Chapter 42 : , and Other Nonfermentative Gram-Negative Rods

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

, and Other Nonfermentative Gram-Negative Rods , Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap42-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap42-2.gif


The organisms covered in this chapter belong to a group of taxonomically and phylogenetically diverse, gram-negative nonfermentative rods and coccobacilli. Still, several of the genera dealt with belong to the same family; i.e., , , , and belong to the family (), and , , , , , , , , and belong to the family . Most of the organisms described in the chapter are found in the environment, i.e., soil and water. The only fastidious species handled in the chapter are species, , species, and some species. The limited number of tests that have been used to discriminate between the species dealt with in the chapter have been selected because they can be carried out easily and quickly, they mostly yield uniform results per group or species, and also they are highly discriminatory. A recently developed method of bacterial identification is matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time-of-flight mass spectrometry, for which commercial systems, with bacterial mass spectrum databases, have become available recently. Decisions about performing antimicrobial susceptibility testing are complicated by the fact that the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) interpretive guidelines for disk diffusion testing of the nonfermenting gram-negative bacteria are limited to species, , , and species and therefore, except for species, do not include the organisms covered in the chapter.

Citation: Vaneechoutte M, Dijkshoorn L, Nemec A, Kämpfer P, Wauters G. 2011. , and Other Nonfermentative Gram-Negative Rods , p 714-738. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch42

Key Concept Ranking

Gram-Negative Coccobacilli
Gram-Negative Bacteria
Gram-Positive Bacteria
Lower Respiratory Tract Infections
Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of FIGURE 1

Identification of miscellaneous GNF. The organisms covered in this chapter belong to a group of taxonomically diverse, gram-negative nonfermentative rods and coccobacilli. They all share the common phenotypic features of failing to acidify the butt of KIA or TSI agar or of oxidative-fermentative media, indicating their inability to metabolize carbohydrates by the fermentative pathway. These characteristics are shared with those of the species of the emended genus (chapter 40) and those of the species of genera that previously were named as (chapter 41). grows slowly and poorly on SBA. forms small colonies as well, but these are already visible after 24 h of incubation.

Citation: Vaneechoutte M, Dijkshoorn L, Nemec A, Kämpfer P, Wauters G. 2011. , and Other Nonfermentative Gram-Negative Rods , p 714-738. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch42
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2

Differences in the size of the colonies formed by different species isolated from human clinical specimens. The strains were grown on TSA (Oxoid) at 30°C for 24 h. (a) NIPH 384; (b) LUH 3792; (c) LUH 5832; (d) ATCC 19606.

Citation: Vaneechoutte M, Dijkshoorn L, Nemec A, Kämpfer P, Wauters G. 2011. , and Other Nonfermentative Gram-Negative Rods , p 714-738. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch42
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3

Gram stain of , showing characteristic doughnut-shaped morphology.

Citation: Vaneechoutte M, Dijkshoorn L, Nemec A, Kämpfer P, Wauters G. 2011. , and Other Nonfermentative Gram-Negative Rods , p 714-738. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch42
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 4

Gram stain of showing pleomorphic gram-negative rods with vacuoles.

Citation: Vaneechoutte M, Dijkshoorn L, Nemec A, Kämpfer P, Wauters G. 2011. , and Other Nonfermentative Gram-Negative Rods , p 714-738. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch42
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 5

on Sabouraud dextrose agar showing pink mucoid colonies.

Citation: Vaneechoutte M, Dijkshoorn L, Nemec A, Kämpfer P, Wauters G. 2011. , and Other Nonfermentative Gram-Negative Rods , p 714-738. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch42
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Adams, M. D.,, K. Goglin,, N. Molyneaux,, K. M. Hujer,, H. Lavender,, J. J. Jamison,, I. J. Macdonald,, K. M. Martin,, T. Russo,, A. A. Campagnari,, A. M. Hujer,, R. A. Bonomo,, and S. R. Gill. 2008. Comparative genome sequence analysis of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. J. Bacteriol. 190:80538064.
2. Adams, M. D.,, G. C. Nickel,, S. Bajaksouzian,, H. Lavender,, A. R. Murthy,, M. R. Jacobs,, and R. A. Bonomo. 2009. Resistance to colistin in Acinetobacter baumannii associated with mutations in the PmrAB two-component system. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53:36283634.
3. Anstey, N. M.,, B. J. Currie,, M. Hassell,, D. Palmer,, B. Dwyer,, and H. Seifert. 2002. Community-acquired bacteremic Acinetobacter pneumonia in tropical Australia is caused by diverse strains of Acinetobacter baumannii, with carriage in the throat in at-risk groups. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:685686.
4. Arroyo, L. A.,, A. Garcia-Curiel,, M. E. Pachon-Ibanez,, A. C. Llanos,, M. Ruiz,, J. Pachon,, and J. Aznar. 2005. Reliability of the E-test method for detection of colistin resistance in clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:903905.
5. Bachman, K. H.,, D. L. Sewell,, and L. J. Strausbaugh. 1996. Recurrent cellulitis and bacteremia caused by Flavobacterium odoratum. Clin. Infect. Dis. 22:11121113.
6. Bartual, S. G.,, H. Seifert,, C. Hippler,, M. A. Luzon,, H. Wisplinghoff,, and F. Rodriguez-Valera. 2005. Development of a multilocus sequence typing scheme for characterization of clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:43824390.
7. Bayraktar, M. R.,, E. Aktas,, Y. Ersoy,, A. Cicek,, and R. Durmaz. 2007. Postoperative Chryseobacterium indologenes bloodstream infection caused by contamination of distillate water. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 28:368369.
8. Bergogne-Bérézin, E.,, M. L. Joly-Guillou,, and K. J. Towner (ed.). 1996. Appendix II: selective isolation of Acinetobacter spp. by enrichment cultivation, p. 241242. In Acinetobacter: Microbiology, Epidemiology, Infections, Management. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
9. Bergogne-Bérézin, E.,, and K. J. Towner. 1996. Acinetobacter spp. as nosocomial pathogens: microbiological, clinical, and epidemiological features. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 9:148165.
10. Berlau, J.,, H. Aucken,, H. Malnick,, and T. Pitt. 1999. Distribution of Acinetobacter species on skin of healthy humans. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 18:179183.
11. Bernardet, J.-F.,, Y. Nakagawa,, and B. Holmes. 2002. Proposed minimal standards for describing new taxa of the family Flavobacteriaceae and emended description of the family. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 52:10491070.
12. Bernards, A. T.,, J. van der Toorn,, C. P. A. van Boven,, and L. Dijkshoorn. 1996. Evaluation of the ability of a commercial system to identify Acinetobacter genomic species. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 15:303308.
13. Bizet, C.,, and J. Bizet. 1995. Sensibilité comparée de Ochrobactrum anthropi, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Alcaligenes faecalis, Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. denitrificans, Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. xylosoxidans et Bordetella bronchiseptica vis-à-vis de 35 antibiotiques dont 17 lactamines. Pathol. Biol. 43:258263.
14. Bloch, K. C.,, R. Nadarajah,, and R. Jacobs. 1997. Chryseobacterium meningosepticum: an emerging pathogen among immunocompromised adults. Medicine 76:3040.
15. Boerlin, P.,, S. Eugster,, F. Gaschen,, R. Straub,, and P. Schawalder. 2001. Transmission of opportunistic pathogens in a veterinary teaching hospital. Vet. Microbiol. 82:347359.
16. Bomb, K.,, A. Arora,, and N. Trehan. 2007. Endocarditis due to Chryseobacterium meningosepticum. Indian J. Med. Microbiol.25:161162.
17. Bombicino, K. A.,, M. N. Almuzara,, A. M. Famiglietti,, and C. Vay. 2007. Evaluation of pyrrolidonyl arylamidase for the identification of nonfermenting Gram-negative rods. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 57:101103. (Erratum, 57:473.)
18. Boo, T. W.,, F. Walsh,, and B. Crowley. 2009. Molecular characterization of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter species in an Irish university hospital: predominance of Acinetobacter genomic species 3. J. Med. Microbiol. 58:209216.
19. Bosshard, P. P.,, R. Zbinden,, S. Abels,, B. Böddinghaus,, M. Altwegg,, and E. C. Böttger. 2006. 16S rRNA gene sequencing versus the API 20 NE system and the VITEK 2 ID-GNB card for identification of nonfermenting gram-negative bacteria in the clinical laboratory. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:13591366.
20. Botelho-Nevers, E.,, F. Gouriet,, C. Rovery,, P. Paris,, V. Roux,, D. Raoult,, and P. Brouqui. 2005. First case of osteomyelitis due to Shewanella algae. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:53885390.
21. Bouvet, P. J. M.,, and P. A. D. Grimont. 1986. Taxonomy of the genus Acinetobacter with the recognition of Acinetobacter baumannii sp. nov., Acinetobacter haemolyticus sp. nov., Acinetobacter johnsonii sp. nov., and Acinetobacter junii sp. nov. and emended descriptions of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Acinetobacter lwoffii. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 36:228240.
22. Bouvet, P. J. M.,, and P. A. D. Grimont. 1987. Identification and biotyping of clinical isolates of Acinetobacter. Ann. Inst. Pasteur Microbiol. 138:569578.
23. Bouvet, P. J. M.,, and S. Jeanjean. 1989. Delineation of new proteolytic genomic species in the genus Acinetobacter. Res. Microbiol. 140:291299.
24. Bovre, K.,, J. E. Fuglesang,, N. Hagen,, E. Jantzen,, and L. O. Froholm. 1976. Moraxella atlantae sp. nov. and its distinction from Moraxella phenylpyrouvica. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 26:511521.
25. Bowman, J. P.,, J. Cavanagh,, J. J. Austin,, and K. Sanderson. 1996. Novel Psychrobacter species from Antarctic ornithogenic soils. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 46:841848.
26. Brown, R. B.,, D. Phillips,, M. J. Barker,, R. Pieczarka,, M. Sands,, and D. Teres. 1989. Outbreak of nosocomial Flavobacterium meningosepticum respiratory infections associated with use of aerosolized polymyxin B. Am. J. Infect. Control 17:121125.
27. Brown, W. J.,, R. L. Sautter,, and A. E. Crist, Jr. 1992. Susceptibility testing of clinical isolates of Methylobacterium species. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 36:16351638.
28. Butt, A. A.,, J. Figueroa,, and D. H. Martin. 1997. Ocular infection caused by three unusual marine organisms. Clin. Infect. Dis. 24:740.
29. Carr, E. L.,, P. Kämpfer,, B. K. Patel,, V. Gürtler,, and R. J. Seviour. 2003. Seven novel species of Acinetobacter isolated from activated sludge. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 53:953963.
30. Casalta, J. P.,, Y. Peloux,, D. Raoult,, P. Brunet,, and H. Gallais. 1989. Pneumonia and meningitis caused by a new nonfermentative unknown gram-negative bacterium. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27:14461448.
31. Catry, B.,, F. Boyen,, M. Baele,, J. Dewulf,, A. De Kruif,, M. Vaneechoutte,, F. Haesebrouck,, and A. Decostere. 2007. Recovery of Moraxella ovis from the bovine respiratory tract and differentiation of Moraxella species by tDNA-intergenic spacer PCR. Vet. Microbiol. 120:375380.
32.Centers for Disease Controland Prevention. 2004. Acinetobacter baumannii infections among patients at military medical facilities treating injured U.S. service members, 2002-2004. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 53:10631066.
33. Ceyhan, M.,, I. Yildirim,, A. Tekeli,, M. Yurdakok,, E. Us,, B. Altun,, T. Kutluk,, A. B. Cengiz,, V. Gurbuz,, C. Barin,, A. Bagdat,, D. Cetinkaya,, D. Gur,, and O. Tuncel. 2008. A Chryseobacterium meningosepticum outbreak observed in 3 clusters involving both neonatal and non-neonatal pediatric patients. Am. J. Infect. Control 36:453457.
34. Chang, H. C.,, Y. F. Wei,, L. Dijkshoorn,, M. Vaneechoutte,, C. T. Tang,, and T. C. Chang. 2005. Species-level identification of isolates of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex by sequence analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA gene spacer region. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:16321639.
35. Chang, J.-C.,, P.-R. Hsueh,, J.-J. Wu,, S.-W. Ho,, W.-C. Hsieh,, and K.-T. Luh. 1997. Antimicrobial susceptibility of flavobacteria as determined by agar dilution and disk diffusion methods. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41:13011306.
36. Chen, Y.-S.,, Y.-C. Liu,, M.-Y. Yen,, J.-H. Wang,, J.-H. Wang,, S.-R. Wann,, and D.-L. Cheng. 1997. Skin and soft-tissue manifestations of Shewanella putrefaciens infection. Clin. Infect. Dis. 25:225229.
37. Chiron, R.,, H. Marchandin,, F. Counil,, E. Jumas-Bilak,, A. M. Freydiere,, G. Bellon,, M. O. Husson,, D. Turck,, F. Bremont,, G. Chabanon,, and C. Segonds. 2005. Clinical and microbiological features of Inquilinus sp. isolates from five patients with cystic fibrosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:39383943.
38. Chiu, C.-H.,, M. Waddingdon,, W.-S. Hsieh,, D. Greenberg,, P. C. Schreckenberger,, and A. M. Carnahan. 2000. Atypical Chryseobacterium meningosepticum and meningitis and sepsis in newborns and the immunocompromised, Taiwan. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 6:481486.
39. Chu, Y. W.,, T. K. Cheung,, M. Y. Chu,, J. Y. Lo,, and L. Dijkshoorn. 2009. OXA-23-type imipenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii in Hong Kong. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 34:285286.
40. Chu, Y. W.,, C. M. Leung,, E. T. Houang,, K. C. Ng,, C. B. Leung,, H. Y. Leung,, and A. F. Cheng. 1999. Skin carriage of acinetobacters in Hong Kong. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:29622967.
41. Cisneros, J. M.,, M. J. Reyes,, J. Pachon,, B. Becerril,, F. J. Caballero,, J. L. Garcia-Garmendia,, C. Ortiz,, and A. R. Cobacho. 1996.Bacteremia due to Acinetobacter baumannii: epidemiology, clinical findings, and prognostic features. Clin. Infect. Dis. 22:10261032.
42. Coenye, T.,, J. Goris,, T. Spilker,, P. Vandamme,, and J. J. LiPuma. 2002. Characterization of unusual bacteria isolated from respiratory secretions of cystic fibrosis patients and description of Inquilinus limosus gen. nov., sp. nov. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:20622069.
43. Cohen, M. F.,, X. Y. Han,, and M. Mazzola. 2004. Molecular and physiological comparison of Azospirillum spp. isolated from Rhizoctonia solani mycelia, wheat rhizosphere, and human skin wounds. Can. J. Microbiol. 50:291297.
44. Cruze, J. A.,, J. T. Singer,, and W. R. Finnerty. 1979. Conditions for quantitative transformation in Acinetobacter calcoaceticus. Curr. Microbiol. 3:129132.
45. Daley, D.,, S. Neville,, and K. Kociuba. 1997. Peritonitis associated with a CDC group EO-3 organism. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:33383339.
46. Dan, M.,, R. Gutman,, and A. Biro. 1992. Peritonitis caused by Pseudomonas putrefaciens in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 14:359360.
47. Daneshvar, M. I.,, B. Hill,, D. G. Hollis,, C. W. Moss,, J. G. Jordan,, J. P. MacGregor,, F. Tenover,, and R. S. Weyant. 1998. CDC group O-3: phenotypic characteristics, fatty acid composition, isoprenoid quinone content, and in vitro antimicrobic susceptibilities of an unusual gram-negative bacterium isolated from clinical specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:16741678.
48. Daneshvar, M. I.,, D. G. Hollis,, R. S. Weyant,, A. G. Steigerwalt,, A. M. Whitney,, M. P. Douglas,, J. P. Macgregor,, J. G. Jordan,, L. W. Mayer,, S. M. Rassouli,, W. Barchet,, C. Munro,, L. Shuttleworth,, and K. Bernard. 2003. Paracoccus yeeii sp. nov. (formerly CDC group EO-2), a novel bacterial species associated with human infection. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:12891294.
49. Das, K.,, S. Shah,, and M. H. Levi. 1997. Misleading Gram stain from a patient with Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis bacteremia. Clin. Microbiol. Newsl. 19:8588.
50. Da Silva, G. J.,, L. Dijkshoorn,, T. van der Reijden,, B. van Strijen,, and A. Duarte. 2007. Identification of widespread, closely related Acinetobacter baumannii isolates in Portugal as a subgroup of European clone II. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 13:190195.
51. Dauga, C.,, M. Gillis,, P. Vandamme,, E. Ageron,, F. Grimont,, K. Kersters,, C. de Mahenge,, Y. Peloux,, and P. A. D. Grimont. 1993. Balneatrix alpica gen. nov., sp. nov., a bacterium associated with pneumonia and meningitis in a spa therapy centre. Res. Microbiol. 144:3546.
52. Davis, K. A.,, K. A. Moran,, C. K. Mcallister,, and P. G. Gray. 2005. Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter extremity infections in soldiers. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 11:12181224.
53. De, I.,, K. V. I. Rolston,, and X. Y. Han. 2004. Clinical significance of Roseomonas species isolated from catheter and blood samples: analysis of 36 cases in patients with cancer. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38:15791584.
54. De Baere, T.,, A. Muylaert,, E. Everaert,, G. Wauters,, G. Claeys,, G. Verschraegen,, and M. Vaneechoutte. 2002. Bacteremia due to Moraxella atlantae in a cancer patient. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:26932695.
55. De Beaufort, A. J.,, A. T. Bernards,, L. Dijkshoorn,, and C. P. van Boven. 1999. Acinetobacter junii causes life-threatening sepsis in preterm infants. Acta Paediatr. 88:772775.
56. Dijkshoorn, L.,, M. F. Michel,, and J. E. Degener. 1987. Cell envelope protein profiles of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus strains isolated in hospitals. J. Med. Microbiol. 23:313319.
57. Dijkshoorn, L.,, and A. Nemec,. 2008. The diversity of the genus Acinetobacter, p. 134. In U. Gerischer (ed.), Acinetobacter Molecular Microbiology. Caister Academic Press, Norfolk, United Kingdom.
58. Dijkshoorn, L.,, A. Nemec,, and H. Seifert. 2007. An increasing threat in hospitals: multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 5:939951.
59. Dijkshoorn, L.,, E. van Aken,, L. Shunburne,, T. van der Reijden,, A. T. Bernards,, A. Nemec,, and K. J. Towner. 2005. Prevalence of Acinetobacter baumannii and other Acinetobacter spp. in faecal samples from non-hospitalised individuals. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 11:329332.
60. Dijkshoorn, L.,, B. van Harsselaar,, I. Tjernberg,, P. J. Bouvet,, and M. Vaneechoutte. 1998. Evaluation of amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis for identification of Acinetobacter genomic species. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 21:3339.
61. Dijkshoorn, L.,, W. Van Vianen,, J. E. Degener,, and M. F. Michel. 1987. Typing of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus strains isolated from hospital patients by cell envelope protein profiles. Epidemiol. Infect. 99:659667.
62. Dobrewski, R.,, E. Savov,, A. T. Bernards,, M. van den Barselaar,, P. Nordmann,, P. J. van den Broek,, and L. Dijkshoorn. 2006. Genotypic diversity and antibiotic susceptibility of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates in a Bulgarian hospital. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 12:11351137.
63. Dortet, L.,, P. Legrand,, C. J. Soussy,, and V. Cattoir. 2006. Bacterial identification, clinical significance, and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Acinetobacter ursingii and Acinetobacter schindleri, two frequently misidentified opportunistic pathogens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:44714478.
64. Dunne, W. M., Jr.,, J. Tillman,, and J. C. Murray. 1993. Recovery of a strain of Agrobacterium radiobacter with a mucoid phenotype from an immunocompromised child with bacteremia. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31:25412543.
65. Ecker, J. A.,, C. Massire,, T. A. Hall,, R. Ranken,, T. T. Pennella,, I. C. Agasino,, L. B. Blyn,, S. A. Hofstadler,, T. P. Endy,, P. T. Scott,, L. Lindler,, T. Hamilton,, C. Gaddy,, K. Snow,, M. Pe,, J. Fishbain,, D. Craft,, G. Deye,, S. Riddell,, E. Milstrey,, B. Petruccelli,, S. Brisse,, V. Harpin,, A. Schink,, D. J. Ecker,, R. Sampath,, and M. W. Eshoo. 2006. Identification of Acinetobacter species and genotyping of Acinetobacter baumannii by multilocus PCR and mass spectrometry. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:29212932.
66. Edmond, M. B.,, S. A. Riddler,, C. M. Baxter,, B. M. Wicklund,, and A. W. Pasculle. 1993. Agrobacterium radiobacter: a recently recognized opportunistic pathogen. Clin. Infect. Dis. 16:388391.
67. Ehrenstein, B.,, A. T. Bernards,, L. Dijkshoorn,, P. Gerner-Smidt,, K. J. Towner,, P. J. Bouvet,, F. D. Daschner,, and H. Grundmann. 1996. Acinetobacter species identification by using tRNA spacer fingerprinting. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:24142420.
68. Ellington, M. J.,, J. Kistler,, D. M. Livermore,, and N. Woodford. 2007. Multiplex PCR for rapid detection of genes encoding acquired metallo-beta-lactamases. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 59:321322.
69. Ezzedine, H.,, M. Mourad,, C. Van Ossel,, C. Logghe,, J. P. Squifflet,, F. Renault,, G. Wauters,, J. Gigi,, L. Wilmotte,, and J. J. Haxha. 1994.An outbreak of Ochrobactrum anthropi bacteraemia in five organ transplant patients. J. Hosp. Infect. 27:3542.
70. Fass, R. J.,, and J. Barnishan. 1980. In vitro susceptibility of nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli other than Pseudomonas aeruginosa to 32 antimicrobial agents. Rev. Infect. Dis. 2:841853.
71. Fournier, P. E.,, D. Vallenet,, V. Barbe,, S. Audic,, H. Ogata,, L. Poirel,, H. Richet,, C. Robert,, S. Mangenot,, C. Abergel,, P. Nordmann,, J. Weissenbach,, D. Raoult,, and J. M. Claverie. 2006. Comparative genomics of multidrug resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii. PLoS Genet. 2:e7.
72. Fraser, S. L.,, and J. H. Jorgensen. 1997. Reappraisal of the antimicrobial susceptibilities of Chryseobacterium and Flavobacterium species and methods for reliable susceptibility testing. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41:27382741.
73. Freney, J.,, W. Hansen,, C. Ploton,, H. Meugnier,, S. Madier,, N. Bornstein,, and J. Fleurette. 1987. Septicemia caused by Sphingobacterium multivorum. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25: 11261128.
74. Gallego, V.,, M. T. Garcia,, and A. Ventosa. 2005. Methylobacterium isbiliense sp. nov., isolated from the drinking water system of Sevilla, Spain. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 55:23332337.
75. Gerner-Smidt, P.,, I. Tjernberg,, and J. Ursing. 1991. Reliability of phenotypic tests for identification of Acinetobacter species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29:277282.
76. Gini, G. A. 1990. Ocular infection caused by Psychrobacter immobilis acquired in the hospital. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28: 400401.
77. Green, O.,, P. Murray,, and J. C. Gea-Banacloche. 2008. Sepsis caused by Elizabethkingia miricola successfully treated with tigecycline and levofloxacin. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 62:430432.
78. Green, P. N.,, I. J. Bousfield,, and D. Hood. 1988. Three new Methylobacterium species: M. rhodesianum sp. nov., M. zatmanii sp. nov., and M. fujisawaense sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 38:124127.
79. Greenberg, D. E.,, S. F. Porcella,, F. Stock,, A. Wong,, P. S. Conville,, P. R. Murray,, S. M. Holland,, and A. M. Zelazny. 2006. Granulibacter bethesdensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a distinctive pathogenic acetic acid bacterium in the family Acetobacteraceae. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 56:26092616.
80. Grundmann, H. J.,, K. J. Towner,, L. Dijkshoorn,, P. Gerner-Smidt,, M. Maher,, H. Seifert,, and M. Vaneechoutte. 1997. Multicenter study using standardized protocols and reagents for evaluation of reproducibility of PCR-based fingerprinting of Acinetobacter spp. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:30713077.
81. Gundi, V. A.,, L. Dijkshoorn,, S. Burignat,, D. Raoult,, and S. B. La. 2009. Validation of partial rpoB gene sequence analysis for the identification of clinically important and emerging Acinetobacter species. Microbiology 155:23332341.
82. Han, X. Y.,, A. S. Pham,, J. J. Tarrand,, K. V. Rolston,, L. O. Helsel,, and P. N. Levett. 2003. Bacteriologic characterization of 36 strains of Roseomonas species and proposal of Roseomonas mucosa sp. nov. and Roseomonas gilardii subsp. rosea subsp. nov. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 120:256264.
83. Hawley, H. B.,, and D. W. Gump. 1973. Vancomycin therapy of bacterial meningitis. Am. J. Dis. Child. 126:261264.
84. Helsel, L. O.,, D. G. Hollis,, A. G. Steigerwalt,, R. E. Morey,, J. Jordan,, T. Aye,, J. Radosevic,, D. Jannat-Khah,, D. Thiry,, D. R. Lonsway,, J. B. Patel,, M. I. Daneshvar,, and P. N. Levett. 2007. Identification of “Haematobacter,” a new genus of aerobic gram-negative rods isolated from clinical specimens, and reclassification of Rhodobacter massiliensis as “Haematobacter massiliensis comb. nov.” J. Clin. Microbiol. 45:12381243.
85. Hollis, D. G.,, M. I. Daneshvar,, C. W. Moss,, and C. N. Baker. 1995. Phenotypic characteristics, fatty acid composition, and isoprenoid quinone content of CDC group IIg bacteria. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:762764.
86. Hollis, D. G.,, C. W. Moss,, M. I. Daneshvar,, L. Meadows,, J. Jordan,, and B. Hill. 1993. Characterization of Centers for Disease Control group NO-1, a fastidious, nonoxidative, gram-negative organism associated with dog and cat bites. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31:746748.
87. Holmes, B.,, M. Costas,, A. C. Wood,, R. J. Owen,, and D. D. Morgan. 1990. Differentiation of Achromobacter-like strains from human blood by DNA restriction endonuclease digest and ribosomal RNA gene probe patterns. Epidemiol. Infect. 105:541551.
88. Holmes, B.,, R. Lewis,, and A. Trevett. 1992. Septicaemia due to Achromobacter group B: a report of two cases. Med. Microbiol. Lett. 1:177184.
89. Holmes, B.,, R. J. Owen,, A. Evans,, H. Malnick,, and W. R. Willcox. 1977. Pseudomonas paucimobilis, a new species isolated from human clinical specimens, the hospital environment, and other sources. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 27:133146.
90. Holmes, B.,, R. J. Owen,, and D. G. Hollis. 1982. Flavobacterium spiritivorum, a new species isolated from human clinical specimens. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 32:157165.
91. Holmes, B.,, R. J. Owen,, and R. E. Weaver. 1981. Flavobacterium multivorum, a new species isolated from human clinical specimens and previously known as group IIK, biotype 2. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 31:2134.
92. Holmes, B.,, C. A. Pinning,, and C. A. Dawson. 1986. A probability matrix for the identification of Gram-negative, aerobic, non-fermentative bacteria that grow on nutrient agar. J. Gen. Microbiol. 132:18271842.
93. Holmes, B.,, M. Popoff,, M. Kiredjian,, and K. Kersters. 1988. Ochrobactrum anthropi gen. nov., sp. nov. from human clinical specimens and previously known as group Vd. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 38:406416.
94. Holmes, B.,, P. Segers,, T. Coenye,, M. Vancanneyt,, and P. Vandamme. 2006. Pannonibacter phragmitetus, described from a Hungarian soda lake in 2003, had been recognized several decades earlier from human blood cultures as Achromobacter groups B and E. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 56:29452948.
95. Holmes, B.,, J. J. S. Snell,, and S. P. Lapage. 1979. Flavobacterium odoratum: a species resistant to a wide range of antimicrobial agents. J. Clin. Pathol. 32:7377.
96. Holmes, B.,, A. G. Steigerwalt,, R. E. Weaver,, and D. J. Brenner. 1986. Weeksella virosa gen. nov., sp. nov. (formerly group IIf), found in human clinical specimens. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 8:185190.
97. Holmes, B.,, A. G. Steigerwalt,, R. E. Weaver,, and D. J. Brenner. 1986. Weeksella zoohelcum sp. nov. (formerly group IIj), from human clinical specimens. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 8:191196.
98. Holmes, B.,, R. E. Weaver,, A. G. Steigerwalt,, and D. J. Brenner. 1988. A taxonomic study of Flavobacterium spiritivorum and Sphingobacterium mizutae: proposal of Flavobacterium yabuuchiae sp. nov. and Flavobacterium mizutaii comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 38:348353.
99. Holt, H. M.,, P. Sogaard,, and B. Gahrn-Hansen. 1997. Ear infections with Shewanella alga: a bacteriologic, clinical and epidemiologic study of 67 cases. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 3:329334.
100. Hornei, B.,, E. Luneberg,, H. Schmidt-Rotte,, M. Maab,, K. Weber,. F. Heits,, M. Frosch,, and W. Solbach. 1999. Systemic infection of an immunocompromised patient with Methylobacterium zatmanii. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:248250.
101. Hsueh, P.-R.,, J.-C. Chang,, L.-J. Teng,, P.-C. Yang,, S.-W. Ho,, W.-C. Hsieh,, and K.-T. Luh. 1997. Comparison of Etest and agar dilution method for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Flavobacterium isolates. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:10211023.
102. Hsueh, P.-R.,, L.-J. Teng,, S.-W. Ho,, W.-C. Hsieh,, and K.-T. Luh. 1996. Clinical and microbiological characteristics of Flavobacterium indologenes infections associated with indwelling devices. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:19081913.
103. Hsueh, P.-R.,, L.-J. Teng,, P.-C. Yang,, Y.-C. Chen,, H.-J. Pan,, S.-W. Ho,, and K.-T. Luh. 1998. Nosocomial infections caused by Sphingomonas paucimobilis: clinical features and microbiological characteristics. Clin. Infect. Dis. 26:676681.
104. Hsueh, P.-R.,, J.-J. Wu,, T.-R. Hsiue,, and W.-C. Hsieh. 1995. Bacteremic necrotizing fasciitis due to Flavobacterium odoratum. Clin. Infect. Dis. 21:13371338.
105. Hulse, M.,, S. Johnson,, and P. Ferrieri. 1993. Agrobacterium infections in humans: experience at one hospital and review. Clin. Infect. Dis. 16:112117.
106. Hung, P. P.,, Y. H. Lin,, C. F. Lin,, M. F. Liu,, and Z. Y. Shi. 2008. Chryseobacterium meningosepticum infection: antibiotic susceptibility and risk factors for mortality. J. Microbiol. Immunol. Infect. 41:137144.
107. Hung, Y. T.,, Y. T. Lee,, L. J. Huang,, T. L. Chen,, K. W. Yu,, C. P. Fung,, W. L. Cho,, and C. Y. Liu. 2009. Clinical characteristics of patients with Acinetobacter junii infection. J. Microbiol. Immunol. Infect. 42:4753.
108. Huys, G.,, M. Cnockaert,, M. Vaneechoutte,, N. Woodford,, A. Nemec,, L. Dijkshoorn,, and J. Swings. 2005. Distribution of tetracycline resistance genes in genotypically related and unrelated multiresistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains from different European hospitals. Res. Microbiol. 156:348355.
109. Iacono, M.,, L. Villa,, D. Fortini,, R. Bordoni,, F. Imperi,, R. J. Bonnal,, T. Sicheritz-Ponten,, B. G. De,, P. Visca,, A. Cassone,, and A. Carattoli. 2008. Whole-genome pyrosequencing of an epidemic multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strain belonging to the European clone II group. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52:26162625.
110. Iwata, M.,, K. Tateda,, T. Matsumoto,, N. Furuya,, S. Mizuiri,, and K. Yamaguchi. 1999. Primary Shewanella alga septicemia in a patient on hemodialysis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:21042105.
111. Jannes, G.,, M. Vaneechoutte,, M. Lannoo,, M. Gillis,, M. Vancanneyt,, P. Vandamme,, G. Verschraegen,, H. van Heuverswyn,, and R. Rossau. 1993. Polyphasic taxonomy leading to the proposal of Moraxella canis sp. nov. for Moraxella catarrhalis-like strains. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 43:438449.
112. Janssen, P.,, K. Maquelin,, R. Coopman,, I. Tjernberg,, P. Bouvet,, K. Kersters,, and L. Dijkshoorn. 1997. Discrimination of Acinetobacter genomic species by AFLP fingerprinting. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 47:11791187.
113. Jawad, A.,, P. M. Hawkey,, J. Heritage,, and A. M. Snelling. 1994. Description of Leeds Acinetobacter Medium, a new selective and differential medium for isolation of clinically important Acinetobacter spp., and comparison with Herellea agar and Holton’s agar. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32:23532358.
114. Jenks, P. J.,, and E. J. Shaw. 1997. Recurrent septicaemia due to “Achromobacter group B.” J. Infect. 34:143145.
115. Joly-Guillou, M. l. 2005. Clinical impact and pathogenicity of Acinetobacter. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 11:868873.
116. Juni, E., 2005. Genus II. Acinetobacter Brisou and Prévot 1954, p. 425437. In G. M. Garrity,, D. J. Brenner,, N. R. Krieg,, and J. T. Staley (ed.), Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd ed., vol. 2. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY.
117. Juni, E.,, and G. A. Heym. 1986. Psychrobacter immobilis gen. nov., sp. nov.: genospecies composed of gram-negative, aerobic, oxidase positive coccobacilli. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 36:388391.
118. Kämpfer, P.,, A. Albrecht,, S. Buczolitz,, and H. J. Busse. 2002. Psychrobacter faecalis sp. nov., a new species from a bioaerosol originating from pigeon faeces. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 25:3136.
119. Kämpfer, P.,, V. Avesani,, M. Janssens,, J. Charlier,, T. De Baere,, and M. Vaneechoutte. 2006. Description of Wautersiella falsenii gen. nov., sp. nov., to accommodate clinical isolates phenotypically resembling members of the genera Chryseobacterium and Empedobacter. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 56:23232329.
120. Kämpfer, P.,, M. Vaneechoutte,, N. Lodders,, T. De Baere,, V. Avesani,, M. Janssens,, H.-J. Busse,, and G. Wauters. 2009. Description of Chryseobacterium anthropi sp. nov. to accommodate clinical isolates biochemically similar to Kaistella koreensis and Chryseobacterium haifense, proposal to reclassify Kaistella koreensis as Chryseobacterium koreense comb. nov. and emended description of the genus Chryseobacterium. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 59:24212428.
121. Kappstein, I.,, H. Grundmann,, T. Hauer,, and C. Niemeyer. 2000. Aerators as a reservoir of Acinetobacter junii: an outbreak of bacteraemia in paediatric oncology patients. J. Hosp. Infect. 44:2730.
122. Karalus, R.,, and A. Campagnari. 2000. Moraxella catarrhalis: a review of an important human mucosal pathogen. Microbes Infect. 2:547559.
123. Katsura, K.,, H. Kawasaki,, W. Potacharoen,, S. Saono,, T. Seki,, Y. Yamada,, T. Uchimura,, and K. Komagata. 2001. Asaia siamensis sp. nov., an acetic acid bacterium in the α-Proteobacteria. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 51:559563.
124. Kaye, K. M.,, A. Macone,, and P. H. Kazanjian. 1992. Catheter infection caused by Methylobacterium in immunocompromised hosts: report of three cases and review of the literature. Clin. Infect. Dis. 14:10101014.
125. Kern, W. V.,, M. Oethinger,, A. Kaufhold,, E. Rozdzinski,, and R. Marre. 1993. Ochrobactrum anthropi bacteremia: report of four cases and short review. Infection 21:306310.
126. Khashe, S.,, and J. M. Janda. 1998. Biochemical and pathogenic properties of Shewanella alga and Shewanella putrefaciens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:783787.
127. Kim, K. K.,, M. K. Kim,, J. H. Lim,, H. Y. Park,, and S.-T. Lee. 2005. Transfer of Chryseobacterium meningosepticum and Chryseobacterium miricola to Elizabethkingia gen. nov. as Elizabethkingia meningoseptica comb. nov. and Elizabethkingia miricola comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 55:12871293.
128. Ko, K. S.,, N. Y. Lee,, W. S. Oh,, J. H. Lee,, H. K. Ki,, K. R. Peck,, and J.-H. Song. 2005. Tepidimonas arfidensis sp. nov., a novel gram-negative and thermophilic bacterium isolated from the bone marrow of a patient with leukemia in Korea. Microbiol. Immunol. 49:785788.
129. Ko, W. C.,, N. Y. Lee,, S. C. Su,, L. Dijkshoorn,, M. Vaneechoutte,, L. R. Wang,, J. J. Yan,, and T. C. Chang. 2008. Oligonucleotide array-based identification of species in the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex in isolates from blood cultures and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the isolates. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46:20522059.
130. Koh, T. H.,, L. H. Sng,, G. C. Wang,, L. Y. Hsu,, and Y. Zhao. 2007. IMP-4 and OXA beta-lactamases in Acinetobacter baumannii from Singapore. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 59:627632.
131. Lambiase, A.,, M. Del Pezzo,, V. Raia,, A. Sepe,, P. Ferri,, and F. Rossano. 2007. Chryseobacterium respiratory tract infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. J. Infect. 55:518523.
132. Lee, C. H.,, W. C. Lin,, J. H. Chia,, L. H. Su,, C. C. Chien,, A. H. Mao,, and J. W. Liu. 2008. Community-acquired osteomyelitis caused by Chryseobacterium meningosepticum: case report and literature review. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 60:8993.
133. Lee, S. W.,, C. A. Tsai,, and B. J. Lee. 2008. Chryseobacterium meningosepticum sepsis complicated with retroperitoneal hematoma and pleural effusion in a diabetic patient. J. Chin. Med. Assoc. 71:473476.
134. Leung, W. S.,, C. M. Chu,, K. Y. Tsang,, F. H. Lo,, K. F. Lo,, and P. L. Ho. 2006. Fulminant community-acquired Acinetobacter baumannii pneumonia as a distinct clinical syndrome. Chest 129:102109.
135. Lin, P. Y.,, C. Chu,, L. H. Su,, C. T. Huang,, W. Y. Chang,, and C. H. Chiu. 2004. Clinical and microbiological analysis of bloodstream infections caused by Chryseobacterium meningosepticum in nonneonatal patients. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:33533355.
136. Lin, X. H.,, Y. H. Xu,, J. Cheng,, T. Li,, and Z. X. Wang. 2008. Heterogeneity of blaIND metallo-b-lactamase-producing Chryseobacterium indologenes isolates detected in Hefei, China. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 32:398400.
137. Lloyd-Puryear, M.,, D. Wallace,, T. Baldwin,, and D. G. Hollis. 1991. Meningitis caused by Psychrobacter immobilis in an infant. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29:20412042.
138. López, F. C.,, F. F. de Luna,, M. C. Delgado,, I. I. de la Rosa,, S. Valdezate,, J. A. Nieto,, and M. Casal. 2008. Granulibacter bethesdensis isolated in a child patient with chronic granulomatous disease. J. Infect. 57:275277.
139. Loubinoux, J.,, L. Mihaila-Amrouche,, A. Le Fleche,, E. Pigne,, G. Huchon,, P. A. Grimont,, and A. Bouvet. 2003. Bacteremia caused by Acinetobacter ursingii. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:13371338.
140. MacDonell, M. T.,, and R. R. Colwell. 1985. Phylogeny of the Vibrionaceae, and recommendation for two new genera, Listonella and Shewanella. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 6:171182.
141. Mahmood, M. S.,, A. R. Sarwari,, M. A. Khan,, Z. Sophie,, E. Khan,, and S. Sami. 2000. Infective endocarditis and septic embolization with Ochrobactrum anthropi: case report and review of literature. J. Infect. 40:287290.
142. Marchaim, D.,, S. Navon-Venezia,, D. Schwartz,, J. Tarabeia,, I. Fefer,, M. J. Schwaber,, and Y. Carmeli. 2007. Surveillance cultures and duration of carriage of multi-drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45:15511555.
143. Marin, M. E.,, J. Marco Del Pont,, E. Dibar,, L. Fernandez Caniggia,, G. Greco,, Y. Flores,, and A. Ascione. 2001. Catheter-related bacteremia caused by Roseomonas gilardii in an immunocompromised patient. Int. J. Infect. Dis. 5:170171.
144. Mesnard, R.,, J. M. Sire,, P. Y. Donnio,, J. Y. Riou,, and J. Avril. 1992. Septic arthritis due to Oligella urethralis. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 11:195196.
145. Moller, L. V. M.,, J. P. Arends,, H. J. M. Harmsen,, A. Talens,, P. Terpstra,, and M. J. H. Slooff. 1999. Ochrobactrum intermedium infection after liver transplantation. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:241244.
146. Montejo, M.,, K. Aguirrebengoa,, J. Ugalde,, L. Lopez,, J. A. S. Nieto,, and J. L. Hernández. 2001. Bergeyella zoohelcum bacteremia after a dog bite. Clin. Infect. Dis. 33:16081609.
147. Moore, J. E.,, M. Mccalmont,, J. Xu,, B. C. Millar,, and N. Heaney. 2002. Asaia sp., an unusual spoilage organism of fruit-flavored bottled water. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68:41304131.
148. Morrison, A. J.,, and J. A. Shulman. 1986. Community-acquired bloodstream infection caused by Pseudomonas paucimobilis: case report and review of literature. J. Clin. Microbiol. 24:853855.
149. Nemec, A.,, T. De Baere,, I. Tjernberg,, M. Vaneechoutte,, T. J. K. van der Reijden,, and L. Dijkshoorn. 2001. Acinetobacter ursingii sp. nov. and Acinetobacter schindleri sp. nov., isolated from human clinical specimens. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 51:18911899.
150. Nemec, A.,, L. Dijkshoorn,, I. Cleenwerck,, T. De Baere,, D. Janssens,, T. J. K. van der Reijden,, P. Jezek,, and M. Vaneechoutte. 2003. Acinetobacter parvus sp. nov., a small-colony-forming species isolated from human clinical specimens. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 53:15631567.
151. Nemec, A.,, L. Dijkshoorn,, and T. van der Reijden. 2004. Long-term predominance of two pan-European clones among multi-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains in the Czech Republic. J. Med. Microbiol. 53:147153.
152. Nemec, A.,, L. Krizova,, M. Maixnerova,, L. Diancourt,, T. J. vanderReijden,, S. Brisse,, P. vandenBroek,, and L. Dijkshoorn. 2008. Emergence of carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii in the Czech Republic is associated with the spread of multidrug-resistant strains of European clone II. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 62:484489.
153. Nemec, A.,, M. Maixnerova,, T. J. vanderReijden,, P. J. vandenBroek,, and L. Dijkshoorn. 2007. Relationship between the AdeABC efflux system gene content, netilmicin susceptibility and multidrug resistance in a genotypically diverse collection of Acinetobacter baumannii strains. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 60:483489.
154. Nemec, A.,, M. Musílek,, M. Maixnerová,, T. De Baere,, T. J. K. van der Reijden,, M. Vaneechoutte,, and L. Dijkshoorn. 2009. Acinetobacter beijerinckii sp. nov. and Acinetobacter gyllenbergii sp. nov., haemolytic organisms isolated from humans. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 59:118124.
155. Nemec, A.,, M. Musílek,, O. Šedo,, T. De Baere,, M. Maixnerová,, T. J. K. vanderReijden,, Z. Zdráhal,, M. Vaneechoutte,, and L. Dijkshoorn. 2010. Acinetobacter bereziniae sp. nov. and Acinetobacter guillouiae sp. nov., to accommodate Acinetobacter genomic species 10 and 11, respectively. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 60:896903.
156. Nemec, A.,, M. Musilek,, M. Vaneechoutte,, E. Falsen,, and L. Dijkshoorn. 2008. Lack of evidence for “Acinetobacter septicus” as a species different from Acinetobacter ursingii? J. Clin. Microbiol. 46:28262827.
157. Noell, F.,, M. F. Gorce,, C. Garde,, and C. Bizet. 1989. Isolation of Weeksella zoohelcum in septicaemia. Lancet ii:332.
158. Nozue, H.,, T. Hayashi,, Y. Hashimoto,, T. Ezaki,, K. Hamasaki,, K. Ohwada,, and Y. Terawaki. 1992. Isolation and characterization of Shewanella alga from human clinical specimens and emendation of the description of S. alga Simidu et al., 1990, 335. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 42:628634.
159. Nulens, E.,, B. Bussels,, A. Bols,, B. Gordts,, and H. W. Van Landuyt. 2001. Recurrent bacteremia by Chryseobacterium indologenes in an oncology patient with a totally implanted intravascular device. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 7:391393.
160. O’Hara, C. M.,, and J. M. Miller. 2003. Evaluation of the Vitek 2 ID-GNB assay for identification of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and other nonenteric gram-negative bacilli and comparison with the Vitek GNI+ card. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:20962101.
161. Oncul, O.,, O. Keskin,, H. V. Acar,, Y. Kucukardali,, R. Evrenkaya,, E. M. Atasoyu,, C. Top,, S. Nalbant,, S. Ozkan,, G. Emekdas,, S. Cavuslu,, M. H. Us,, A. Pahsa,, and M. Gokben. 2002. Hospital-acquired infections following the 1999 Marmara earthquake. J. Hosp. Infect. 51:4751.
162. Osterhout, G. J.,, V. H. Shull,, and J. D. Dick. 1991. Identification of clinical isolates of gram-negative nonfermentative bacteria by an automated cellular fatty acid identification system. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29:18221830.
163. Patt, T. E.,, G. C. Cole,, and R. S. Hanson. 1976. Methylobacterium, a new genus of facultatively methylotrophic bacteria. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 26:226229.
164. Peleg, A. Y.,, H. Seifert,, and D. L. Paterson. 2008. Acinetobacter baumannii: emergence of a successful pathogen. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 21:538582.
165. Perera, S.,, and C. Palasuntheram. 2004. Chryseobacterium meningosepticum infections in a dialysis unit. Ceylon Med J. 49:5760.
166. Perilli, M.,, B. Caporale,, G. Celenza,, C. Pellegrini,, J. D. Docquier,, M. Mezzatesta,, G. M. Rossolini,, S. Stefani,, and G. Amicosante. 2007. Identification and characterization of a new metallo-β-lactamase, IND-5, from a clinical isolate of Chryseobacterium indologenes. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51:29882990.
167. Petti, C. A.,, C. R. Polage,, and P. Schreckenberger. 2005. Is misidentification of microorganisms by conventional methods a laboratory error? Preventing laboratory errors with 16S rRNA gene sequencing. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:61236125.
168. Pickett, M. J. 1989. Methods for identification of flavobacteria. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27:23092315.
169. Pickett, M. J.,, A. von Graevenitz,, G. E. Pfyffer,, V. Pünter,, and M. Altwegg. 1996. Phenotypic features distinguishing Oligella urethralis from Moraxella osloensis. Med. Microbiol. Lett. 5:265270.
170. Pitulle, C.,, D. M. Citron,, B. Bochner,, R. Barbers,, and M. D. Appleman. 1999. Novel bacterium isolated from a lung transplant patient with cystic fibrosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:38513855.
171. Potron, A.,, L. Poirel,, J. Croizé,, V. Chanteperdrix,, and P. Nordmann. 2009. Genetic and biochemical characterization of the first extended-spectrum CARB-type beta-lactamase, RTG-4, from Acinetobacter baumannii. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53:30103016.
172. Prashanth, K.,, M. P. M. Ranga,, V. A. Rao,, and R. Kanungo. 2000. Corneal perforation due to Acinetobacter junii: a case report. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 37:215217.
173. Pugliese, A.,, B. Pacris,, P. E. Schoch,, and B. A. Cunha. 1993. Oligella urethralis urosepsis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 17:10691070.
174. Purcell, B. K.,, and D. P. Dooley. 1999. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention group O1 bacterium-associated pneumonia complicated by bronchopulmonary fistula and bacteremia. Clin. Infect. Dis. 29:945946.
175. Reina, J.,, A. Bassa,, I. Llompart,, D. Portela,, and N. Borrell. 1991. Infections with Pseudomonas paucimobilis: report of four cases and review. Rev. Infect. Dis. 13:10721076.
176. Reina, J.,, and N. Borrell. 1992. Leg abscess caused by Weeksella zoohelcum following a dog bite. Clin. Infect. Dis. 14:11621163.
177. Reina, J.,, J. Gil,, F. Salva,, J. Gomez,, and P. Alomar. 1990. Microbiological characteristics of Weeksella virosa (formerly CDC group IIf) isolated from the human genitourinary tract. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28:23572359.
178. Rice, E. W.,, D. J. Reasoner,, C. H. Johnson,, and L. A. Demaria. 2000. Monitoring for methylobacteria in water systems. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:42964297.
179. Rihs, J. D.,, D. J. Brenner,, R. E. Weaver,, A. G. Steigerwalt,, D. G. Hollis,, and V. L. Yu. 1993. Roseomonas, a new genus associated with bacteremia and other human infections. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31:32753283.
180. Ringvold, A.,, E. Vik,, and L. S. Bevanger. 1985. Moraxella lacunata isolated from epidemic conjunctivitis among teenaged females. Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenhagen) 63:427431.
181. Rossau, R.,, K. Kersters,, E. Falsen,, E. Jantzen,, P. Segers,, A. Union,, L. Nehls,, and J. De Ley. 1987. Oligella, a new genus including Oligella urethralis comb. nov. (formerly Moraxella urethralis) and Oligella ureolytica sp. nov. (formerly CDC group IVe): relationship to Taylorella equigenitalis and related taxa. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 37:198210.
182. Rossau, R.,, A. Van Landschoot,, M. Gillis,, and J. de Ley. 1991. Taxonomy of Moraxellaceae fam. nov., a new bacterial family to accommodate the genera Moraxella, Acinetobacter, and Psychrobacter and related organisms. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 41:310319.
183. Saavedra, J.,, C. Garrido,, D. Folgueira,, M. J. Torres,, and J. T. Ramos. 1999. Ochrobactrum anthropi bacteremia associated with a catheter in an immunocompromised child and review of the pediatric literature. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 18:658660.
184. Sanders, J. W.,, J. W. Martin,, M. Hooke,, and J. Hooke. 2000. Methylobacterium mesophilicum infection: case report and literature review of an unusual opportunistic pathogen. Clin. Infect. Dis. 30:936938.
185. Sawada, H.,, H. Ieki,, H. Oyaizu,, and S. Matsumoto. 1993. Proposal for rejection of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and revised descriptions for the genus Agrobacterium and for Agrobacterium radiobacter and Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 43:694702.
186. Seifert, H.,, l. Dijkshoorn,, P. Gerner-Smidt,, N. Pelzer,, I. Tjernberg,, and M. Vaneechoutte. 1997. Distribution of Acinetobacter species on human skin: comparison of phenotypic and genotypic identification methods. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:28192825.
187. Seifert, H.,, L. Dolzani,, R. Bressan,, T. van der Reijden,, B. van Strijen,, D. Stefanik,, H. Heersma,, and L. Dijkshoorn. 2005. Standardization and interlaboratory reproducibility assessment of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis-generated fingerprints of Acinetobacter baumannii. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:43284335.
188. Seifert, H.,, A. Strate,, and G. Pulverer. 1995. Nosocomial bacteremia due to Acinetobacter baumannii. Clinical features, epidemiology, and predictors of mortality. Medicine (Baltimore) 74:340349.
189. Seifert, H.,, A. Strate,, A. Schulze,, and G. Pulverer. 1993. Vascular catheter-related bloodstream infection due to Acinetobacter johnsonii (formerly Acinetobacter calcoaceticus var. lwoffi): report of 13 cases. Clin. Infect. Dis. 17:632636.
190. Seng, P.,, M. Drancourt,, F. Gouriet,, B. La Scola,, P. E. Fournier,, J. M. Rolain,, and D. Raoult. 2009. Ongoing revolution in bacteriology: routine identification of bacteria by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Clin. Infect. Dis. 49:543551.
191. Shah, S. S.,, A. Ruth,, and S. E. Coffin. 2000. Infection due to Moraxella osloensis: case report and review of the literature. Clin. Infect. Dis. 30:179181.
192. Sheridan, R. I.,, C. M. Ryan,, M. S. Pasternack,, J. M. Weber,, and R. G. Tompkins. 1993. Flavobacterial sepsis in massively burned pediatric patients. Clin. Infect. Dis. 17:185187.
193. Shokar, N. K.,, G. S. Shokar,, J. Islam,, and A. R. Cass. 2002. Roseomonas gilardii infection: case report and review. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:47894791.
194. Siegman-Igra, Y.,, S. Bar-Yosef,, A. Gorea,, and J. Avram. 1993. Nosocomial Acinetobacter meningitis secondary to invasive procedures: report of 25 cases and review. Clin. Infect. Dis. 17:843849.
195. Siegman-Igra, Y.,, D. Schwartz,, G. Soferman,, and N. Konforti. 1987. Flavobacterium group IIb bacteremia: report of a case and review of Flavobacterium infections. Med. Microbiol. Immunol. 176:103111.
196. Snyder, R. W.,, J. Ruhe,, S. Kobrin,, A. Wasserstein,, C. Doline,, I. Nachamkin,, and J. H. Lipschutz. 2004. Asaia bogorensis peritonitis identified by 16S ribosomal RNA sequence analysis in a patient receiving peritoneal dialysis. Am. J. Kidney Dis. 44:E15E17.
197. Spangler, S. K.,, M. A. Visalli,, M. R. Jacobs,, and P. C. Appelbaum. 1996. Susceptibilities of non-Pseudomonas aeruginosa gram-negative nonfermentative rods to ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, D-ofloxacin, sparfloxacin, ceftazidime, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, trimethoprim- sulfamethoxazole, and imipenem. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 40:772775.
198. Speeleveld, E.,, J.-M. Fosspre,, B. Gordts,, and H. W. L Anduyt. 1994. Comparison of three rapid methods, tributyrine, 4-methylumbelliferyl butyrate, and indoxyl acetate, for rapid identification of Moraxella catarrhalis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32:13621363.
199. Steyn, P. L.,, P. Segers,, M. Vancanneyt,, P. Sandra,, K. Kersters,, and J. J. Joubert. 1998. Classification of heparinolytic bacteria into a new genus, Pedobacter, comprising four species: Pedobacter heparinus comb. nov., Pedobacter piscium comb. nov., Pedobacter africanus sp. nov. and Pedobacter saltans sp. nov. Proposal of the family Sphingobacteriaceae fam. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 48:165177.
200. Struthers, M.,, J. Wong,, and J. M. Janda. 1996. An initial appraisal of the clinical significance of Roseomonas species associated with human infections. Clin. Infect. Dis. 23:729733.
201. Su, S. C.,, M. Vaneechoutte,, L. Dijkshoorn,, Y. F. Wei,, Y. L. Chen,, and T. C. Chang. 2009. Identification of nonfermenting Gram-negative bacteria of clinical importance by an oligonucleotide array. J. Med. Microbiol. 58:596605.
202. Subudhi, C. P. K.,, A. Adedeji,, M. E. Kaufmann,, G. S. Lucas,, and J. R. Kerr. 2001. Fatal Roseomonas gilardii bacteremia in a patient with refractory blast crisis of chronic myeloid leukemia. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 7:573575.
203. Swenson, J. M.,, G. E. Killgore,, and F. C. Tenover. 2004. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Acinetobacter spp. by NCCLS broth microdilution and disk diffusion methods. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:51025108.
204. Takeuchi, M.,, K. Hamana,, and A. Hiraishi. 2001. Proposal of the genus Sphingomonas sensu stricto and three new genera, Sphingobium, Novosphingobium and Sphingopyxis, on the basis of phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic analyses. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 51:14051417.
205. Takeuchi, M.,, and A. Yokota. 1992. Proposals of Sphingobacterium faecium sp. nov., Sphingobacterium piscium sp. no v., Sphingobacterium heparinum comb, nov., Sphingobacterium thalpophilum comb. nov. and two genospecies of the genus Sphingobacterium, and synonymy of Flavobacterium yabuuchiae and Sphingobacterium spiritivorum. J. Gen. Appl. Microbiol. 38:465482.
206. Tjernberg, I.,, and J. Ursing. 1989. Clinical strains of Acinetobacter classified by DNA-DNA hybridization. APMIS 97:595605.
207. Tuon, F. F.,, L. Campos,, and D. de Almeida. 2007. Chryseobacterium meningosepticum as a cause of cellulitis and sepsis in an immunocompetent patient. J. Med. Microbiol. 56:11161117.
208. Turton, J. F.,, S. N. Gabriel,, C. Valderrey,, M. E. Kaufmann,, and T. L. Pitt. 2007. Use of sequence-based typing and multiplex PCR to identify clonal lineages of outbreak strains of Acinetobacter baumannii. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 13:807815.
209. Turton, J. F.,, J. Matos,, M. E. Kaufmann,, and T. L. Pitt. 2009. Variable number tandem repeat loci providing discrimination within widespread genotypes of Acinetobacter baumannii. Eur.J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 28:499507.
210. Turton, J. F.,, J. Shah,, C. Ozongwu,, and R. Pike. 2010. Incidence of Acinetobacter species other than A. baumannii among clinical isolates of Acinetobacter: evidence for emerging species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 48:14451449.
211. Turton, J. R.,, M. E. Ward,, N. Woodford,, M. E. Kaufmann,, R. Pike,, D. M. Livermore,, and T. L. Pitt. 2006. The role of ISAbal in expression of OXA carbapenemase genes in Acinetobacter baumannii. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 258:7277.
212. Turton, J. R.,, N. Woodford,, J. Glover,, S. Yarde,, M. E. Kaufmann,, and T. L. Pitt. 2006. Identification of Acinetobacter baumannii by detection of the MtfoxA-51-like carbapenemase gene intrinsic to this species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:29742976.
213. Urakami, T.,, H. Araki,, K.-I. Suzuki,, and K. Komagata. 1993. Further studies of the genus Methylobacterium and description of Methylobacterium aminovorans sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 43:504513.
214. Ursing, J.,, and B. Bruun. 1991. Genotypic heterogeneity of Flavobacterium group lib and Flavobacterium breve, demonstrated by DNA-DNA hybridization. APMIS 99:780786.
215. Vancanneyt, M.,, P. Segers,, U. Torck,, B. Hoste,, J.-F. Bernardet,, P. Vandamme,, and K. Kersters. 1996. Reclassification of Flavobacterium odoratum (Stutzer 1929) strains to a new genus, Myroides, as Myroides odoratus comb. nov. and Myroides odoratimimus sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 46:926932.
216. Vandamme, P.,, J. F. Bernardet,, P. Segers,, K. Kersters,, and B. Holmes. 1994. New perspectives in the classification of the flavobacteria: description of Chryseobacterium gen. nov., Bergeyella gen. nov., and Empedobacter nom. rev. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 44:827831.
217. Vandamme, P.,, M. Gillis,, M. Vancanneyt,, B. Hoste,, K. Kersters,, and E. Falsen. 1993. Moraxella lincolnii sp. nov., isolated from the human respiratory tract, and reevaluation of the taxonomic position of Moraxella osloensis. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 43:474481.
218. Vandamme, P.,, B. Holmes,, H. Bercovier,, and T. Coenye. 2006. Classification of Centers for Disease Control Group Eugonic Fermenter (EF)-4a and EF-4b as Neisseria animaloris sp. nov. and Neisseria zoodegmatis sp. nov., respectively. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 56:18011805.
219. van denBroek, P. J.,, J. Arends,, A. T. Bernards,, E. De Brauwer,, E. M. Mascini,, T. J. van der Reijden,, L. Spanjaard,, E. A. Thewessen,, A. van der Zee,, J. H. van Zeijl,, and L. Dijkshoorn. 2006. Epidemiology of multiple Acinetobacter outbreaks in The Netherlands during the period 1999-2001. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 12:837843.
220. van den Broek, P. J.,, T. J. K. van der Reijden,, E. van Strijen,, A. V. Helmig-Schurter,, A. T. Bernards,, and L. Dijkshoorn. 2009. Endemic and epidemic Acinetobacter species in a university hospital: an 8-year survey. J. Clin. Microbiol. 47:35933599.
221. van Dessel, H.,, L. Dijkshoorn,, T. van der Reijden,, N. Bakker,, A. Paauw,, P. van den Broek,, J. Verhoef,, and S. Brisse. 2004. Identification of a new geographically widespread multiresistant Acinetobacter baumannii clone from European hospitals. Res. Microbiol. 155:105112.
222. vanDessel, H.,, T.E. Kamp-Hopmans,, A. C. Fluit,, S. Brisse,, A. M. de Smet,, L. Dijkshoorn,, A. Troelstra,, J. Verhoef,, and E. M. Mascini. 2002. Outbreak of a susceptible strain of Acinetobacter species 13 (sensu Tjernberg and Ursing) in an adult neurosurgical intensive care unit. J. Hosp. Infect. 51:8995.
223. Vaneechoutte, M.,, G. Claeys,, S. Steyaert,, T. De Baere,, R. Peleman,, and G. Verschraegen. 2000. Isolation of Moraxella canis from an ulcerated metastatic lymph node. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:38703871.
224. Vaneechoutte, M.,, and T. De Baere,. 2008. Taxonomy of the genus Acinetobacter, based on 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences, p. 3560. In U. Gerischer (ed.), Acinetobacter Molecular Microbiology. Caister Academic Press, Norfolk, United Kingdom.
225. Vaneechoutte, M.,, T. De Baere,, A. Nemec,, T. J. K. van der Reijden,, and L. Dijkshoorn. 2008. Reclassification of Acinetobacter grimontii Carr et al. 2003 as a later synonym of Acinetobacter jurdi Bouvet and Grimont 1986. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 58:937940.
226. Vaneechoutte, M.,, L. A. Devriese,, L. Dijkshoorn,, B. Lamote,, P. Deprez,, G. Verschraegen,, and F. Haesebrouck. 2000. Acinetobacter batimannii-infected vascular catheters collected from horses in an equine clinic. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:42804281.