y. Choi,, N. T. Hien,, D. D. Anh,, H. R. Lee,, M. Ansaruzzaman,, H. P. Endtz,, J. Chun,, A. L. Lopez,, C. Czerkinsky,, J. D. Clemens,, and D. W. Kim. 2009. Cholera outbreaks caused by an altered Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor biotype strain producing classical cholera toxin B in Vietnam in 2007 and 2008. J. Clin. Microbiol. 47:15681571.
63. O’Hara, C. M. 2005. Manual and automated instrumentation for identification of Enterobacteriaceae and other aerobic gram-negative bacilli. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 18:147162.
64. O’Hara, C. M.,, E. G. Sowers,, C. A. Bopp,, S. B. Duda,, and N. A. Strockbine. 2003. Accuracy of six commercially available systems for identification of members of the family Vibrionaceae. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:56545659.
65. Patel, N. M.,, M. Wong,, E. Little,, A. X. Ramos,, G. Kolli,, K. M. Fox,, J. Melvin,, A. Moore,, and R. Manch. 2008. Vibrio cholerae non-O1 infection in cirrhotics: case report and literature review. Transpl. Infect. Dis. 11:5456.
66. Pavia, A. T.,, J. A. Bryan,, K. L. Maher,, T. R. Hester, Jr.,, and J. J. Farmer III. 1989. Vibrio carchariae infection after a shark bite. Ann. Intern. Med. 111:8586.
67. Ratnaraja, N.,, T. Blackmore,, J. Byrne,, and S. Shi. 2005. Vibrio fluvialis peritonitis in a patient receiving continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:514515.
68. Sack, D. A.,, R. B. Sack,, G. B. Nair,, and A. K. Siddique. 2004. Cholera. Lancet 363:223233.
69. San Juan, E.,, B. Fouz,, J. D. Oliver,, and C. Amaro. 2009. Evaluation of genotypic and phenotypic methods to distinguish clinical from environmental Vibrio vulnificus strains. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 75:16041613.
70. Schets, F. M.,, H. H. J. L. van den Berg,, A. A. Demeulmeester,, E. van Dijk,, S. A. Rutjes,, H. J. P. van Hooijdonk,, and A. M. de Roda Husman. 2006. Vibrio alginolyticus infections in the Netherlands after swimming in the North Sea. Euro. Surveill. 11(45):pii=3077.
71. Sciortino, C. V.,, J. A. Johnson,, and A. Hamad. 1996. Vitek system antimicrobial susceptibility testing of O1, O139, and non-O1 Vibrio cholerae. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:897900.
72. Serichantalergs, O.,, N. A. Bhuiyan,, G. B. Nair,, O. Chivaratanond,, A. Srijan,, L. Bodhidatta,, S. Anuras,, and C. J. Mason. 2007. The dominance of pandemic serovars of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in expatriates and sporadic cases of diarrhoea in Thailand, and new emergent serovar (O3:K6) with pandemic traits. J. Med. Microbiol. 56:608613.
73. Shimada, T.,, E. Arakawa,, K. Itoh,, T. Okitsu,, A. Matushima,, Y. Asai,, S. Yamai,, T. Nakazato,, G. B. Nair,, M. J. Albert,, and Y. Takeda. 1994. Extended serotyping scheme for Vibrio cholerae. Curr. Microbiol. 28:175178.
74. Shimada, T.,, and R. Sakazaki. 1984. On the serology of Vibrio vulnificus. Jpn. J. Med. Sci. Biol. 37:241246.
75. Su, Y. C.,, and C. Liu. 2007. Vibrio parahaemolyticus: a concern for seafood safety. Food Microbiol. 24:549558.
76. Tang, H.-J.,, M.-C. Chang,, W.-C. Ko,, K.-Y. Huang,, C.-L. Lee,, and Y.-C. Chuang. 2002. In vitro and in vivo activities of newer fluoroquinolones against Vibrio vulnificus. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46:35803584.
77. Tarr, C. L.,, J. S. Patel,, N. D. Puhr,, E. G. Sowers,, C. A. Bopp,, and N. A. Strockbine. 2007. Identification of Vibrio isolates by multiplex PCR assay and rpoB sequence determination. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45:134140.
78. Thompson, F. L.,, T. Iida,, and J. Swings. 2004. Biodiversity of vibrios. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 68:403431.
79. Thyssen, A.,, and F. Ollevier,. 2005. Genus II. Photobacterium Beijerinck 1889, 401AL, p. 546552. In D. Brenner,, N. Krieg,, J. T. Staley,, and G. Garrity (ed.), Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 2. The Proteobacteria, Part B. The Gammaproteobacteria. Springer, New York, NY.
80. Tobin-D’Angelo, M.,, A. R. Smith,, S. N. Bulens,, S. Thomas,, M. Hodel,, H. Izumiya,, E. Arakawa,, M. Morita,, H. Watanabe,, C. Marin,, M. B. Parsons,, K. Greene,, K. Cooper,, D. Haydel,, C. Bopp,, P. Yu,, and E. Mintz. 2008. Severe diarrhea caused by cholera toxin-producing Vibrio cholerae serogroup O75 infections acquired in the southeastern United States. Clin. Infect. Dis. 47:10351040.
81. Udden, S. M. N.,, M. S. H. Zahid,, K. Biswas,, Q. S. Ahmad,, A. Cravioto,, G. B. Nair,, J. J. Mekalanos,, and S. M. Faruque. 2008. Acquisition of classical CTX prophage from Vibrio cholerae O141 by El Tor strains aided by lytic phages and chitin-induced competence. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105:1195111956.
82. Uh, Y.,, J.-S. Park,, G.-Y. Hwang,, I. H. Jang,, K.-J. Yoon,, H.-C. Park,, and S.-O. Hwang. 2001. Vibrio alginolyticus gastroenteritis: report of two cases. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 7:104106.
83. Urbanczyk, H.,, J. C. Ast,, M. J. Higgins,, J. Carson,, and P. V. Dunlap. 2007. Reclassification of Vibrio fischeri, Vibrio logei, Vibrio salmonicida and Vibrio wodanis as Aliivibrio fischeri gen. nov., comb. nov., Aliivibrio logei comb. nov., Aliivibrio salmonicida comb. nov. and Aliivibrio wodanis comb. nov. Int J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 57:28232829.
84. Wallet, F.,, M. Tachon,, S. Nseir,, R. J. Courcol,, and M. Roussel-Delvallez. 2005. Vibrio metschnikovii pneumonia. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 11:16411642.
85. Wilkins, S.,, M. Millar,, S. Hemsworth,, G. Johnson,, S. Warwick,, and B. Pizer. 2007. Vibrio harveyi sepsis in a child with cancer. Pediatr. Blood Cancer 50:891892.
86.World HealthOrganization. 2008. Cholera, 2007. Wkly. Epidemiol. Rec. 83:269283.
87. Wuthe, H.-H.,, S. Aleksic,, and W. Hein. 1993.Contributionsto some phenotypical characteristics of Vibrio cincinnatiensis. Studies in one strain of a diarrhoeic human patient and in two isolates from aborted bovine feces. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. 279:458465.
88. Yamamoto, T.,, G. B. Nair,, M. J. Albert,, C. C. Parodi,, and Y. Takeda. 1995. Survey of in vitro susceptibilities of Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 to antimicrobial agents. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 39:241244.
89. Yamane, K.,, J. Asato,, N. Kawade,, H. Takahashi,, B. Kimura,, and Y. Arakawa. 2004. Two cases of fatal necrotizing fasciitis caused by Photobacterium damselae in Japan. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:13701372.
90. Yildiz, F. H.,, and G. K. Schoolnik. 1999. Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor: identification of a gene cluster required for the rugose colony type, exopolysaccharide production, chlorine resistance, and biofilm formation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96:40284033.
91. Zaiderstein, R.,, C. Sadik,, L. Lerner,, L. Valinsky,, J. Kopelwitz,, R. Yishai,, V. Agmon,, M. Parsons,, C. Bopp,, and M. Weinberger. 2008. Clinical characteristics and molecular subtyping of Vibrio vulnificus illnesses, Israel. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14:18751882.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Properties of the genus and its relatives: differentiation from other organisms that are phenotypically similar

These are general properties of the genera and/or family, but there are exceptions. The properties of Vibrio apply to the species that occur in human clinical specimens and may not apply to all nonclinical species. Symbols: +, most strains positive; –, most strains negative.

Strains of typically grow poorly or not at all on TCBS agar; those that grow may have a reduced plating efficiency.

O/129, 2, 4-diamino-6, 7-diisopropylpteridine phosphate (commercially available, 150-µg disks).

Resistance to O/129 has become common in strains isolated from India and Bangladesh; O139 strains are resistant.

Citation: Abbott S, Janda J, Farmer J. 2011. and Related Organisms , p 666-676. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch39
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Biochemical test results and other properties of the 12 species that occur in human clinical specimens

Abbreviations: HIB, heart infusion broth; VP, Voges-Proskauer; ONPG, -nitrophenyl-β-d-galactopyranoside; NaCl, sodium chloride; NA, not available.

Percentage of strains positive after 48 h of incubation at 36°C unless otherwise indicated. Most positive reactions occur within 24 h.

1% NaCl added to all media except salt tolerance tests.

This organism is oxidase negative and does not reduce nitrate to nitrite.

Biogroup 1 strains.

Zone of inhibition present (disk content, 150 µg). Data for are from the Microbial Diseases Laboratory.

Citation: Abbott S, Janda J, Farmer J. 2011. and Related Organisms , p 666-676. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch39

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error