1887

Chapter 44 : and

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

and , Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap44-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap44-2.gif

Abstract:

The family , a member of the gamma subclass of proteobacteria, consists of the single genus Francisella. , , , and as well as unclassified spp. comprise the genus. Characterization data indicate that these spp. are distinct from , , and . The genus comprises tiny gram-negative coccobacilli that can be distinguished from similar genera by several features. A few key differences separate species of the genus. Under microscopic examination of Gram-stained specimens, cells (single and pleomorphic) appear tiny and counterstain so faintly with safranin that they can easily be missed. It is important to consider that many PCR assays cross-react with . All isolates examined to date are β-lactamase positive, so penicillins and cephalosporins are not effective and should not be used to treat tularemia. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of is not usually performed in clinical microbiology laboratories because of safety concerns in working with this organism. Currently, the most effective treatment regimen and optimal duration of treatment remain unclear. Interpretation of serologic test results in relation to exposure, diagnosis, and prognosis of the disease necessitates an accurate assessment of the clinical history and current status of patients and understanding the usefulness and pitfalls of the laboratory tests. Positive cutoff titers in the agglutination test for diagnosis have generally been considered to be greater than equal to 160 in symptomatic patients.

Citation: Petersen J, Schriefer M, Araj G. 2011. and , p 751-769. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch44

Key Concept Ranking

Central Nervous System Diseases
0.5689908
Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha
0.43443614
TaqMan Real-Time PCR Assay
0.40483078
0.5689908
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

on CA (A) and CHAB (B) after 48 hours of growth; . on blood agar (C) and Mueller-Hinton broth (D) after 48 hours of growth.

Citation: Petersen J, Schriefer M, Araj G. 2011. and , p 751-769. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch44
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Gram stain of (A) and (B). Magnification, ~ ×810.

Citation: Petersen J, Schriefer M, Araj G. 2011. and , p 751-769. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch44
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

DFA staining of a culture of . Magnification, ˜ ×490.

Citation: Petersen J, Schriefer M, Araj G. 2011. and , p 751-769. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch44
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555816728.chap44
1. Ahmed, K.,, K. A. Al-Matrouk,, G. Martinez,, K. Oishi,, V. O. Rotimi,, and T. Nagatake. 1999. Increased serum levels of interferon-gamma and interleukin-12 during human brucellosis. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 61: 425 427.
2. Akova, M.,, D. Gür,, D. M. Livermore,, T. Kocagöz,, and H. E. Akalin. 1999. In vitro activities of antibiotics alone and in combination against Brucella melitensis at neutral and acidic pHs. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43: 1298 1300.
3. Al-Dahouk, S.,, P. Le Flèche,, K. Nöckler,, I. Jacques,, M. Grayon,, H. C. Scholz,, H. Tomaso,, G. Vergnaud,, and H. Neubauer. 2007. Evaluation of Brucella MLVA typing for human brucellosis. J. Microbiol. Methods 69: 137 145.
4. Alton, G. G.,, L. M. Jones,, R. D. Angus,, and J. M. Verger. 1988. Techniques for the Brucellosis Laboratory. Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Paris, France.
5. Anda, P.,, J. S. del Pozo,, J. M. D. Garcia,, R. Escudero,, F. J. G. Peña,, M. C. L. Velasco,, R. E. Sellek,, M. R. J. Chillarón,, L. P. S. Serrano,, and J. F. M. Navarro. 2001. Waterborne outbreak of tularemia associated with crayfish fishing. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 7: 575 582.
6. Araj, G. F. 1988. Profiles of brucella specific immunoglobulin G subclass in serum of patients with acute and chronic brucellosis. Serodiag. Immunother. Infect. Dis. 2: 401 410.
7. Araj, G. F. 1999. Human brucellosis: a classical infectious disease with persistent diagnostic challenges. Clin. Lab. Sci. 12: 207 212.
8. Araj, G. F. 2000. Human brucellosis revisited: a persistent saga in the Middle East. BMJ (Middle East) 7: 6 15.
9. Araj, G. F.,, A. R. Lulu,, M. A. Saadah,, A. M. Mousa,, I. L. Strannegard,, and R. A. Shakir. 1986. Rapid diagnosis of central nervous system brucellosis by ELISA. J. Neuroimmunol. 12: 73 82.
9a. Araj, G. F.,, and M. M. Kattar. 2003. Rapid diagnosis of human brucellosis using the Bact/Alert continuous culture monitoring system. Abstr. 103rd Annu. Meet. Am. Soc. Microbiol., abstract C-002.
10. Araj, G. F.,, A. R. Lulu,, M. Y. Mustafa,, and M. I. Khateeb. 1986. Evaluation of ELISA in the diagnosis of acute and chronic brucellosis in human beings. J. Hyg. Lond. 97: 457 469.
11. Araj, G. F.,, G. M. Brown,, M. M. Haj,, and N. V. Madhavan. 1988. Assessment of Brucellosis Card Test in screening patients for brucellosis. Epidemiol. Infect. (London) 100: 389 398.
12. Araj, G. F.,, A. R. Lulu,, M. I. Khateeb,, M. A. Saadah,, and R. A. Shakir. 1988. ELISA versus routine tests in the diagnosis of patients with systemic and neurobrucellosis. Acta Pathlol. Microbiol. Scand. 96: 171 176.
13. Araj, G. F.,, and A. F. Kaufman. 1989. Determination by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA to Brucella melitensis major outer membrane proteins and whole-cell heat-killed antigens in sera of patients with brucellosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27: 1909 1912.
14. Araj, G. F.,, R. Dhar,, J. L. Lastimoza,, and M. Haj. 1990. Indirect fluorescent-antibody test versus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and agglutination tests in the serodiagnosis of patients with brucellosis. Serodiag. Immunother. Infect. Dis. 4: 1 8.
15. Araj, G. F.,, A. R. Lulu,, M. I. Khateeb,, and M. M. Haj. 1990. Specific IgE response in patients with brucellosis. Epidemiol. Infect. (London) 105: 571 577.
16. Araj, G. F.,, and R. A. Azzam. 1996. Seroprevalence of brucella antibodies among persons in high-risk occupation in Lebanon. Epidemiol. Infect. 117: 281 288.
17. Araj, G. F.,, M. Kattar,, L. G. Fattouh,, O. K. Bajakian,, and S. A. Kobeissi. 2005. Evaluation of the PANBIO Brucella immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for diagnosis of human brucellosis. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 12: 1334 1335.
18. Ariza, J.,, T. Pellicer,, R. Pallares,, Z. Fox,, and F. Gudiol. 1992. Specific antibody profile in human brucellosis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 14: 131 140.
19. Ariza, J.,, J. Corredoira,, R. Pallares,, P. F. Viladrich,, G. Rufi,, M. Pujol,, and F. Gudiol. 1995. Characteristics of and risk factors for relapse of brucellosis in humans. Clin. Infect. Dis. 20: 1241 1249.
20. Ariza, J.,, M. Bosilkovski,, A. Cascio,, J. D. Colmenero,, M. J. Corbel,, M. E. Falagas,, Z. A., Memish,, M. R. Roushan,, E. Rubinstein,, N. V. Sipsas,, J. Solera,, E. J. Young,, and G. Pappas. 2007. Perspectives for the treatment of brucellosis in the 21st century: the Ioannina recommendations. PLoS Med. 4: e317.
21. Baldi, P.C.,, S. E. Miguel,, C. A. Fossati,, and J. C. Wallach. 1996. Serologic follow-up of human brucellosis by measuring IgG antibodies to LPS and cytoplasmic proteins of Brucella species. Clin. Infect. Dis. 22: 446 455.
22. Barns, S. M.,, C. C. Grow,, R. T. Okinaka,, P. Keim,, and C. R. Kuske. 2005. Detection of diverse new Francisella-like bacteria in environmental samples. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71: 5494 5500.
23. Behan, K. A.,, and G. C. Klein. 1982. Reduction of Brucella species and Francisella tularensis cross-reacting agglutinins by dithiothreitol. J. Clin. Microbiol. 16: 756 757.
24. Bell, J. F., 1980. Tularemia, p. 161 193. In J. H. Steele (ed.), CRC Handbook Series in Zoonoses. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
25. Bevanger, L.,, J. A. Maeland,, and A. I. Kvam. 1994. Comparative analysis of antibodies to Francisella tularensis antigens during the acute phase of tularemia and eight years later. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 1: 238 240.
26. Birdsell, D. N.,, T. Stewart,, A. J. Vogler,, E. Lawaczeck,, A. Diggs,, T. L. Sylvester,, J. L. Buchhagen,, R. K. Auerbach,, P. Keim,, and D. M. Wagner. 2009. Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida isolated from a human in Arizona. BMC Res. Notes 2: 223.
27. Birkbeck, T. H.,, M. Bordevik,, M. K. Frøystad,, and A. Baklien. 2007. Identification of Francisella sp. from Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., in Chile. J. Fish Dis. 30: 505 507.
28. Brew, S. D.,, L. L. Perrett,, J. A. Stack,, and A. P. MacMillan. 1999. Human exposure to Brucella recovered from a sea mammal. Vet. Res. 24: 483.
29. Brown, S. L.,, F. T. McKinney,, G. C. Klein,, and W. L. Jones. 1980. Evaluation of a safranin-O-stained antigen microagglutination test for Francisella tularensis antibodies. J. Clin. Microbiol. 11: 146 148.
30. Celebi, G.,, F. Baruönü,, F. Ayoğlu,, F. Cinar,, A. Karadenizli,, M. B. Uğur,, and S. Gedikoğlu. 2006. Tularemia, a reemerging disease in northwest Turkey: epidemiological investigation and evaluation of treatment responses. Jpn. J. Infect. Dis. 59: 229 234.
31. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2002. Tularemia—United States, 1990-2000. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 51: 182184.
32. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2008. Update: potential exposures to attenuated vaccine strain Brucella abortus RB51 during a laboratory proficiency test—United States and Canada. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 57: 3639.
33. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2008. Laboratory-acquired brucellosis—Indiana and Minnesota, 2006. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 57: 3942.
34. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2008. Public health consequences of a false-positive laboratory test result for Brucella—Florida, Georgia, and Michigan. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 57: 603605.
35. Clarridge, J. E., III,, T. J. Raich,, A. Sjöstedt,, G. Sandström,, R. O. Darouiche,, R. M. Shawar,, P. R. Georghiou,, C. Osting,, and L. Vo. 1996. Characterization of two unusual clinically significant Francisella strains. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34: 1995 2000.
36. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. 2006. Methods for dilution antimicrobial susceptibility tests for bacteria that grow aerobically. Approved standard—seventh edition. CLSI document M7-A7. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, PA.
37. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. 2009. Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing; ninteeth informational supplement. M100-S19. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, PA.
38. Cloeckaert, A.,, J. Verger,, M. Grayon,, J. Paquet,, B. Garin-Bastuji,, G. Foster,, and J. Godfroid. 2001. Classification of Brucella spp. isolated from marine mammals by DNA polymorphism at the omp2 locus. Microbes Infect. 3: 729 738.
39. Colmenero, J. D.,, J. M. Reguera,, F. Martos,, D. Sanchez-De-Mora,, M. Delgado,, M. Causse,, A. Martin-Farafan,, and C. Juarez. 1996. Complications associated with Brucella melitensis infection: a study of 530 cases. Medicine (Baltimore) 75: 195 211.
40. Colmenero, J. D.,, N. L. Muñoz-Roca,, P. Bermudez,, A. Plata,, A. Villalobos,, and J. M. Reguera. 2007. Clinical findings, diagnostic approach, and outcome of Brucella melitensis epididymo-orchitis. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 57: 367 372.
41. Corbel, M. J. 1997. Brucellosis: an overview. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 3: 213 221.
42. Corbel, M. J.,, and N. J. Beeching,. 2005. Brucellosis, p. 914 917. In D. L. Kasper,, E. Braunwald,, A. S. Fauci,, S. L. Hauser,, D. L. Longo,, and J. L. Jameson (ed.), Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine, 16th ed., vol. 1. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.
43. DeBeaumont, C.,, P. A. Falconnet,, and M. Maurin. 2005. Real-time PCR for detection of Brucella spp. DNA in serum samples. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 24: 842 845.
44. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Institutes of Health. 2007. Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, 5th ed. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Institutes of Health, Washington, DC. http://www.cdc.gov/od/ohs/biosfty/bmbl5/bmbl5toc.htm.
45. Drancourt, M.,, P. Brouqui,, and D. Raoult. 1997. Afipia clevelandensis antibodies and cross-reactivity with Brucella spp. and Yersinia enterocolitica O:9. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 4: 748 752.
46. Eliasson, H.,, J. Lindbäck,, J. P. Nuorti,, M. Arneborn,, J. Giesecke,, and A. Tegnell. 2002. The 2000 tularemia outbreak: a case-control study of risk factors in disease-endemic and emergent areas, Sweden. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8: 956 960.
47. Eliasson, H.,, P. Olcén,, A. Sjöstedt,, M. Jurstrand,, E. Bäck,, and S. Andersson. 2008. Kinetics of the immune response associated with tularemia: comparison of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, a tube agglutination test, and a novel whole-blood lymphocyte stimulation test. Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 15: 1238 1243.
48. Ellis, J.,, P. C. Oyston,, M. Green,, and R. W. Titball. 2002. Tularemia. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 15: 631 646.
49. Ericsson, M.,, G. Sandström,, A. Sjöstedt,, and A. Tärnvik. 1994. Persistence of cell-mediated immunity and decline of humoral immunity to the intracellular bacterium Francisella tularensis. J. Infect. Dis. 170: 110 114.
50. Escudero, R.,, M. Elía,, J. A. Sáez-Nieto,, V. Menéndez,, A. Toledo,, G. Royo,, M. Rodríguez-Vargas,, M. J. Whipp,, H. Gil,, I. Jado,, and P. Anda. 25 August 2009. A possible novel Francisella genomic species isolated from blood and urine of a patient with severe illness. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. [Epub ahead of print.] doi:10.1111/j.1469-0691.2009.03029.x.
51. Estevao, M. H.,, L. M. Baverosa,, L. M. Matos,, A. A. Barrosa,, and H. C. da Mota. 1995. Neurobrucellosis in children. Eur. J. Pediatr. 154: 120 122.
52. Evans, M. E.,, D. W. Gregory,, W. Schaffner,, and Z. A. McGee. 1985. Tularemia: a 30-year experience with 88 cases. Medicine (Baltimore) 64: 251 269.
53. Feldman, K. A., 2003. Tularemia. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 222: 725 730.
54. Feldman, K. A.,, R. Enscore,, S. Lathrop,, B. Matyas,, M. McGuill,, M. Schriefer,, D. Stiles-Enos,, D. Dennis,, and E. Hayes. 2001. Outbreak of primary pneumonic tularemia on Martha’s Vineyard. N. Engl. J. Med. 345: 1601 1606.
55. Fernandez-Prada, C. M.,, E. B. Zelazowska,, M. Nikolich,, T. L. Hadfield,, R. M. Roop,, G. L. Robertson,, and D. L. Hoover. 2003. Interaction between Brucella melitensis and human phagocytes: bacterial surface O-polysaccharide inhibits phagocytosis, bacterial killing, and subsequent host cell apoptosis. Infect. Immun. 71: 2110 2119.
56. Forsman, M.,, G. Sandström,, and B. Jaurin. 1990. Identification of Francisella species and discrimination of type A and type B strains of F. tularensis by 16S rRNA analysis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56: 949 955.
57. Forsman, M.,, G. Sandström,, and A. Sjöstedt. 1994. Analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA sequences of Francisella strains and utilization for determination of the phylogeny of the genus and for identification of strains by PCR. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 44: 38 46.
58. Foster, G.,, B. S. Osterman,, J. Godfroid,, I. Jacques,, and A. Cloeckaert. 2007. Brucella ceti sp. nov., and Brucella pinnipedialis sp. nov for Brucella strains with cetaceans and seals as their preferred hosts. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 57: 2688 2693.
59. Franco, M. P.,, M. Mulder,, R. H. Gilman,, and H. L. Smits. 2007. Human brucellosis. Lancet Infect. Dis. 7: 775 786.
60. Friis-Møller, A.,, L. E. Lemming,, N. H. Valerius,, and B. Bruun. 2004. Problems in identification of Francisella philomiragia associated with fatal bacteremia in a patient with chronic granulomatous disease. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42: 1840 1842.
61. Garrity, G. M.,, and J. G. Holt,. 2001. Taxonomic outline of the Archaea and Bacteria, p. 155 166. In D. R. Boone, and R. C. Castenholz (ed.), Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd ed., vol. 1. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY.
62. Gazapo E.,, J. Gonzalez Lahoz,, J. L. Subiza,, M. Banquero,, J. Jil,, and E. G. de la Concha. 1989. Changes in IgM and IgG antibody concentration in brucellosis over time: importance for diagnosis and follow-up. J. Infect. Dis. 159: 219 225.
63. Gilligan, P. H.,, and M. K. York. 2002. Basic Protocols for Level A Laboratories for the Presumptive Identification of Brucella Species. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
64. Godfroid, J.,, A. Cloeckaert,, J. Liautard,, S. Kohler,, D. Fretin,, K. Walravens,, B. Garin-Bastuji,, and J. Letesson. 2005. From the discovery of the Malta fever’s agent to the discovery of a marine mammal reservoir, brucellosis has continuously been a re-emerging zoonosis. Vet. Res. 36: 313 326.
65. Goethert, H. K.,, I. Shani,, and S. R. Telford. 2004. Genotypic diversity of Francisella tularensis infecting Dermacentor variabilis ticks on Martha’s Vineyard, Massachusetts. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42: 4968 4973.
66. Goldbaum, F. A.,, J. Leoni,, J. C. Wallach,, and C. A. Fossati. 1993. Characterization of an 18-kilodalton Brucella cytoplasmic protein which appears to be a serological marker of active infection of both human and bovine brucellosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31: 2141 2145.
67. Golding, B.,, D. E. Scott,, O. Scharf,, L. Y. Huang,, M. Zaitseva,, C. Lapham,, N. Eller,, and H. Golding. 2001. Immunity and protection against Brucella abortus. Microbes Infect. 3: 43 48.
68. Gómez, M. C.,, J. A. Nieto,, C. Rosa,, P. Geijo,, M. A. Escribano,, A. Muñoz,, and C. López. 2008. Evaluation of seven tests for diagnosis of human brucellosis in an area where the disease is endemic. Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 15: 1031 1033.
69. Gorvel, J. P. 2008. Brucella: a Mr “Hide” converted into Dr Jekyll. Microbes Infect. 10: 1010 1013.
70. Greenfield, R. A.,, D. A. Drevets,, L. J. Machado,, G. W. Voskuhl,, P. Cornea,, and M. S. Bronze. 2002. Bacterial pathogens as biological weapons and agents of bioterrorism. Am. J. Med. Sci. 323: 299 315.
71. Guarner, J.,, P. R. Breer,, J. C. Bartlett,, M. C. Chu,, W. J. Shieh,, and S. R. Zaki. 1999. Immunohistochemical detection of Francisella tularensis in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol. 7: 122 126.
72. Gür, D.,, S. Kocagöz,, M. Akova,, and S. Unal. 1999. Comparison of E test to microdilution for determining in vitro activities of antibiotics against Brucella melitensis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43: 2337.
73. Halling, S. M.,, B. D. Peterson-Burch,, B. J. Bricker,, R. L. Zuerner,, Z. Qing,, L. Li,, V. Kapur,, D. P. Alt,, and S. C. Olsen. 2005. Completion of the genome sequence of Brucella abortus and comparison to the highly similar genomes of Brucella melitensis and Brucella suis. J. Bacteriol. 187: 2715 2726.
74. Hollis, D. G.,, R. E. Weaver,, A. G. Steigerwalt,, J. D. Wenger,, C. W. Moss,, and D. J. Brenner. 1989. Francisella philomiragia comb. nov. (formerly Yersinia philomiragia) and Francisella tularensis biogroup novicida (formerly Francisella novicida) associated with human disease. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27: 1601 1608.
75. Hopla, C. E.,, and A. K. Hopla,. 1994. Tularemia, p. 113 126. In G. W. Beran, and J. H. Steele (ed.), Handbook of Zoonoses, 2nd ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
76. Ibrahim, A. I. A.,, R. Awad,, S. D. Shetty,, M. Saad,, and N. E. Bilal. 1988. Genito-urinary complications of brucellosis. Br. J. Urol. 61: 294 298.
77. Ikäheimo, I.,, H. Syrjälä,, J. Karhukorpi,, R. Schildt,, and M. Koskela. 2000. In vitro antibiotic susceptibility of Francisella tularensis isolated from humans and animals. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 46: 287 290.
78. Jantzen, E.,, B. P. Berdal,, and T. Omland. 1979. Cellular fatty acid composition of Francisella tularensis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 10: 928 930.
79. Jellison, W. L. 1974. Tularemia in North America, 1930-1974, p. 1 276. University of Montana, Missoula, MT.
80. Jellison, W. L.,, C. R. Owen,, J. F. Bell,, and G. M. Kohls. 1961. Tularemia and animal populations: ecology and epizootiology. Wildl. Dis. 17: 1 15.
81. Jensen, W. I.,, C. R. Owen,, and W. L. Jellison. 1969. Yersinia philomiragia sp. n ., a new member of the Pasteurella group of bacteria, naturally pathogenic for the muskrat (Ondatra zibethica). J. Bacteriol. 100: 1237 1241.
82. Johansson, A.,, L. Berglund,, U. Eriksson,, I. Göransson,, R. Wollin,, M. Forsman,, A. Tärnvik,, and A. Sjöstedt. 2000. Comparative analysis of PCR versus culture for diagnosis of ulceroglandular tularemia. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 22 26.
83. Johansson, A.,, J. Farlow,, P. Larsson,, M. Dukerich,, E. Chambers,, M. Byström,, J. Fox,, M. Chu,, M. Forsman,, A. Sjöstedt,, and P. Keim. 2004. Worldwide genetic relationships among Francisella tularensis isolates determined by multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis. J. Bacteriol. 186: 5808 5818.
84. Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Brucellosis. 1986. Sixth report. World Health Organization Technical Report Series no. 740. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
85. Kattar, M. M.,, P. A. Zallou,, G. F. Araj,, J. Samaha-Kfoury,, H. Shbaklo,, S. K. Kanj,, S. Khalife,, and M. Deeb. 2007. Development and evaluation of real-time polymerase chain reaction assays on whole blood and paraffin-embedded tissues for rapid diagnosis of human brucellosis. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 59: 23 32.
86. Kattar, M. M.,, R. F. Jaafar,, G. F. Araj,, P. Le Flèche,, G. M. Matar,, R. Abi Rached,, S. Khalife,, and G. Vergnaud. 2008. Evaluation of a multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis scheme for typing human Brucella isolates in a region of brucellosis endemicity. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46: 3935 3940.
87. Kerr, W. R.,, W. J. McCaughey,, J. D. Coghlan,, D. J. H. Payn,, R. A. Quaife,, L. Robertson,, and I. D. Farell. 1968. Techniques and interpretation in the serological diagnosis of brucellosis in man. J. Med. Microbiol. 1: 181 193.
88. Khatun, M.,, A. Islam,, B. K. Baek,, and S. I. Lee. 2009. Characteristics of the immune response during acute brucellosis in Sprague-Dawley rats. J. Infect. Dev. Ctries. 3: 392 397.
89. Kugeler, K. J.,, N. Gurfield,, J. G. Creek,, K. S. Mahoney,, J. L. Versage,, and J. M. Petersen. 2005. Discrimination between Francisella tularensis and Francisella-like endosymbionts when screening ticks by PCR. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71: 7594 7597.
90. Kugeler, K. J.,, P. S. Mead,, K. L. McGowan,, J. M. Burnham,, M. D. Hogarty,, E. Ruchelli,, K. Pollard,, B. Husband,, C. Conley,, T. Rivera,, T. Kelesidis,, W. M. Lee,, W. Mabey,, J. M. Winchell,, H. L. Stang,, J. E. Staples,, L. J. Chalcraft,, and J. M. Petersen. 2008. Isolation and characterization of a novel Francisella sp. from human cerebrospinal fluid and blood. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46: 2428 2431.
91. Kugeler, K. J.,, P. S. Mead,, A. M. Janusz,, J. E. Staples,, K. A. Kubota,, L. G. Chalcraft,, and J. M. Petersen. 2009. Molecular epidemiology of Francisella tularensis in the United States. Clin. Infect. Dis. 48: 863 870.
92. Larson, C. L.,, W. Wicht,, and W. L. Jellison. 1955. A new organism resembling P. tularensis isolated from water. Public Health Rep. 70: 253 258.
93. Larsson, P.,, D. K. Elfsmark,, K. Svensson,, P. Wikström,, M. Forsman,, T. Brettin,, P. Keim,, and A. Johansson. 2009. Molecular evolutionary consequences of niche restriction in Francisella tularensis, a facultative intracellular pathogen. PLoS Pathog. 5: e1000472.
94. Leelaporn, A.,, S. Yongyod,, S. Limsrivanichakorn,, T. Yungyuen,, and P. Kiratisin. 2008. Francisella novicida bacteremia, Thailand. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14: 1935 1937.
95. Lindquist, D.,, M. C. Chu,, and W. S. Probert,. 2007. Francisella and Brucella, p. 815 834. In P. R. Murray,, E. J. Baron,, J. H. Jorgensen,, M. L. Landry,, and M. A. Pfaller (ed.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 9th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
96. Lista, F.,, G. Faggioni,, S. Valjevac,, A. Ciammaruconi,, J. Vaissaire,, C. Le Doujet,, O. Gorgé,, R. De Santis,, A. Carattoli,, A. Ciervo,, A. Fasanella,, F. Orsini,, R. D’Amelio,, C. Pourcel,, A. Cassone,, and G. Vergnaud. 2006. Genotyping of Bacillus anthracis strains based on automated capillary 25-loci multiple locus variable-number tandem repeats analysis. BMC Microbiol. 6: 33.
97. Lubani, M. M.,, K. Dudin,, G. F. Araj,, D. S. Manaudhar,, and F. Y. Rachid. 1989. Neurobrucellosis in children. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 8: 79 82.
98. Lubani, M. M.,, K. I. Dudin,, D. C. Sharda,, D. S. Manadhar,, G. F. Araj,, A. H. Hafez,, Q. A. Al Saleh,, I. Helin,, and M. M. Salhi. 1989. A multicenter therapeutic study of 1100 children with brucellosis. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 8: 75 78.
99. Lubani, M. M.,, K. I. Dudin,, D. C. Sharda,, N. M. Abu Sinna,, T. Al-Shab,, A. A. Al-Refe’ai,, S. M. Labani,, and A. Nasrallah. 1998. Neonatal brucellosis. Eur. J. Pediatr. 147: 520 522.
100. Lulu, A. R.,, G. F. Araj,, M. I. Khateeb,, M. Y. Mustafa,, A. R. Yusuf,, and F. F. Fenech. 1988. Human brucellosis in Kuwait: a prospective study of 400 cases. Q. J. Med. 66: 39 54.
101. Lulu, A. R.,, and G. F. Araj,. 1991. Pulmonary complications of brucellosis, p. 157 176. In O. P. Sharma (ed.), Lung Disease in the Tropics. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, NY.
102. Madkour, M. M., 1989. Overview, p. 71 89. In M. M. Madkour (ed.), Brucellosis. Butterworths, University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
103. Makhseed, M.,, A. Harouny,, G. F. Araj,, M. A. Mousa,, and P. Sharma. 1998. Obstetric and gynecologic implication of brucellosis in Kuwait. J. Perinatol. 8: 196 199.
104. Makis, A. C.,, E. Galanakis,, E. C. Hazmichael,, Z. L. Papadopoulou,, A. Simopoulou,, and K. L. Bourantas. 2005. Serum levels of soluble interleukin-2 receptor alpha (sIL-2Ralpha) as a predictor of outcome in brucellosis. J. Infect. 51: 206 210.
105. Mantecon, M. A.,, P. Gutierrez,, M. del Pilar Zarzosa,, A. I. Duenas,, J. Solera,, L. Fernández-Lago,, N. Vizcaíno,, A. Almaraz,, M. A. Bratos,, A. Rodríguez Torres,, and A. Orduña-Domingo. 2006. Utility of an immunocapture-agglutination test and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test against cytosolic proteins from Brucella melitensis B115 in the diagnosis and follow-up of human acute brucellosis. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 55: 27 35.
106. Mantur, B. G.,, S. K. Amarnath,, and R. S. Shinde. 2007. Review of clinical and laboratory features of human brucellosis. Ind. J. Med. Microbiol. 25: 188 202.
107. Marianelli, C.,, C. Graziani,, C. Santangelo,, M. T. Xibilia,, A. Imbriani,, R. Amato,, D. Neri,, M. Cuccia,, S. Rinnone,, V. Di Marco,, and F. Ciuchini. 2007. Molecular epidemiological and antibiotic susceptibility characterization of Brucella isolates from humans in Sicily, Italy. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45: 2923 2928.
108. Martín, C. M.,, T. Gallardo,, L. Mateos,, E. Vián,, M. J. García,, J. Ramos,, A. C. Berjón,, M. del CarmenViña,, M. P. García,, J. Yáñez,, L. C. González,, T. Muñoz,, M. Allue,, C. Andrés,, C. Ruiz,, and J. Castrodeza. 2007. Outbreak of tularaemia in Castilla y León, Spain. Euro Surveill. 12: E071108.1
109. Matyas, B. T.,, H. S. Nieder,, and S. R. Telford III. 2007. Pneumonic tularemia on Martha’s Vineyard: clinical, epidemiologic, and ecological characteristics. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1105: 351 377.
110. Mayefield, J. E.,, B. J. Bricker,, H. Godfrey,, R. M. Crosby,, D. J. Knight,, S. M. Halling,, D. Balinsky,, and L. B. Tabatabai. 1988. The cloning, expression and nucleotide sequence of a gene (BCS P31) coding for an immunogenic B. abortus protein (31 KDa). Gene 63: 1 9.
111. McDonald, W. L.,, R. Jamaludin,, G. Mackereth,, M. Hansen,, S. Humphrey,, and P. Short. 2006. Characterization of a Brucella sp. strain as a marine-mammal type despite isolation from a patient with spinal osteomyelitis in New Zealand. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44: 4363 4370.
112. Memish, Z. A.,, and H. H. Balkhy. 2004. Brucellosis and international travel. J. Travel Med. 11: 49 55.
113. Mercier, E.,, E. Jumas-Bilak,, A. Allardet-Servent,, D. O’Callaghan,, K. F. Meyer,, and E. B. Shaw. 1996. A comparison of the morphologic, culture and biochemical characteristics of B. abortus and B. melitensis: studies on the genus Brucella nov. gen. I. J. Infect. Dis. 27: 173 184.
114. Mikalsen, J.,, A. B. Olsen,, T. Tengs,, and D. J. Colquhoun. 2007. Francisella philomiragia subsp. noatunensis subsp. nov., isolated from farmed Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.). Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 57: 1960 1965.
115. Mitka, S.,, C. Anetakis,, E. Souliou,, E. Diza,, and A. Kansouzidou. 2007. Evaluation of different PCR assays for the early detection of acute and relapsing human brucellosis in comparison with conventional methods. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45: 1211 1218.
116. Molins, C. R.,, J. K. Carlson,, J. Coombs,, and J. M. Petersen. 2009. Identification of Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis A1 and A2 infections by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 64: 6 12.
117. Molins, C. R.,, and J. M. Petersen. 2010. Subpopulations of F. tularensis subspecies tularensis and holarctica: identification and associated epidemiology. Future Microbiol. 5: 649 661.
118. Molins, C. R.,, M. Delorey,, B. M. Yockey,, J. W. Young,, S. W. Sheldon,, S. M. Reese,, M. E. Schriefer,, and J. M. Petersen. 2010. Virulence comparison among Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis clades in mice. PLoS One 5( 4): e10205.
119. Morata, P.,, M. I. Quiepo-Ortuno,, J. M. Reguera,, F. Miralles,, J. J. Lopez-Gonzalez,, and J. D. Colmenero. 2001. Diagnostic yield of a PCR assay in focal complications of brucellosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39: 3743 3746.
120. Moriyon, I.,, and I. Lopez-Goni. 1998. Structure and properties of the outer membranes of Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis. Int. Microbiol. 1: 19 26.
121. Naparstek, E.,, C. S. Block,, and S. Slavin. 1982. Transmission of brucellosis by bone marrow transplantation. Lancet i: 574 575.
122. Navarro, E.,, J. C. Segura,, M. J. Castaño,, and J. Solera. 2006. Use of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction to monitor the evolution of Brucella melitensis DNA load during therapy and post-therapy follow-up in patients with brucellosis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 42: 1266 1273.
123. Navarro-Martinez, A.,, E. Navarro,, M. J. Castano,, and J. Solera. 2008. Rapid diagnosis of human brucellosis by quantitative real-time PCR: a case report of brucellar spondylitis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46: 385 387.
124. Noviello, S.,, R. Gallo,, M. Kelly,, R. J. Limberger,, K. De Angelis,, L. Cain,, B. Wallace,, and N. Dumas. 2004. Laboratory-acquired brucellosis. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10: 1848 1850.
125. Ohara, S.,, T. Sato,, and M. Homma. 1974. Serological studies on Francisella tularensis, Francisella novicida, Yersinia philomiragia, and Brucella abortus. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 24: 191 196.
126. Oliveira, S.,, and G. A. Splitter. 1996. Immunization of mice with recombinant L7/L12 ribosomal protein confers protection against Brucella abortus infection . Vaccine 14: 959 962.
127. Olsufiev, N. G.,, O. S. Emelyanova,, and T. N. Dunaeva. 1959. Comparative study of strains of B. tularense in the old and new world and their taxonomy. J. Hyg. Epidemiol. Microbiol. Immunol. 3: 138 149.
128. Olsufjev, N. G.,, and I. S. Meshcheryakova. 1982. Infraspecific taxonomy of tularemia agent Francisella tularensis McCoy et Chapin. J. Hyg. Epidemiol. Microbiol. Immunol. 3: 291 299.
129. Orduña, A.,, A. Almarza,, A. Prado,, M. P. Gutierrez,, A. Garcia-Pascual,, A. Duenas,, M. Cuervo,, R. Abad,, B. Hernandez,, B. Lorenzo,, M. A. Bratos,, and A. R. Torres. 2000. Evaluation of an immunocapture-agglutination test (Brucellacapt) for serodiagnosis of human brucellosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 4000 4005.
130. Orhan, G.,, A. Bayram,, Y. Zer,, and I. Balci. 2005. Synergy tests by E test and checkerboard methods of antimicrobial combinations against Brucella melitensis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43: 140 143.
131. Ottem, K. F.,, A. Nylund,, E. Karlsbakk,, A. Friis-Møller,, and T. Kamaishi. 2009. Elevation of Francisella philomiragia subsp. noatunensis Mikalsen et al. (2007) to Francisella noatunensis comb. nov. [syn. Francisella piscicida Ottem et al. ( 2008 ) syn. nov.] and characterization of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis subsp. nov., two important fish pathogens. J. Appl. Microbiol. 106: 1231 1243.
132. Overholt, E. I.,, W. D. Tigertt,, P. J. Kadull,, M. K. Ward,, N. D. Charkes,, R. M. Rene,, T. E. Salzman,, and M. Stephens. 1961. An analysis of forty-two cases of laboratory-acquired tularemia. Am. J. Med. 30: 785 806.
133. Owen, C. R.,, E. O. Buker,, W. L. Jellison,, D. B. Lackman,, and J. F. Bell. 1964. Comparative studies of Francisella tularensis and Francisella novicida. J. Bacteriol. 87: 676 683.
134. Palanduz, A.,, S. Palanduz,, K. Guler,, and N. Guler. 2000. Brucellosis in a mother and her young infant: probable transmission by breast milk. Int. J. Infect. Dis. 4: 55 56.
135. Pappas, G.,, N. Akritidis,, M. Bosilkovski,, and E. Tsianos. 2005. Brucellosis. New Engl. J. Med. 35: 2325 2336.
136. Pappas, G.,, P. Pangopoulou,, L. Christou,, and N. Akritidis. 2006. Category B potential bioterrorism agents: bacteria, viruses, toxins, and foodborne and waterborne pathogens. Infect. Dis. Clin. N. Am. 20: 395 421.
137. Pappas, G.,, P. Papadimitriou,, N. Akritidis,, L. Christou,, and E. Tsianos. 2006. The new global map of human brucellosis. Lancet Infect. Dis. 6: 91 99.
138. Paton, N. I.,, N. W. Teu,, C. F. Vu,, and T. P. Teo. 2001. Brucellosis due to blood transfusion. Clin. Infect. Dis. 32: 1248.
139. Payne, L.,, M. Arneborn,, A. Tegnell,, and J. Giesecke. 2005. Endemic tularemia, Sweden, 2003. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 11: 1440 1442.
140. Pellicer, T.,, J. Ariza,, Z. Fox,, R. Pallares,, and F. Gudiol. 1988. Specific antibodies during relapse of human brucellosis. J. Infect. Dis. 157: 918 924.
141. Petersen, J. M.,, M. E. Schriefer,, K. L. Gage,, J. A. Montenieri,, L. G. Carter,, M. Stanley,, and M. C. Chu. 2004. Methods for enhanced culture recovery of Francisella tularensis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70: 3733 3735.
142. Petersen, J. M.,, J. K. Carlson,, G. Dietrich,, R. J. Eisen,, J. Coombs,, A. M. Janusz,, J. Summers,, C. B. Beard,, and P. S. Mead. 2008. Multiple Francisella tularensis subspecies and clades, tularemia outbreak, Utah. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14: 1928 1930.
143. Petersen, J. M.,, J. Carlson,, B. Yockey,, S. Pillai,, C. Kuske,, G. Garbalena,, S. Pottumarthy,, and L. Chalcraft. 2009. Direct isolation of Francisella spp. from environmental samples. 48: 663 667.
144. Petersen, J. M.,, P. S. Mead,, and M. E. Schriefer. 2009. Francisella tularensis: an arthropod-borne pathogen. Vet. Res. 40: 07.
145. Pike, R. M. 1976. Laboratory-associated infections: summary and analysis of 3921 cases. Health Lab. Sci. 13: 105 114.
146. Porsch-Özcürümez, M.,, N. Kischel,, H. Priebe,, W. Splettstösser,, E. J. Finke,, and R. Grunow. 2004. Comparison of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blotting, microagglutination, indirect immuno-fluorescence assay, and flow cytometric serological diagnosis of tularemia. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 11: 1008 1015.
147. Probert, W. S.,, K. N. Schrader,, N. Y. Khuong,, S. L. Bystrom,, and M. H. Graves. 2004. Real-time multiplex PCR assay for detection of Brucella spp., B. abortus, and B. melitensis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42: 1290 1293.
148. Quipo-Ortuño, M. I.,, J. D. Colmenero,, M. J. Bravo,, M. A. García-Ordoñez,, and P. Morata. 2008. Usefulness of a quantitative real-time PCR assay using serum samples to discriminate between inactive, serologically positive and active human brucellosis. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 14: 1128 1134.
149. Quipo-Ortuño, M. I.,, F. Tena,, J. D. Colmenero,, and P. Morata. 2008. Comparison of seven commercial DNA extraction kits for the recovery of Brucella DNA from spiked human serum samples using real-time PCR. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 27: 109 114.
150. Reintjes, R.,, I. Dedushaj,, A. Gjini,, T. R. Jorgensen,, B. Cotter,, A. Lieftucht,, F. D’Ancona,, D. T. Dennis,, M. A. Kosoy,, G. Mulliqi-Osmani,, R. Grunow,, A. Kalaveshi,, L. Gashi,, and I. Humolli. 2002. Tularemia outbreak investigation in Kosovo: case control and environmental studies. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8: 69 73.
151. Rossetti, O. L.,, A. I. Arese,, M. L. Boschiroli,, and S. L. Cravero. 1996. Cloning of B. abortus gene and characterization of expressed 26-kilodalton periplasmic protein: potential use for diagnosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34: 165 169.
152. Rotz, L. D.,, A. S. Kahn,, S. R. Lillibridge,, S. M. Ostroff,, and J. M. Hughes. 2002. Public health assessment of potential biological terrorism agents. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8: 225 230.
153. Ruben, B.,, J. D. Band,, P. Wong,, and J. Colvelli. 1991. Person-to-person transmission of Brucella melitensis. Lancet i: 14 15.
154. Ruiz-Mesa, J. D.,, J. Sánchez-Gonzalez,, J. M. Reguera,, L. Martin,, S. Lopez-Palmero,, and J. D. Colmenero. 2005. Rose Bengal test: diagnostic yield and use for the rapid diagnosis of human brucellosis in emergency departments in endemic areas. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 11: 221 225.
155. Rusnak, J. M.,, M. G. Kortepeter,, R. J. Hawley,, A. O. Anderson,, E. Boudreau,, and E. Eitzen. 2004. Risk of occupationally acquired illnesses from biological threat agents in unvaccinated laboratory workers. Biosecur. Bioterror. 2: 281 293.
156. Samra, Y.,, Y. Shaked,, M. Hertz,, and G. Altman. 1983. Brucellosis: difficulties in diagnosis and a report on 38 cases. Infection 11: 310 312.
157. Sandström, G.,, A. Sjöstedt,, M. Forsman,, N. V. Pavlovich,, and B. N. Mishankin. 1992. Characterization and classification of strains of Francisella tularensis isolated in the Central Asian focus of the Soviet Union, and in Japan. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30: 172 175.
158. Sangari, F. J.,, A. Seoane,, M. C. Rodriguez,, J. Aguero,, and M. Garcia Lobo. 2007. Characterization of the urease operon of Brucella abortus and assessment of its role in virulence of the bacterium. Infect. Immun. 75: 774 780.
159. Schmitt, P.,, W. Splettstosser,, M. Porsch-Özcürümez,, E. J. Finke,, and R. Grunow. 2005. A novel screening ELISA and a confirmatory Western blot useful for diagnosis and epidemiological studies of tularemia. Epidemiol. Infect. 133: 759 766.
160. Scoles, G. A. 2004. Phylogenetic analysis of the Francisella-like endosymbionts of Dermacentor ticks. J. Med. Entomol. 41: 277 286.
161. Shakir, R. A.,, A. S. N. Al-Din,, G. F. Araj,, A. R. Lulu,, A. R. Mousa,, and M. A. Saadah. 1987. Clinical categories of neurobrucellosis: a report on 19 cases. Brain 110: 213 223.
162. Shapiro, D. S.,, and D. R. Schwartz. 2002. Exposure of laboratory workers to Francisella tularensis despite a bioterrorism procedure. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40: 2278 2281.
163. Sharda, D. C.,, and M. M. Lubani. 1986. A study of brucellosis in childhood. Clin. Pediatr. 25: 492 495.
164. Sicherer, S. H.,, E. J. Asturias,, J. A. Winkelstein,, J. D. Dick,, and R. E. Willoughby. 1997. Francisella philomiragia sepsis in chronic granulomatous disease. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 16: 420 422.
165. Sjöstedt, A., 2005. Francisella, p. 200 210. In D. J. Brenner,, N. R. Krieg,, J. T. Staley,, and G. M. Garrity (ed.), Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd ed., vol. 2. The Proteobacteria. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY.
166. Sjöstedt, A. 2007. Tularemia: history, epidemiology, pathogen physiology, and clinical manifestations. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1105: 1 29.
167. Sjöstedt, A.,, U. Eriksson,, L. Berglund,, and A. Tärnvik. 1997. Detection of Francisella tularensis in ulcers of patients with tularemia by PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 1045 1048.
168. Skalsky, K.,, D. Yahav,, J. Bishara,, S. Pitlik,, L. Leibovici,, and M. Paul. 2008. Treatment of human brucellosis: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ 336: 701 704.
169. Smits, H. L.,, T. H. Abdoel,, J. Solera,, E. Clavijo,, and R. Dial. 2003. Immunochromatographic Brucella-specific immunoglobulin M and G lateral flow assays for rapid serodiagnosis of human brucellosis. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 10: 1141 1146.
170. Sohn, A. H.,, W. S. Probert,, C. A. Glaser,, N. Gupta,, A. W. Bollen,, J. D. Wong,, E. M. Grace,, and W. C. McDonald. 2003. Human neurobrucellosis with intra-cerebral granuloma caused by a marine mammal Brucella spp. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9: 485 488.
171. Solera, J.,, E. Martinez-Alfaro,, A. Espinosa,, M. L. Castillejos,, P. Geijo,, and M. Rodriguez-Zapata. 1998. Multivariate model for predicting relapse in human brucellosis. J. Infect. 36: 85 92.
172. Spink, W. W. 1956. The Nature of Brucellosis. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.
173. Sréter-Lancz, Z.,, Z. Széll,, T. Sréter,, and K. Márialigeti. 2008. Detection of a novel Francisella in Dermacentor reticulatus: a need for careful evaluation of PCR-based identification of Francisella tularensis in Eurasian ticks. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 9: 123 126.
174. Staples, J. E.,, K. A. Kubota,, L. G. Chalcraft,, P. S. Mead,, and J. M. Petersen. 2006. Epidemiologic and molecular analysis of human tularemia, United States, 1964-2004. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12: 1113 1118.
175. Surcel, H. M.,, J. Ilonen,, K. Poikonen,, and E. Herva. 1989. Francisella tularensis-specific T-cell clones are human leukocyte antigen class II restricted, secrete interleukin-2 and gamma interferon, and induce immunoglobulin production. Infect. Immun. 57: 2906 2908.
176. Surcel, H. M.,, M. Sarvas,, I. M. Helander,, and E. Herva. 1989. Membrane proteins of Francisella tularensis LVS differ in ability to induce proliferation of lymphocytes from tularemia-vaccinated individuals. Microb. Pathog. 7: 411 419.
177. Syrjälä, H.,, R. Schildt,, and S. Räisäinen. 1991. In vitro susceptibility of Francisella tularensis to fluoroquinolones and treatment of tularemia with norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 10: 68 70.
178. Tärnvik, A. 1989. Nature of protective immunity to Francisella tularensis. Rev. Infect. Dis. 11: 440 451.
179. Tärnvik, A.,, and M. C. Chu. 2007. New approaches to diagnosis and therapy of tularemia. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1105: 378 404.
180. Thalhammer, F.,, G. Eberl,, and U. Kopetzki-Kogler. 1998. Unusual route of transmission for Brucella abortus. Clin. Infect. Dis. 26: 763 764.
181. Tomaso, H.,, S. Al Dahouk,, E. Hofer,, W. D. Splettstoesser,, T. M. Treu,, M. P. Dierich,, and H. Neubauer. 2005. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Austrian Francisella tularensis holarctica biovar II strains. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 26: 279 284.
182. Urich, S. K.,, and J. M. Petersen. 2008. In vitro susceptibility of isolates of Francisella tularensis types A and B from North America. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52: 2276 2278.
183. Uwaydah, M.,, A. Khalil,, N. Shamsuddine,, F. Matar,, and G. F. Araj. 1998. Brucella-ovarian dermoid cyst causing initial treatment failure in a patient with acute brucellosis. Infection 26: 131 132.
184. Valade, E.,, J. Vaissaire,, A. Mérens,, E. Hernandez,, C. Gros,, C. Le Doujet,, J. C. Paucod,, F. M. Thibault,, B. Durand,, M. Lapalus,, I. Dupuis,, A. Caclard,, D. R. Vidal,, and J. D. Cavallo. 2008. Susceptibility of 71 French isolates of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica to eight antibiotics and accuracy of the Etest method. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 62: 208 210.
185. Vanderca, B. 1990. Isolation of Brucella melitensis from human sperm. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 9: 303 304.
186. Versage, J. L.,, D. D. Severin,, M. C. Chu,, and J. M. Petersen. 2003. Development of a multitarget real-time TaqMan PCR assay for enhanced detection of Francisella tularensis in complex specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41: 5492 5499.
187. Viljanen, M. K.,, T. Nurmi,, and A. Salminen. 1983. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with bacterial sonicate antigen for IgM, IgA, and IgG antibodies to Francisella tularensis: comparison with bacterial agglutination test and ELISA with lipopolysaccharide antigen. J. Infect. Dis. 148: 715 720.
188. Vogler, A. J.,, D. Birdsell,, L. B. Price,, J. R. Bowers,, S. M. Beckstrom-Sternberg,, R. K. Auerbach,, J. S. Beckstrom-Sternberg,, A. Johansson,, A. Clare,, J. L. Buchhagen,, J. M. Petersen,, T. Pearson,, J. Vaissaire,, M. P. Dempsey,, P. Foxall,, D. M. Engelthaler,, D. M. Wagner,, and P. Keim. 2009. Phylogeography of Francisella tularensis: global expansion of a highly fit clone. J. Bacteriol. 191: 2474 2484.
189. Vrioni, G.,, C. Gartzonika,, A. Kostoula,, C. Boboyiami,, C. Papadopoulou,, and S. Levidiotou. 2004. Application of a polymerase chain reaction enzyme immunoassay in peripheral whole blood and serum specimens for diagnosis of acute human brucellosis. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 23: 194 199.
190. Waag, D. M.,, K. T. McKee, Jr.,, G. Sandström,, L. L. K. Pratt,, C. R. Bolt,, M. J. England,, G. O. Nelson,, and J. C. Williams. 1995. Cell-mediated and humoral immune responses after vaccination of human volunteers with the live vaccine strain of Francisella tularensis. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 2: 143 148.
191. Wenger, J. D.,, D. G. Hollis,, R. E. Weaver,, C. N. Baker,, G. R. Brown,, D. J. Brenner,, and C. V. Broome. 1989. Infection caused by Francisella philomiragia (formerly Yersinia philomiragia): a newly recognized human pathogen. Ann. Intern. Med. 110: 888 892.
192. Weyant, R. S.,, C. W. Moss,, R. E. Weaver,, D. G. Hollis,, J. G. Jordan,, E. C. Cook,, and M. I. Daneshvar. 1996. Identification of Unusual Pathogenic Gram-Negative Aerobic and Facultatively Anaerobic Bacteria, 2nd ed. The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore, MD.
193. Whatmore, A. M. 2009. Current understanding of the genetics diversity of Brucella, an expanding genus of zoonotic pathogens. Infect. Genet. Evol. 9: 1168 1184.
194. Whipp, M. J.,, J. M. Davis,, G. Lum,, J. de Boer,, Y. Zhou,, S. W. Bearden,, J. M. Petersen,, M. C. Chu,, and G. Hogg. 2003. Characterization of a novicida-like subspecies of Francisella tularensis in Australia. J. Med. Microbiol. 52: 839 842.
195. Willke, A.,, M. Meric,, R. Grunow,, M. Sayan,, E. J. Finke,, W. Splettstösser,, E. Seibold,, S. Erdogan,, O. Ergonul,, Z. Yumuk,, and S. Gedikoglu. 2009. An outbreak of oropharyngeal tularaemia linked to natural spring water. J. Med. Microbiol. 58: 112 116.
196. World Health Organization. 2006. Brucellosis in humans and animals, p. 3641. WHO/CDS/EPR/2006.7. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
197. World Health Organization. 2007. WHO guidelines on tularemia. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. http://www.cdc.gov/tularemia/resources/whotularemiamanual.pdf.
198. Wyatt, H. V. 2000. Sir Themistocles Zammit: his honours and an annotated bibliography of his medical work. Maltese Med. J. 12: 27 30.
199. Yagupsky, P. 1999. Detection of brucellae in blood cultures. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 3437 3442.
200. Yagupsky, P.,, and E. J. Baron. 2005. Laboratory exposures to brucellae and implications for bioterrorism . Emerg. Infect. Dis. 11: 1180 1185.
201. Yingst, S.,, and D. L. Hoover. 2003. T cell immunity to brucellosis. Crit. Rev. Microbiol. 29: 313 331.
202. Young, E. J., 2009. Brucella species, p. 2921 2925. In G. L. Mandell,, J. E. Bennett,, and R. Dolin (ed.), Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett’s Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 7th ed. Elsevier Inc., Philadelphia, PA.
203. Zhang, F.,, W. Liu,, X. M. Wu,, Z. T. Xin,, Q. M. Zhao,, H. Yang,, and W. C. Cao. 2008. Detection of Francisella tularensis in ticks and identification of their genotypes using multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis. BMC Microbiol. 8: 152.
204. Zinsstag, J.,, E. Schelling,, F. Roth,, B. Bonfoh,, D. de Savigny,, and M. Tanner. 2007. Human benefits of animal interventions for zoonoses control. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 13: 527 531.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Presumptive differentiation of Francisella and Brucella from similar gram-negative genera

+, greater than or equal to 90% positive; –, less than or equal to 10% positive; V, variable (11 to 89% positive); ccb, coccobacilli. Data are from reference 169.

Does not include , which is the only motile species.

Formerly Moraxella phenylpyruvica.

spp. requiring X and V factors or V factor only.

While not required, X factor (hemin) enhances growth for many strains.

May be difficult to demonstrate.

The number before the colon indicates the number of carbons; the number after the colon is the number of double bonds, vindicates the location of the double bond counting from the hydrocarbon end of the carbon chain, OH indicates a hydroxy group at the 2 or 3 position from the carboxyl end, c indicates the cis isomer, and cyc indicates a cyclopropane ring structure. Hydroxy acids listed are at least 2% of the total cellular fatty acid (CFA) composition; all others are at least 10%.

lacks 19:0cyc. Cellular fatty acid data for marine mammal strains are not available.

Citation: Petersen J, Schriefer M, Araj G. 2011. and , p 751-769. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch44
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Characteristics of spp.

Standard bacteriological media: blood, Trypticase soy, and brain heart infusion.

Delayed or variable reaction. subsp. does not ferment glucose ( ).

V, variable or slow reaction.

NT, not tested.

Citation: Petersen J, Schriefer M, Araj G. 2011. and , p 751-769. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch44
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Epidemiology of Francisella spp. affecting humans

Citation: Petersen J, Schriefer M, Araj G. 2011. and , p 751-769. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch44
Generic image for table
TABLE 4

Tests commonly used in laboratory diagnosis of brucellosis

Citation: Petersen J, Schriefer M, Araj G. 2011. and , p 751-769. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch44
Generic image for table
TABLE 5

Interpretation of commonly used serologic tests based on the immunoglobulin type detected and usefulness in the diagnosis of different disease categories/stages of human brucellosis

Citation: Petersen J, Schriefer M, Araj G. 2011. and , p 751-769. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch44

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error