Chapter 46 :

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap46-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap46-2.gif


species are members of the alpha-2 subgroup of the class , within the order. There are now more than 22 species or subspecies described, and DNA sequences from numerous other species or strains have been deposited in GenBank. Warthin-Starry silver stain is recommended for microscopic detection of organisms in fixed tissue sections but is not highly specific and is insensitive, even with lymph node biopsy samples from cat scratch disease (CSD) patients. In contrast, even when isolation of the infecting species is not possible, PCR amplification of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) DNA directly from diagnostic samples and/or from enrichment cultures followed by nucleic acid sequencing is an invaluable tool for primary identification at the species, subspecies, and genotype levels. The first serologic test for CSD was an immunofluorescence antibody assay (IFA) based on bacilli that were cocultivated with Vero cells to inhibit autoagglutination. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing can be performed by agar dilution methods using either blood or chocolate agar or by microdilution techniques using various media supplemented with blood. CSD typically does not respond to antibiotic therapy. Most investigators have observed no or minimal benefit with antibiotic treatment, whereas anecdotal reports indicate that ciprofloxacin, rifampin, and co-trimoxazole may be effective. Diagnosis of infection in humans, especially for typical forms of CSD, is mainly based on serologic data, which is the most cost-effective approach.

Citation: Maggi R, Kempf V, Chomel B, Breitschwerdt E. 2011. , p 786-798. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch46

Key Concept Ranking

Multiple-Locus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of FIGURE 1

(A and B) Electron micrographs of Marseille (A) and subsp. genotype III (B); (C) strain Houston I isolated on a blood agar plate after 10 days in culture at 36°C and 5% CO. Panel A is reprinted from reference .

Citation: Maggi R, Kempf V, Chomel B, Breitschwerdt E. 2011. , p 786-798. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch46
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Agan, B. K.,, and M. J. Dolan. 2002. Laboratory diagnosis of Bartonella infections. Clin. Lab. Med. 22:937962.
2. Bereswill, S.,, S. Hinkelmann,, M. Kist,, and A. Sander. 1999. Molecular analysis of riboflavin synthesis genes in Bartonella henselae and use of the ribC gene for differentiation of Bartonella species by PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 31593166.
3. Berghoff, J.,, J. Viezens,, L. Guptill,, M. Fabbi,, and M. Arvand. 2007. Bartonella henselae exists as a mosaic of different genetic variants in the infected host. Microbiology 153:20452051.
4. Bergmans, A. M.,, M. F. Peeters,, J. F. Schellekens,, M. C. Vos,, L. J. Sabbe,, J. M. Ossewaarde,, H. Verbakel,, H. J. Hooft,, and L. M. Schouls. 1997. Pitfalls and fallacies of cat scratch disease serology: evaluation of Bartonella henselae-based indirect fluorescence assay and enzyme-linked immunoassay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:19311937.
5. Billeter, S. A.,, M. G. Levy,, B. B. Chomel,, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2008. Vector transmission of Bartonella species with emphasis on the potential for tick transmission. Med. Vet. Entomol. 22:115.
6. Boonjakuakul, J. K.,, H. L. Gerns,, Y. T. Chen,, L. D. Hicks,, M. F. Minnick,, S. E. Dixon,, S. C. Hall,, and J. E. Koehler. 2007. Proteomic and immunoblot analyses of Bartonella quintana total membrane proteins identify antigens recognized by sera from infected patients. Infect. Immun. 75:25482561.
6a.. Boulouis, H. J.,, F. Barrat,, D. Bermond,, F. Bernex,, D. Thibault,, R. Heller,, J.-J. Fontaine,, Y. Piémont,, and B. B. Chomel. 2001. Kinetics of Bartonella birtlesii infection in experimentally infected mice and pathogenic effect on reproductive functions. Infect. Immun. 69:53135317.
7. Boulouis, H. J.,, C. C. Chang,, J. B. Henn,, R. W. Kasten,, and B. B. Chomel. 2005. Factors associated with the rapid emergence of zoonotic Bartonella infections. Vet. Res. 36:383410.
8. Breitschwerdt, E. B. 2008. Feline bartonellosis and cat scratch disease. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 123:167171.
9. Breitschwerdt, E. B.,, C. E. Atkins,, T. T. Brown,, D. L. Kordick,, and P. S. Snyder. 1999. Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and related members of the alpha subdivision of the Proteobacteria in dogs with cardiac arrhythmias, endocarditis, or myocarditis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 36183626.
10. Breitschwerdt, E. B.,, B. C. Hegarty,, R. Maggi,, E. Hawkins,, and P. Dyer. 2005. Bartonella species as a potential cause of epistaxis in dogs. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:25292533.
11. Breitschwerdt, E. B.,, and D. L. Kordick. 2000. Bartonella infection in animals: carriership, reservoir potential, pathogenicity, and zoonotic potential for human infection. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 13:428438.
12. Breitschwerdt, E. B.,, and D. L. Kordick. 1995. Bartonellosis. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 206:19281931.
13. Breitschwerdt, E. B.,, D. L. Kordick,, D. E. Malarkey,, B. Keene,, T. L. Hadfield,, and K. Wilson. 1995. Endocarditis in a dog due to infection with a novel Bartonella subspecies. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:154160.
14. Breitschwerdt, E. B.,, R. G. Maggi,, A. W. Duncan,, W. L. Nicholson,, B. C. Hegarty,, and C. W. Woods. 2007. Bartonella species in blood of immunocompetent persons with animal and arthropod contact. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 13:938941.
15. Breitschwerdt, E. B.,, R. G. Maggi,, W. L. Nicholson,, N. A. Cherry,, and C. W. Woods. 2008. Bartonella sp. bacteremia in patients with neurological and neurocognitive dysfunction. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46:28562861.
16. Breitschwerdt, E. B.,, R. G. Maggi,, B. Sigmon,, and W. L. Nicholson. 2007. Isolation of Bartonella quintana from a woman and a cat following putative bite transmission. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45:270272.
17. Brouqui, P.,, B. Lascola,, V. Roux,, and D. Raoult. 1999. Chronic Bartonella quintana bacteremia in homeless patients. N. Engl. J. Med. 340:184189.
18. Cadenas, M. B.,, J. Bradley,, R. G. Maggi,, M. Takara,, B. C. Hegarty,, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2008. Molecular characterization of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotype III. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46:18581860.
19. Chamberlin, J.,, L. W. Laughlin,, S. Romero,, N. Solorzano,, S. Gordon,, R. G. Andre,, P. Pachas,, H. Friedman,, C. Ponce,, and D. Watts. 2002. Epidemiology of endemic Bartonella bacilliformis: a prospective cohort study in a Peruvian mountain valley community. J. Infect. Dis. 186:983990.
20. Chang, C. C.,, B. B. Chomel,, R. W. Kasten,, V. Romano,, and N. Tietze. 2001. Molecular evidence of Bartonella spp. in questing adult Ixodes pacificus ticks in California. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:12211226.
21. Chang, C. C.,, R. W. Kasten,, B. B. Chomel,, D. C. Simpson,, C. M. Hew,, D. L. Kordick,, R. Heller,, Y. Piemont,, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2000. Coyotes (Canis latrans) as the reservoir for a human pathogenic Bartonella sp.: molecular epidemiology of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii infection in coyotes from central coastal California. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:41934200.
22. Chenoweth, M. R.,, G. A. Somerville,, D. C. Krause,, K. L. O’Reilly,, and F. C. Gherardini. 2004. Growth characteristics of Bartonella henselae in a novel liquid medium: primary isolation, growth-phase-dependent phage induction, and metabolic studies. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:656663.
23. Cherry, N. A.,, P. P. Diniz,, R. G. Maggi,, J. B. Hummel,, E. M. Hardie,, E. N. Behrend,, E. Rozanski,, T. C. Defrancesco,, M. B. Cadenas,, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2009. Isolation or molecular detection of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii from dogs with idiopathic cavitary effusions. J. Vet. Intern. Med. 23:186189.
24. Cherry, N. A.,, R. G. Maggi,, A. L. Cannedy,, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2009. PCR detection of Bartonella bovis and Bartonella henselae in the blood of beef cattle. Vet. Microbiol. 135:308312.
25. Chomel, B. B. 1996. Cat-scratch disease and bacillary angiomatosis. Rev. Sci. Tech. 15:10611073.
26. Chomel, B. B.,, and H. J. Boulouis. 2005. Zoonotic diseases caused by bacteria of the genus Bartonella genus: new reservoirs? New vectors? Bull. Acad. Natl. Med. 189:465477; discussion, 477-480. (In French.).
27. Chomel, B. B.,, H. J. Boulouis,, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2004. Cat scratch disease and other zoonotic Bartonella infections. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 224:12701279.
28. Chomel, B. B.,, H. J. Boulouis,, S. Maruyama,, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2006. Bartonella spp. in pets and effect on human health. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12:389394.
29. Chomel, B. B.,, R. W. Kasten,, J. B. Henn,, and S. Molia. 2006. Bartonella infection in domestic cats and wild felids. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1078:410415.
29a.. Chomel, B. B.,, R. W. Kasten,, J. E. Sykes,, H. J. Boulouis,, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2003. Clinical impact of persistent Bartonella bacteremia in humans and animals. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 990:267278.
30. Chomel, B. B.,, R. W. Kasten,, C. Williams,, A. C. Wey,, J. B. Henn,, R. Maggi,, S. Carrasco,, J. Mazet,, H. J. Boulouis,, R. Maillard,, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2009. Bartonella endocarditis: a pathology shared by animal reservoirs and patients. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1166:120126.
31. Cockwill, K. R.,, S. M. Taylor,, H. M. Philibert,, E. B. Breitschwerdt,, and R. G. Maggi. 2007. Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii endocarditis in a dog from Saskatchewan. Can. Vet. J. 48:839844.
32. Cross, J. R.,, J. H. Rossmeisl,, R. G. Maggi,, E. B. Breitschwerdt,, and R. B. Duncan. 2008. Bartonella-associated meningoradiculoneuritis and dermatitis or panniculitis in 3 dogs. J. Vet. Intern. Med. 22:674678.
33. Dalton, M. J.,, L. E. Robinson,, J. Cooper,, R. L. Regnery,, J. G. Olson,, and J. E. Childs. 1995. Use of Bartonella antigens for serologic diagnosis of cat-scratch disease at a national referral center. Arch. Intern. Med. 155:16701676.
34. Dauga, C.,, I. Miras,, and P. A. Grimont. 1996. Identification of Bartonella henselae and B. quintana 16s rDNA sequences by branchgenus- and species-specific amplification. J. Med. Microbiol. 45:192199.
35. De Paiva Diniz, P. P.,, D. S. Schwartz,, H. S. De Morais,, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2007. Surveillance for zoonotic vector-borne infections using sick dogs from southeastern Brazil. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 7:689697.
35a.. Dietrich, F.,, T. Schmidgen,, R. G. Maggi,, D. Ritcher,, F.-R. Matuschka,, R. Vonthein,, E. B. Breitschwerdt,, and V. A. Kempf. 2010. Prevalence of Bartonella henselae and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato DNA in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Europe. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76:13951398.
36. Dillon, B.,, J. Iredell,, E. B. Breitschwerdt,, and R. G. Maggi. 2005. Potential limitations of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic region for molecular detection of Bartonella species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:49214922.
37. Diniz, P. P.,, R. G. Maggi,, D. S. Schwartz,, M. B. Cadenas,, J. M. Bradley,, B. Hegarty,, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2007. Canine bartonellosis: serological and molecular prevalence in Brazil and evidence of co-infection with Bartonella henselae and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. Vet. Res. 38:697710.
38. Drancourt, M.,, R. Birtles,, G. Chaumentin,, F. Vandenesch,, J. Etienne,, and D. Raoult. 1996. New serotype of Bartonella henselae in endocarditis and cat-scratch disease. Lancet 347:441443.
39. Drancourt, M.,, J. L. Mainardi,, P. Brouqui,, F. Vandenesch,, A. Carta,, F. Lehnert,, J. Etienne,, F. Goldstein,, J. Acar,, and D. Raoult. 1995. Bartonella (Rochalimaea) quintana endocarditis in three homeless men. N. Engl. J. Med. 332:419423.
40. Drancourt, M.,, V. Moal,, P. Brunet,, B. Dussol,, Y. Berland,, and D. Raoult. 1996. Bartonella (Rochalimaea) quintana infection in a seronegative hemodialyzed patient. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:11581160.
41. Droz, S.,, B. Chi,, E. Horn,, A. G. Steigerwalt,, A. M. Whitney,, and D. J. Brenner. 1999. Bartonella koehlerae sp. nov., isolated from cats. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:11171122.
42. Duncan, A. W.,, R. G. Maggi,, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2007. Bartonella DNA in dog saliva. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 13:19481950.
43. Duncan, A. W.,, R. G. Maggi,, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2007. A combined approach for the enhanced detection and isolation of Bartonella species in dog blood samples: pre-enrichment liquid culture followed by PCR and subculture onto agar plates. J. Microbiol. Methods 69:273281.
44. Duncan, A. W.,, H. S. Marr,, A. J. Birkenheuer,, R. G. Maggi,, L. E. Williams,, M. T. Correa,, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2008. Bartonella DNA in the blood and lymph nodes of golden retrievers with lymphoma and in healthy controls. J. Vet. Intern. Med. 22:8995.
45. Dupon, M.,, A. M. Savin De Larclause,, P. Brouqui,, M. Drancourt,, D. Raoult,, A. De Mascarel,, and J. Y. Lacut. 1996. Evaluation of serological response to Bartonella henselae, Bartonella quintana and Afipia felis antigens in 64 patients with suspected cat-scratch disease. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 28: 361366.
46. Eberhardt, C.,, S. Engelmann,, H. Kusch,, D. Albrecht,, M. Hecker,, I. B. Autenrieth,, and V. A. Kempf. 2009. Proteomic analysis of the bacterial pathogen Bartonella henselae and identification of immunogenic proteins for serodiagnosis. Proteomics 9:19671981.
47. Fenollar, F.,, and D. Raoult. 2004. Molecular genetic methods for the diagnosis of fastidious microorganisms. APMIS 112:785807.
48. Fenollar, F.,, S. Sire,, and D. Raoult. 2005. Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis as an agent of blood culture-negative endocarditis in a human. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:945947.
49. Foucault, C.,, B. La Scola,, H. Lindroos,, S. G. Andersson,, and D. Raoult. 2005. Multispacer typing technique for sequence-based typing of Bartonella quintana. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:4148.
49a.. Fournier, P. E.,, C. Couderc,, S. Buffet,, C. Flaudrops,, and D. Raoult. 2009. Rapid and cost-effective identification of Bartonella species using mass spectrometry. J. Med. Microbiol. 58:11541159.
50. Fournier, P. E.,, J. L. Mainardi,, and D. Raoult. 2002. Value of microimmunofluorescence for diagnosis and follow-up of Bartonella endocarditis. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 9:795801.
51. Fournier, P. E.,, J. Robson,, Z. Zeaiter,, R. McDougall,, S. Byrne,, and D. Raoult. 2002. Improved culture from lymph nodes of patients with cat scratch disease and genotypic characterization of Bartonella henselae isolates in Australia. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:36203624.
52. Goodman, R. A.,, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2005. Clinicopathologic findings in dogs seroreactive to Bartonella henselae antigens. Am. J. Vet. Res. 66:20602064.
53. Gurfield, A. N.,, H. J. Boulouis,, B. B. Chomel,, R. Heller,, R. W. Kasten,, K. Yamamoto,, and Y. Piemont. 1997. Coinfection with Bartonella clarridgeiae and Bartonella henselae and with different Bartonella henselae strains in domestic cats. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:21202123.
54. Guyot, A.,, A. Bakhai,, N. Fry,, J. Merritt,, H. Malnick,, and T. Harrison. 1999. Culture-positive Bartonella quintana endocarditis. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 18:145147.
55. Handley, S. A.,, and R. L. Regnery. 2000. Differentiation of pathogenic Bartonella species by infrequent restriction site PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:30103015.
56. Harms, C.,, R. G. Maggi,, E. B. Breitschwerdt,, C. L. Clemons-Chevis,, M. Solangi,, D. S. Rotstein,, P. A. Fair,, L. J. Hansen,, A. A. Hohn,, G. N. Lovewell,, W. A. McLellan,, D. A. Pabst,, T. K. Rowles,, L. H. Schwacke,, F. I. Townsend,, and R. S. Wells. 2008. Bartonella species detection in captive, stranded and free-ranging cetaceans. Vet. Res. 39:59.
57. Heller, R.,, M. Artois,, V. Xemar,, D. De Briel,, H. Gehin,, B. Jaulhac,, H. Monteil,, and Y. Piemont. 1997. Prevalence of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae in stray cats. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:13271331.
58. Henn, J. B.,, M. W. Gabriel,, R. W. Kasten,, R. N. Brown,, J. E. Koehler,, K. A. MacDonald,, M. D. Kittleson,, W. P. Thomas,, and B. B. Chomel. 2008. Infective endocarditis in a dog and the phylogenic relationship of the associated “Bartonella rochalimae” strain with isolates from dogs, gray foxes, and a human. J. Clin. Microbiol. 47:787790.
59. Houpikian, P.,, and D. Raoult. 2001. 16S/23S rRNA intergenic spacer regions for phylogenetic analysis, identification, and subtyping of Bartonella species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:27682778.
60. Houpikian, P.,, and D. Raoult. 2005. Blood culture-negative endocarditis in a reference center: etiologic diagnosis of 348 cases. Medicine (Baltimore) 84:162173.
61. Houpikian, P.,, and D. Raoult. 2003. Diagnostic methods. Current best practices and guidelines for identification of difficult-to-culture pathogens in infective endocarditis. Cardiol. Clin. 21:207217.
62. Ives, T. J.,, P. Manzewitsch,, R. L. Regnery,, J. D. Butts,, and M. Kebede. 1997. In vitro susceptibilities of Bartonella henselae, B. quintana, B. elizabethae, Rickettsia rickettsii, R. conorii, R. akari, and R. prowazekii to macrolide antibiotics as determined by immunofluorescent-antibody analysis of infected Vero cell monolayers. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41:578582.
63. Ives, T. J.,, E. L. Marston,, R. L. Regnery,, and J. D. Butts. 2001. In vitro susceptibilities of Bartonella and Rickettsia spp. to fluoroquinolone antibiotics as determined by immunofluorescent antibody analysis of infected Vero cell monolayers. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 18:217222.
64. Ives, T. J.,, E. L. Marston,, R. L. Regnery,, J. D. Butts,, and T. C. Majerus. 2000. In vitro susceptibilities of Rickettsia and Bartonella spp. to 14-hydroxy-clarithromycin as determined by immunofluorescent antibody analysis of infected Vero cell monolayers. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 45:305310.
65. Jackson, L. A.,, and D. H. Spach. 1996. Emergence of Bartonella quintana infection among homeless persons. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 2:141144.
66. Jacomo, V.,, P. J. Kelly,, and D. Raoult. 2002. Natural history of Bartonella infections (an exception to Koch’s postulate). Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 9:818.
67. Jensen, W. A.,, M. Z. Fall,, J. Rooney,, D. L. Kordick,, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2000. Rapid identification and differentiation of Bartonella species using a single-step PCR assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:17171722.
68. Joblet, C.,, V. Roux,, M. Drancourt,, J. Gouvernet,, and D. Raoult. 1995. Identification of Bartonella (Rochalimaea) species among fastidious gram-negative bacteria on the basis of the partial sequence of the citrate-synthase gene. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:18791883.
69. Jones, S. L.,, R. Maggi,, J. Shuler,, A. Alward,, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2008. Detection of Bartonella henselae in the blood of 2 adult horses. J. Vet. Intern. Med. 22:495498.
70. Kelly, P.,, J. M. Rolain,, R. Maggi,, S. Sontakke,, B. Keene,, S. Hunter,, H. Lepidi,, K. T. Breitschwerdt,, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2006. Bartonella quintana endocarditis in dogs. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12:18691872.
71. Keret, D.,, M. Giladi,, Y. Kletter,, and S. Wientroub. 1998. Cat-scratch disease osteomyelitis from a dog scratch. J. Bone Joint Surg. 80:766767.
72. Kerkhoff, F. T.,, A. M. Bergmans,, A. van Der Zee,, and A. Rothova. 1999. Demonstration of Bartonella grahamii DNA in ocular fluids of a patient with neuroretinitis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:40344038.
73. Kerkhoff, F. T.,, and A. Rothova. 2000. Bartonella henselae associated uveitis and HLA-B27. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 84: 11251129.
74. Koehler, J. E.,, F. D. Quinn,, T. G. Berger,, P. E. LeBoit,, and J. W. Tappero. 1992. Isolation of Rochalimaea species from cutaneous and osseous lesions of bacillary angiomatosis. N. Engl. J. Med. 327:16251631.
75. Koehler, J. E.,, M. A. Sanchez,, C. S. Garrido,, M. J. Whitfeld,, F. M. Chen,, T. G. Berger,, M. C. Rodriguez-Barradas,, P. E. LeBoit,, and J. W. Tappero. 1997. Molecular epidemiology of bartonella infections in patients with bacillary angiomatosispeliosis. N. Engl. J. Med. 337:18761883.
76. Koehler, J. E.,, and J. W. Tappero. 1993. Bacillary angiomatosis and bacillary peliosis in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Clin. Infect. Dis. 17:612624.
77. Kordick, D. L.,, E. J. Hilyard,, T. L. Hadfield,, K. H. Wilson,, A. G. Steigerwalt,, D. J. Brenner,, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 1997. Bartonella clarridgeiae, a newly recognized zoonotic pathogen causing inoculation papules, fever, and lymphadenopathy (cat scratch disease). J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:18131818.
78. Kordick, D. L.,, B. Swaminathan,, C. E. Greene,, K. H. Wilson,, A. M. Whitney,, S. O’Connor,, D. G. Hollis,, G. M. Matar,, A. G. Steigerwalt,, G. B. Malcolm,, P. S. Hayes,, T. L. Hadfield,, E. B. Breitschwerdt,, and D. J. Brenner. 1996. Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii subsp. nov., isolated from dogs; Bartonella vinsonii subsp. vinsonii; and emended description of Bartonella vinsonii. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 46:704709.
79. Kordick, S. K.,, E. B. Breitschwerdt,, B. C. Hegarty,, K. L. Southwick,, C. M. Colitz,, S. I. Hancock,, J. M. Bradley,, R. Rumbough,, J. T. McPherson,, and J. N. MacCormack.1999. Coinfection with multiple tick-borne pathogens in a Walker Hound kennel in North Carolina. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:26312638.
80. Kosek, M.,, R. Lavarello,, R. H. Gilman,, J. Delgado,, C. Maguina,, M. Verastegui,, A. G. Lescano,, V. Mallqui,, J. C. Kosek,, S. Recavarren,, and L. Cabrera. 2000. Natural history of infection with Bartonella bacilliformis in a nonendemic population. J. Infect. Dis. 182:865872.
81. Kosoy, M.,, C. Morway,, K. W. Sheff,, Y. Bai,, J. Colborn,, L. Chalcraft,, S. F. Dowell,, L. F. Peruski,, S. A. Maloney,, H. Baggett,, S. Sutthirattana,, A. Sidhirat,, S. Maruyama,, H. Kabeya,, B. B. Chomel,, R. Kasten,, V. Popov,, J. Robinson,, A. Kruglov,, and L. R. Petersen. 2008. Bartonella tamiae sp. nov., a newly recognized pathogen isolated from three human patients from Thailand. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46:772775.
82. Lappin, M. R.,, E. Breitschwerdt,, M. Brewer,, J. Hawley,, B. Hegarty,, and S. Radecki. 2009. Prevalence of Bartonella species antibodies and Bartonella species DNA in the blood of cats with and without fever. J. Feline Med. Surg. 11:141148.
83. Lappin, M. R.,, D. L. Kordick,, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2000. Bartonella spp. antibodies and DNA in aqueous humour of cats. J. Feline Med. Surg. 2:6168.
84. La Scola, B.,, and D. Raoult. 1999. Culture of Bartonella quintana and Bartonella henselae from human samples: a 5-year experience (1993 to 1998). J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:18991905.
85. La Scola, B.,, and D. Raoult. 1996. Serological cross-reactions between Bartonella quintana, Bartonella henselae, and Coxiella burnetii. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:22702274.
86. La Scola, B.,, Z. Zeaiter,, A. Khamis,, and D. Raoult. 2003. Gene-sequence-based criteria for species definition in bacteriology: the Bartonella paradigm. Trends Microbiol. 11:318321.
87. Liang, Z.,, and D. Raoult. 2000. Species-specific monoclonal antibodies for rapid identification of Bartonella quintana. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 7:2124.
88. Luria, B. J.,, J. K. Levy,, M. R. Lappin,, E. B. Breitschwerdt,, A. M. Legendre,, J. A. Hernandez,, S. P. Gorman,, and I. T. Lee. 2004. Prevalence of infectious diseases in feral cats in Northern Florida. J. Feline Med. Surg. 6:287296.
89. Maggi, R. G.,, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2005. Potential limitations of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic region for molecular detection of Bartonella species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:11711176.
90. Maggi, R. G.,, B. Chomel,, B. C. Hegarty,, J. Henn,, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2006. A Bartonella vinsonii berkhoffii typing scheme based upon 16S-23S ITS and Pap31 sequences from dog, coyote, gray fox, and human isolates. Mol. Cell. Probes 20:128134.
91. Maggi, R. G.,, A. W. Duncan,, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2005. Novel chemically modified liquid medium that will support the growth of seven bartonella species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:26512655.
92. Maggi, R. G.,, C. A. Harms,, A. A. Hohn,, D. A. Pabst,, W. A. McLellan,, W. J. Walton,, D. S. Rotstein,, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2005. Bartonella henselae in porpoise blood. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 11:18941898.
93. Maggi, R. G.,, M. Kosoy,, M. Mintzer,, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2009. Isolation of Candidatus Bartonella melophagi from human blood. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 15:6668.
94. Maggi, R. G.,, S. A. Raverty,, S. J. Lester,, D. G. Huff,, M. Haulena,, S. L. Ford,, O. Nielsen,, J. H. Robinson,, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2008. Bartonella henselae in captive and hunter-harvested beluga (Delphinapterus leucas). J. Wildl. Dis. 44:871877.
95. Mainardi, J. L.,, C. Figliolini,, F. W. Goldstein,, P. Blanche,, M. Baret-Rigoulet,, N. Galezowski,, P. E. Fournier,, and D. Raoult. 1998. Cat scratch disease due to Bartonella henselae serotype Marseille (Swiss cat) in a seronegative patient. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:2800.
96. Mandle, T.,, H. Einsele,, M. Schaller,, D. Neumann,, W. Vogel,, I. B. Autenrieth,, and V. A. Kempf. 2005. Infection of human CD34+ progenitor cells with Bartonella henselae results in intraerythrocytic presence of B. henselae. Blood 106:12151222.
97. Margileth, A. M.,, and D. F. Baehren. 1998. Chest-wall abscess due to cat-scratch disease (CSD) in an adult with antibodies to Bartonella clarridgeiae: case report and review of the thoracopulmonary manifestations of CSD. Clin. Infect. Dis. 27:353357.
98. Maruyama, S.,, S. Hiraga,, E. Yokoyama,, M. Naoi,, Y. Tsuruoka,, Y. Ogura,, K. Tamura,, S. Namba,, Y. Kameyama,, S. Nakamura,, and Y. Katsube. 1998. Seroprevalence of Bartonella henselae and Toxoplasma gondii infections among pet cats in Kanagawa and Saitama Prefectures. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 60:9971000.
99. Mateen, F. J.,, J. C. Newstead,, and K. L. McClean. 2005. Bacillary angiomatosis in an HIV-positive man with multiple risk factors: a clinical and epidemiological puzzle. Can. J. Infect. Dis. Med. Microbiol. 16:249252.
100. Maurin, M.,, F. Eb,, J. Etienne,, and D. Raoult. 1997. Serological cross-reactions between Bartonella and Chlamydia species: implications for diagnosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:22832287.
101. Maurin, M.,, S. Gasquet,, C. Ducco,, and D. Raoult. 1995. MICs of 28 antibiotic compounds for 14 Bartonella (formerly Rochalimaea) isolates. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 39:23872391.
102. Maurin, M.,, and D. Raoult. 1993. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Rochalimaea quintana, Rochalimaea vinsonii, and the newly recognized Rochalimaea henselae. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 32:587594.
103. Maurin, M.,, J. M. Rolain,, and D. Raoult. 2002. Comparison of in-house and commercial slides for detection by immunofluorescence of immunoglobulins G and M against Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 9:10041009. 104.
104. Monteil, M.,, B. Durand,, R. Bouchouicha,, E. Petit,, B. Chomel,, M. Arvand,, H. J. Boulouis,, and N. Haddad. 2007. Development of discriminatory multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis for Bartonella henselae. Microbiology 153:11411148.
105. Morales, S. C.,, E. B. Breitschwerdt,, R. J. Washabau,, I. Matise,, R. G. Maggi,, and A. W. Duncan. 2007. Detection of Bartonella henselae DNA in two dogs with pyogranulomatous lymphadenitis. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 230:681685.
106. Murakami, K.,, M. Tsukahara,, H. Tsuneoka,, H. Iino,, C. Ishida,, K. Tsujino,, A. Umeda,, T. Furuya,, S. Kawauchi,, and K. Sasaki. 2002. Cat scratch disease: analysis of 130 seropositive cases. J. Infect. Chemother. 8:349352.
107. Musso, D.,, M. Drancourt,, and D. Raoult. 1995. Lack of bactericidal effect of antibiotics except aminoglycosides on Bartonella (Rochalimaea) henselae. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 36:101108.
108. Myers, W. F.,, D. M. Grossman,, and C. L. Wisseman, Jr. 1984. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns in Rochalimaea quintana, the agent of trench fever. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 25:690693.
109. Norman, A. F.,, R. Regnery,, P. Jameson,, C. Greene,, and D. C. Krause. 1995. Differentiation of Bartonella-like isolates at the species level by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism in the citrate synthase gene. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:17971803.
110. Pappalardo, B. L.,, M. T. Correa,, C. C. York,, C. Y. Peat,, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 1997. Epidemiologic evaluation of the risk factors associated with exposure and seroreactivity to Bartonella vinsonii in dogs. Am. J. Vet. Res. 58:467471.
111. Patel, R.,, J. O. Newell,, G. W. Procop,, and D. H. Persing. 1999. Use of polymerase chain reaction for citrate synthase gene to diagnose Bartonella quintana endocarditis. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 112:3640.
112. Raoult, D.,, C. Foucault,, and P. Brouqui. 2001. Infections in the homeless. Lancet Infect. Dis. 1:7784.
113. Raoult, D.,, F. Roblot,, J. M. Rolain,, J. M. Besnier,, J. Loulergue,, F. Bastides,, and P. Choutet. 2006. First isolation of Bartonella alsatica from a valve of a patient with endocarditis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:278279.
114. Raoult, D.,, and V. Roux. 1999. The body louse as a vector of reemerging human diseases. Clin. Infect. Dis. 29: 888911.
115. Regnery, R. L.,, J. G. Olson,, B. A. Perkins,, and W. Bibb. 1992. Serological response to “Rochalimaea henselae” antigen in suspected cat-scratch disease. Lancet 339:14431445.
116. Relman, D. A.,, J. S. Loutit,, T. M. Schmidt,, S. Falkow,, and L. S. Tompkins. 1990. The agent of bacillary angiomatosis. An approach to the identification of uncultured pathogens. N. Engl. J. Med. 323:15731580.
117. Renesto, P.,, J. Gouvernet,, M. Drancourt,, V. Roux,, and D. Raoult. 2001. Use of rpoB gene analysis for detection and identification of Bartonella species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:430437.
118. Ricketts, W. E. 1949. Clinical manifestations of Carrion’s disease. Arch. Intern. Med. (Chicago) 84:751781.
119. Ricketts, W. E. 1949. A study of 22 cases of Carrion’s disease with intercurrent malaria. Am. J. Med. Sci. 218:525530.
120. Riess, T.,, S. G. Andersson,, A. Lupas,, M. Schaller,, A. Schafer,, P. Kyme,, J. Martin,, J. H. Walzlein,, U. Ehehalt,, H. Lindroos,, M. Schirle,, A. Nordheim,, I. B. Autenrieth,, and V. A. Kempf. 2004. Bartonella adhesin A mediates a proangiogenic host cell response. J. Exp. Med. 200: 12671278.
121. Riess, T.,, F. Dietrich,, K. V. Schmidt,, P. O. Kaiser,, H. Schwarz,, A. Schafer,, and V. A. Kempf. 2008. Analysis of a novel insect cell culture medium-based growth medium for Bartonella species. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74:52245227.
122. Rolain, J. M.,, P. Brouqui,, J. E. Koehler,, C. Maguina,, M. J. Dolan,, and D. Raoult. 2004. Recommendations for treatment of human infections caused by Bartonella species. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48:19211933.
123. Rolain, J. M.,, M. Franc,, B. Davoust,, and D. Raoult. 2003. Molecular detection of Bartonella quintana, B. koehlerae, B. henselae, B. clarridgeiae, Rickettsia felis, and Wolbachia pipientis in cat fleas, France. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9:338342.
124. Rolain, J. M.,, C. Lecam,, and D. Raoult. 2003. Simplified serological diagnosis of endocarditis due to Coxiella burnetii and Bartonella. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 10:11471148.
125. Rolain, J. M.,, M. Maurin,, M. N. Mallet,, D. Parzy,, and D. Raoult. 2003. Culture and antibiotic susceptibility of Bartonella quintana in human erythrocytes. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47:614619.
126. Rolain, J. M.,, M. Maurin,, and D. Raoult. 2000. Bactericidal effect of antibiotics on Bartonella and Brucella spp.: clinical implications. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 46:811814.
127. Rothova, A.,, F. Kerkhoff,, H. J. Hooft,, and J. M. Ossewaarde. 1998. Bartonella serology for patients with in-traocular inflammatory disease. Retina 18:348355.
128. Samson, L.,, M. Drancourt,, J. P. Casalta,, and D. Raoult. 2006. Corpuscular antigenic microarray for the serodiagnosis of blood culture negative endocarditis. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1078:595596.
129. Sander, A.,, R. Berner,, and M. Ruess. 2001. Serodiagnosis of cat scratch disease: response to Bartonella henselae in children and a review of diagnostic methods. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 20:392401.
130. Sander, A.,, M. Posselt,, K. Oberle,, and W. Bredt. 1998. Seroprevalence of antibodies to Bartonella henselae in patients with cat scratch disease and in healthy controls: evaluation and comparison of two commercial serological tests. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 5:486490.
131. Sanogo, Y. O.,, Z. Zeaiter,, G. Caruso,, F. Merola,, S. Shpynov,, P. Brouqui,, and D. Raoult. 2003. Bartonella henselae in Ixodes ricinus ticks (Acari: Ixodida) removed from humans, Belluno province, Italy. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9:329332.
132. Schwartzman, W. A.,, M. Patnaik,, F. J. Angulo,, B. R. Visscher,, E. N. Miller,, and J. B. Peter. 1995. Bartonella (Rochalimaea) antibodies, dementia, and cat ownership among men infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Clin. Infect. Dis. 21:954959.
133. Sobraques, M.,, M. Maurin,, R. J. Birtles,, and D. Raoult. 1999. In vitro susceptibilities of four Bartonella bacilliformis strains to 30 antibiotic compounds. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43:20902092.
134. Solano-Gallego, L.,, B. Hegarty,, Y. Espada,, J. Llull,, and E. Breitschwerdt. 2006. Serological and molecular evidence of exposure to arthropod-borne organisms in cats from northeastern Spain. Vet. Microbiol. 118:274277.
135. Spach, D. H.,, and J. E. Koehler. 1998. Bartonella-associated infections. Infect. Dis. Clin. N. Am. 12:137155.
136. Spach, D. H.,, L. A. Panther,, D. R. Thorning,, J. E. Dunn,, J. J. Plorde,, and R. A. Miller. 1992. Intracerebral bacillary angiomatosis in a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Ann. Intern. Med. 116:740742.
137. Tsukahara, M.,, H. Iino,, C. Ishida,, K. Murakami,, H. Tsuneoka,, and M. Uchida. 2001. Bartonella henselae bacteraemia in patients with cat scratch disease. Eur. J. Pediatr. 160:316.
138. Tsukahara, M.,, H. Tsuneoka,, H. Iino,, K. Ohno,, and I. Murano. 1998. Bartonella henselae infection from a dog. Lancet 352:1682.
139. Tsuneoka, H.,, R. Fujii,, K. Fujisawa,, H. Iino,, C. Isida,, K. Murakami,, and M. Tsukahara. 2000. Clinical evaluation of commercial serological test for Bartonella infection. Kansenshogaku Zasshi 74:387391. (In Japanese.)
140. Tsuneoka, H.,, R. Fujii,, K. Yamamoto,, K. Fujisawa,, H. Iino,, M. Matsuda,, and M. Tsukahara. 1998. Determination of anti-Bartonella henselae antibody by indirect fluorescence antibody test—comparison of two types of antigen: noncocultivated B. henselae and cocultivated B. henselae with Vero cells. Kansenshogaku Zasshi 72:801807. (In Japanese.)
141. Tsuneoka, H.,, R. Fujii,, K. Yamamoto,, K. Fujisawa,, H. Iino,, and M. Tsukahara. 1999. Prevalence of serum IgG antibody against Bartonella henselae in an asymptomatic Japanese population. Kansenshogaku Zasshi 73:9091. (In Japanese.)
142. Tsuneoka, H.,, C. Ishida,, and M. Tsukahara. 2005. Determination of antibody titer to Bartonella henselae by indirect fluorescence antibody assay using B. henselae from domestic cats as antigen. Kansenshogaku Zasshi 79: 826828. (In Japanese.)
143. Tsuneoka, H.,, C. Ishida,, A. Umeda,, H. Inokuma,, and M. Tsukahara. 2004. Evaluation of isolation media for the detection of Bartonella henselae—isolation of Bartonella henselae from domestic cats. Kansenshogaku Zasshi 78:574579. (In Japanese.)
144. Tsuneoka, H.,, K. Ouchi,, H. Nagaoka,, C. Ishida,, H. Iino,, K. Murakami,, K. Tsujino,, A. Umeda,, and M. Tsukahara. 2001. Serological cross-reaction among Bartonella henselae, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Coxiella burnetii by indirect fluorescence antibody method. Kansenshogaku Zasshi 75: 406410. (In Japanese.)
145. Tsuneoka, H.,, A. Umeda,, M. Tsukahara,, and K. Sasaki. 2004. Evaluation of indirect fluorescence antibody assay for detection of Bartonella clarridgeiae and seroprevalence of B. clarridgeiae among patients with suspected cat scratch disease. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:33463349.
146. Wagner, C. L.,, T. Riess,, D. Linke,, C. Eberhardt,, A. Schafer,, S. Reutter,, R. G. Maggi,, and V. A. Kempf. 2008. Use of Bartonella adhesin A (BadA) immunoblotting in the serodiagnosis of Bartonella henselae infections. Int. J. Med. Microbiol. 298:579590.
147. Welch, D. F.,, K. C. Carroll,, E. K. Hofmeister,, D. H. Persing,, D. A. Robison,, A. G. Steigerwalt,, and D. J. Brenner. 1999. Isolation of a new subspecies, Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis, from a cattle rancher: identity with isolates found in conjunction with Borrelia burgdorferi and Babesia microti among naturally infected mice. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:25982601.
148. Welch, D. F.,, and L. N. Slater,. 2003. Bartonella and Afipia, 824834. In P. R. Murray,, E. J. Baron,, J. H. Jorgensen,, M. A. Pfaller,, and R. H. Yolken (ed.), Manual of Clinical Micro-biology, 8th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
149. Werner, M.,, P. E. Fournier,, R. Andersson,, H. Hogevik,, and D. Raoult. 2003. Bartonella and Coxiella antibodies in 334 prospectively studied episodes of infective endocarditis in Sweden. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 35:724727.
150. Wolfson, C.,, J. Branley,, and T. Gottlieb. 1996. The Etest for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Bartonella henselae. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 38:963968.
151. Wong, M. T.,, D. C. Thornton,, R. C. Kennedy,, and M. J. Dolan. 1995. A chemically defined liquid medium that supports primary isolation of Rochalimaea (Bartonella) henselae from blood and tissue specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:742744.
152. Wood, M.,, R. Maggi,, and E. Breitschwerdt. 2005. The use of pre-enrichment media to enhance detection and isolation of Bartonella spp. from dogs. J. Vet. Intern. Med. 19:468.
153. Zangwill, K. M.,, D. H. Hamilton,, B. A. Perkins,, R. L. Regnery,, B. D. Plikaytis,, J. L. Hadler,, M. L. Cartter,, and J. D. Wenger. 1993. Cat scratch disease in Connecticut. Epidemiology, risk factors, and evaluation of a new diagnostic test. N. Engl. J. Med. 329:813.
154. Zeaiter, Z.,, P. E. Fournier,, H. Ogata,, and D. Raoult. 2002. Phylogenetic classification of Bartonella species by comparing groEL sequences. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 52:165171.
155. Zeaiter, Z.,, P. E. Fournier,, and D. Raoult. 2002. Genomic variation of Bartonella henselae strains detected in lymph nodes of patients with cat scratch disease. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:10231030.
156. Zeaiter, Z.,, Z. Liang,, and D. Raoult. 2002. Genetic classification and differentiation of Bartonella species based on comparison of partial ftsZ gene sequences. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:36413647.


Generic image for table

species or subspecies presently described, their main reservoirs, their confirmed or possible vectors, and the potential accidental hosts

Citation: Maggi R, Kempf V, Chomel B, Breitschwerdt E. 2011. , p 786-798. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch46
Generic image for table

MICs for spp.

Determined by the agar dilution technique with Columbia agar supplemented with 5% horse blood. Table adapted from reference . Abbreviations: TMPSMX, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole; ND, not done.

Citation: Maggi R, Kempf V, Chomel B, Breitschwerdt E. 2011. , p 786-798. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch46

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error