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Chapter 49 : , and Other Non-Spore-Forming Anaerobic Gram-Positive Rods

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Abstract:

The majority of the organisms described in this chapter are part of the commensal microbiota associated with the mucocutaneous surfaces of the human and animal digestive tract, being found in the mouth, small and large intestines, urogenital tract, and skin. The various features of non-spore-forming anaerobic gram-positive organism including , and are described in the chapter. Biochemical characteristics of and related bacteria encountered in human infection are identified. Far-more-precise identifications can be obtained by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. DNA can be rapidly and reliably purified from members of this group by using commercially available kits, such as GenElute (Sigma-Aldrich), and the 16S rRNA gene can be amplified using “universal” primers that amplify all members of the domain bacteria. A recent survey revealed that the method most commonly used for testing anaerobes was the Etest, which has been found to be useful and reliable. Etests should be performed on blood agar and are optimally read after 48 h, to allow sufficient bacterial growth.

Citation: Wade W, Könönen E. 2011. , and Other Non-Spore-Forming Anaerobic Gram-Positive Rods , p 817-833. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch49

Key Concept Ranking

Microbial Ecology
0.791838
Gram-Positive Cocci
0.60497826
Gram-Positive Bacilli
0.60108775
Gram-Positive Bacteria
0.5964589
Gram-Negative Bacteria
0.59466773
Urinary Tract Infections
0.41083246
16s rRNA Sequencing
0.40534598
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Tables

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TABLE 1

Some features of non-spore-forming anaerobic gram-positive genera

+/–or +/–, variable aerotolerance within the genus; –, the genus contains only strictly anaerobic species.

+, positive; –, negative; v, variable; (+), decolorization in old culture.

A, acetic acid; B, butyric acid; C, caproic acid; F, formic acid; L, lactic acid; P, propionic acid; S, succinic acid; PAA, phenylacetic acid; parentheses, strain variation; ND, not determined.

Citation: Wade W, Könönen E. 2011. , and Other Non-Spore-Forming Anaerobic Gram-Positive Rods , p 817-833. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch49
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TABLE 2

Genera of non-spore-forming anaerobic gram-positive rods detected in human infections

Citation: Wade W, Könönen E. 2011. , and Other Non-Spore-Forming Anaerobic Gram-Positive Rods , p 817-833. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch49
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TABLE 3

Biochemical characteristics of and related bacteria encountered in human infections

Biochemical data from references , and .

colonies are nonpigmented on brucella agar but almost black on RLB, whereas other pigment-producing spp. appear as pinkish/brownish colonies onbrucella agar and as darker colonies on RLB.

+, positive; –, negative; v, variable; ND, no data.

(+) better growth in anaerobic conditions.

Abbreviations: α-Glu, α-glucosidase; β-NAG, β--acetyl-glucosaminidase; β-gal, β-galactosidase.

Abbreviations: Mal, maltose; Man, mannitol; Raf, raffinose; Suc, sucrose; Tre, trehalose.

Citation: Wade W, Könönen E. 2011. , and Other Non-Spore-Forming Anaerobic Gram-Positive Rods , p 817-833. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch49
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TABLE 4

Biochemical characteristics of propionibacteria encountered in human infections

Biochemical data compiled from references and . Symbols and abbreviations: +, positive; –, negative; v, variable; ND, no data.

Citation: Wade W, Könönen E. 2011. , and Other Non-Spore-Forming Anaerobic Gram-Positive Rods , p 817-833. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch49
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TABLE 5

Enzyme reactions useful in distinguishing species within the genera and

Biochemical data compiled from references , and . Symbols and abbreviations: +, positive; –, negative; v, variable; ND, no data; β-Gal, β-galactosidase.

In the original description, is facultatively anaerobic.

Citation: Wade W, Könönen E. 2011. , and Other Non-Spore-Forming Anaerobic Gram-Positive Rods , p 817-833. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch49
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TABLE 6

Biochemical characteristics of some human -like organisms

Biochemical data compiled from references , and . Symbols and abbreviations: +, positive reaction; –, negative reaction; v, variable reaction; ND, no data.

Citation: Wade W, Könönen E. 2011. , and Other Non-Spore-Forming Anaerobic Gram-Positive Rods , p 817-833. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch49

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