Chapter 42 : , and Other Nonfermentative Gram-Negative Rods

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The organisms covered in this chapter belong to a group of taxonomically and phylogenetically diverse, gram-negative nonfermentative rods and coccobacilli. Still, several of the genera dealt with belong to the same family; i.e., , , , and belong to the family (), and , , , , , , , , and belong to the family . Most of the organisms described in the chapter are found in the environment, i.e., soil and water. The only fastidious species handled in the chapter are species, , species, and some species. The limited number of tests that have been used to discriminate between the species dealt with in the chapter have been selected because they can be carried out easily and quickly, they mostly yield uniform results per group or species, and also they are highly discriminatory. A recently developed method of bacterial identification is matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time-of-flight mass spectrometry, for which commercial systems, with bacterial mass spectrum databases, have become available recently. Decisions about performing antimicrobial susceptibility testing are complicated by the fact that the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) interpretive guidelines for disk diffusion testing of the nonfermenting gram-negative bacteria are limited to species, , , and species and therefore, except for species, do not include the organisms covered in the chapter.

Citation: Vaneechoutte M, Dijkshoorn L, Nemec A, Kämpfer P, Wauters G. 2011. , and Other Nonfermentative Gram-Negative Rods , p 714-738. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch42

Key Concept Ranking

Gram-Negative Coccobacilli
Gram-Negative Bacteria
Gram-Positive Bacteria
Lower Respiratory Tract Infections
Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing
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Image of FIGURE 1

Identification of miscellaneous GNF. The organisms covered in this chapter belong to a group of taxonomically diverse, gram-negative nonfermentative rods and coccobacilli. They all share the common phenotypic features of failing to acidify the butt of KIA or TSI agar or of oxidative-fermentative media, indicating their inability to metabolize carbohydrates by the fermentative pathway. These characteristics are shared with those of the species of the emended genus (chapter 40) and those of the species of genera that previously were named as (chapter 41). grows slowly and poorly on SBA. forms small colonies as well, but these are already visible after 24 h of incubation.

Citation: Vaneechoutte M, Dijkshoorn L, Nemec A, Kämpfer P, Wauters G. 2011. , and Other Nonfermentative Gram-Negative Rods , p 714-738. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch42
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Image of FIGURE 2

Differences in the size of the colonies formed by different species isolated from human clinical specimens. The strains were grown on TSA (Oxoid) at 30°C for 24 h. (a) NIPH 384; (b) LUH 3792; (c) LUH 5832; (d) ATCC 19606.

Citation: Vaneechoutte M, Dijkshoorn L, Nemec A, Kämpfer P, Wauters G. 2011. , and Other Nonfermentative Gram-Negative Rods , p 714-738. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch42
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Image of FIGURE 3

Gram stain of , showing characteristic doughnut-shaped morphology.

Citation: Vaneechoutte M, Dijkshoorn L, Nemec A, Kämpfer P, Wauters G. 2011. , and Other Nonfermentative Gram-Negative Rods , p 714-738. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch42
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Image of FIGURE 4

Gram stain of showing pleomorphic gram-negative rods with vacuoles.

Citation: Vaneechoutte M, Dijkshoorn L, Nemec A, Kämpfer P, Wauters G. 2011. , and Other Nonfermentative Gram-Negative Rods , p 714-738. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch42
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Image of FIGURE 5

on Sabouraud dextrose agar showing pink mucoid colonies.

Citation: Vaneechoutte M, Dijkshoorn L, Nemec A, Kämpfer P, Wauters G. 2011. , and Other Nonfermentative Gram-Negative Rods , p 714-738. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch42
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