1887

Chapter 49 : , and Other Non-Spore-Forming Anaerobic Gram-Positive Rods

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

, and Other Non-Spore-Forming Anaerobic Gram-Positive Rods , Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap49-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap49-2.gif

Abstract:

The majority of the organisms described in this chapter are part of the commensal microbiota associated with the mucocutaneous surfaces of the human and animal digestive tract, being found in the mouth, small and large intestines, urogenital tract, and skin. The various features of non-spore-forming anaerobic gram-positive organism including , and are described in the chapter. Biochemical characteristics of and related bacteria encountered in human infection are identified. Far-more-precise identifications can be obtained by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. DNA can be rapidly and reliably purified from members of this group by using commercially available kits, such as GenElute (Sigma-Aldrich), and the 16S rRNA gene can be amplified using “universal” primers that amplify all members of the domain bacteria. A recent survey revealed that the method most commonly used for testing anaerobes was the Etest, which has been found to be useful and reliable. Etests should be performed on blood agar and are optimally read after 48 h, to allow sufficient bacterial growth.

Citation: Wade W, Könönen E. 2011. , and Other Non-Spore-Forming Anaerobic Gram-Positive Rods , p 817-833. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch49

Key Concept Ranking

Microbial Ecology
0.791838
Gram-Positive Cocci
0.60497826
Gram-Positive Bacilli
0.60108775
Gram-Positive Bacteria
0.5964589
Gram-Negative Bacteria
0.59466773
Urinary Tract Infections
0.41083246
16s rRNA Sequencing
0.40534598
0.791838
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555816728.chap49
1. Aas, J. A.,, A. L. Griffen,, S. R. Dardis,, A. M. Lee,, I. Olsen,, F. E. Dewhirst,, E. J. Leys,, and B. J. Paster. 2008. Bacteria of dental caries in primary and permanent teeth in children and young adults. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46:14071417.
2. Aas, J. A.,, B. J. Paster,, L. N. Stokes,, I. Olsen,, and F. E. Dewhirst. 2005. Defining the normal bacterial flora of the oral cavity. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:57215732.
3. Altschul, S. F.,, W. Gish,, W. Miller,, E. W. Myers,, and D. J. Lipman. 1990. Basic local alignment search tool. J. Mol. Biol. 215:403410.
4. Arnell, K.,, K. Cesarini,, A. Lagerqvist-Widh,, T. Wester,, and J. Sjolin. 2008. Cerebrospinal fluid shunt infections in children over a 13-year period: anaerobic cultures and comparison of clinical signs of infection with Propionibacterium acnes and with other bacteria. J. Neurosurg. Pediatr. 1:366372.
5. Badet, C.,, and N. B. Thebaud. 2008. Ecology of lactobacilli in the oral cavity: a review of literature. Open Microbiol. J. 2:3848.
6. Bahar, H.,, M. M. Torun,, F. Ocer,, and B. Kocazeybek. 2005. Mobiluncus species in gynaecological and obstetric infections: antimicrobial resistance and prevalence in a Turkish population. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 25:268271.
7. Becker, M. R.,, B. J. Paster,, E. J. Leys,, M. L. Moeschberger,, S. G. Kenyon,, J. L. Galvin,, S. K. Boches,, F. E. Dewhirst,, and A. L. Griffen. 2002. Molecular analysis of bacterial species associated with childhood caries. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:10011009.
8. Bik, E. M.,, P. B. Eckburg,, S. R. Gill,, K. E. Nelson,, E. A. Purdom,, F. Francois,, G. Perez-Perez,, M. J. Blaser,, and D. A. Relman. 2006. Molecular analysis of the bacterial microbiota in the human stomach. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103:732737.
9. Biyani, D. K.,, H. Denley,, J. Hill,, and A. J. Watson. 2007. IUCD induced abdomino-pelvic actinomycosis presenting as acute large bowel obstruction. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 27:870871.
10. Booth, V.,, J. Downes,, J. Van den Berg,, and W. G. Wade. 2004. Gram-positive anaerobic bacilli in human periodontal disease. J. Periodontal Res. 39:213220.
11. Bosshard, P. P.,, R. Zbinden,, and M. Altwegg. 2002. Turicibacter sanguinis gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel anaerobic, gram-positive bacterium. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 52:12631266.
12. Boyd, M. A.,, M. A. D. Antonio,, and S. L. Hillier. 2005. Comparison of API 50 CH strips to whole-chromosomal DNA probes for identification of Lactobacillus species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:53095311.
13. Brailsford, S. R.,, R. B. Tregaskis,, H. S. Leftwich,, and D. Beighton. 1999. The predominant Actinomyces spp. isolated from infected dentin of active root caries lesions. J. Dent. Res. 78:15251534.
14. Brazier, J. S.,, and V. Hall. 1993. Propionibacterium propionicum and infections of the lacrimal apparatus. Clin. Infect. Dis. 17:892893.
15. Brook, I. 2008. Actinomycosis: diagnosis and management. South. Med. J. 101:10191023.
16. Brook, I. 1996. Isolation of non-sporing anaerobic rods from infections in children. J. Med. Microbiol. 45:2126.
17. Brook, I. 2003. Microbiology and management of human and animal bite wound infections. Prim. Care 30:2539, v.
18. Brook, I. 2009. Pericarditis caused by anaerobic bacteria. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 33:297300.
19. Brook, I.,, and E. H. Frazier. 1993. Significant recovery of non-sporulating anaerobic rods from clinical specimens. Clin. Infect. Dis. 16:476480.
20. Bruzzese, E.,, R. B. Canani,, G. De Marco,, and A. Guarino. 2004. Microflora in inflammatory bowel diseases: a pediatric perspective. J. Clin. Gastroenterol. 38:S91 .
21. Bryskier, A. 2001. Anti-anaerobic activity of antibacterial agents. Expert Opin. Investig. Drugs 10:239267.
22. Burton, J. P.,, E. Devillard,, P. A. Cadieux,, J.-A. Hammond,, and G. Reid. 2004. Detection of Atopobium vaginae in postmenopausal women by cultivation-independent methods warrants further investigation. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:18291831.
23. Byun, R.,, M. A. Nadkarni,, K.-L. Chhour,, F. E. Martin,, N. A. Jacques,, and N. Hunter. 2004. Quantitative analysis of diverse Lactobacillus species present in advanced dental caries. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:31283136.
24. Cannon, J. P.,, T. A. Lee,, J. T. Bolanos,, and L. H. Danziger. 2005. Pathogenic relevance of Lactobacillus: a retrospective review of over 200 cases. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 24:3140.
25. Carlier, J.-P.,, G. K’ouas,, I. Bonne,, A. Lozniewski,, and F. Mory. 2004. Oribacterium sinus gen. nov., sp. nov., within the family ‘Lachnospiraceae’ (phylum Firmicutes). Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 54:16111615.
26. Carlier, J. P.,, M. Bedora-Faure,, G. K’Ouas,, C. Alauzet,, and F. Mory. 2010. Proposal to unify Clostridium orbiscindens Winter et al. 1991 and Eubacterium plautii (Seguin 1928) Hofstad and Aasjord 1982 with description of Flavonifractor plautii gen. nov., comb. nov. and reassignment of Bacteroides capillosus to Pseudoflavonifractor capillosus gen. nov., comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 60:585590.
27. Chavez de Paz, L. E.,, A. Molander,, and G. Dahlen. 2004. Gram-positive rods prevailing in teeth with apical periodontitis undergoing root canal treatment. Int. Endod. J. 37:579587.
28. Chhour, K. L.,, M. A. Nadkarni,, R. Byun,, F. E. Martin,, N. A. Jacques,, and N. Hunter. 2005. Molecular analysis of microbial diversity in advanced caries. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:843849.
29. Citron, D. M. 1999. Rapid identification of anaerobes in the clinical laboratory. Anaerobe 5:109113.
30. Citron, D. M.,, C. V. Merriam,, K. L. Tyrrell,, Y. A. Warren,, H. Fernandez,, and E. J. Goldstein. 2003. In vitro activities of ramoplanin, teicoplanin, vancomycin, linezolid, bacitracin, and four other antimicrobials against intestinal anaerobic bacteria. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47:23342338.
31. Citron, D. M.,, M. I. Ostovari,, A. Karlsson,, and E. J. Goldstein. 1991. Evaluation of the E test for susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29:21972203.
32. Clarridge, J. E., III, and Q. Zhang. 2002. Genotypic diversity of clinical Actinomyces species: phenotype, source, and disease correlation among genospecies. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:34423448.
33.Clinicaland Laboratory Standards Institute.2006. Methods for Antimicrobial Dilution and Disk Susceptibility Testing of Infrequently Isolated or Fastidious Bacteria. Document M45A. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, PA.
34.Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. 2007. Methods for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Anaerobic Bacteria. Approved Standard, 7th ed. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, PA.
35. Collins, M. D.,, L. Hoyles,, S. Kalfas,, G. Sundquist,, T. Monsen,, N. Nikolaitchouk,, and E. Falsen. 2000. Characterization of Actinomyces isolates from infected root canals of teeth: description of Actinomyces radicidentis sp. nov. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:33993403.
36. Collins, M. D.,, P. A. Lawson,, A. Willems,, J. J. Cordoba,, J. Fernandez-Garayzabal,, P. Garcia,, J. Cai,, H. Hippe,, and J. A. Farrow. 1994. The phylogeny of the genus Clostridium: proposal of five new genera and eleven new species combinations. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 44:812826.
37. Collins, M. D.,, and S. Wallbanks. 1992. Comparative sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA genes of Lactobacillus minutus, Lactobacillus rimae and Streptococcus parvulus: proposal for the creation of a new genus Atopobium. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 74:235240.
38. Cone, L. A.,, M. M. Leung,, and J. Hirschberg. 2003. Actinomyces odontolyticus bacteremia. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9:16291632.
39. Curi, M. M.,, L. L. Dib,, L. P. Kowalski,, G. Landman,, and C. Mangini. 2000. Opportunistic actinomycosis in osteoradionecrosis of the jaws in patients affected by head and neck cancer: incidence and clinical significance. Oral Oncol. 36:294299.
40. de Lillo, A.,, F. P. Ashley,, R. M. Palmer,, M. A. Munson,, L. Kyriacou,, A. J. Weightman,, and W. G. Wade. 2006. Novel subgingival bacterial phylotypes detected using multiple universal polymerase chain reaction primer sets. Oral Microbiol. Immunol. 21:6168.
41. Dewhirst, F. E.,, B. J. Paster,, N. Tzellas,, B. Coleman,, J. Downes,, D. A. Spratt,, and W. G. Wade. 2001. Characterization of novel human oral isolates and cloned 16S rDNA sequences that fall in the family Coriobacteriaceae: description of Olsenella gen. nov., reclassification of Lactobacillus uli as Olsenella uli comb. nov. and description of Olsenella profusa sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 51:17971804.
42. Downes, J.,, M. A. Munson,, D. A. Spratt,, E. Kononen,, E. Tarkka,, H. Jousimies-Somer,, and W. G. Wade. 2001. Characterisation of Eubacterium-like strains isolated from oral infections. J. Med. Microbiol. 50:947951.
43. Downes, J.,, B. Olsvik,, S. J. Hiom,, D. A. Spratt,, S. L. Cheeseman,, I. Olsen,, A. J. Weightman,, and W. G. Wade. 2000. Bulleidia extructa gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from the oral cavity. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 50:979983.
44. Downes, J.,, and W. G. Wade. 2009. Propionibacterium acidifaciens sp. nov., isolated from the human mouth. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 59:27782781.
45. Duncan, S. H.,, G. L. Hold,, A. Barcenilla,, C. S. Stewart,, and H. J. Flint. 2002. Roseburia intestinalis sp. nov., a novel saccharolytic, butyrate-producing bacterium from human faeces. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 52:16151620.
46. Eckburg, P. B.,, E. M. Bik,, C. N. Bernstein,, E. Purdom,, L. Dethlefsen,, M. Sargent,, S. R. Gill,, K. E. Nelson,, and D. A. Relman. 2005.Diversity of the human intestinal microbial flora. Science 308:16351638.
47. Edmiston, C. E.,, C. J. Krepel,, G. R. Seabrook,, L. R. Somberg,, A. Nakeeb,, R. A. Cambria,, and J. B. Towne. 2004. In vitro activities of moxifloxacin against 900 aerobic and anaerobic surgical isolates from patients with intra-abdominal and diabetic foot infections. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48:10121016.
48. Edmiston, C. E. J.,, C. J. Krepel,, G. E. Seabrook,, and W. G. Jochimsen. 2002. Anaerobic infections in the surgical patient: microbial etiology and therapy. Clin. Infect. Dis. 35(Suppl. 1):S112S118.
49. Ednie, L. M.,, A. Rattan,, M. R. Jacobs,, and P. C. Appelbaum. 2003. Antianaerobe activity of RBX 7644 (ranbezolid), a new oxazolidinone, compared with those of eight other agents. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47:11431147.
50. Elsayed, S.,, A. George,, and K. Zhang. 2006. Intrauterine contraceptive device-associated pelvic actinomycosis caused by Actinomyces urogenitalis. Anaerobe 12:6770.
51. Estoppey, O.,, G. Rivier,, C. H. Blanc,, F. Widmer,, A. Gallusser,, and A. K. So. 1997. Propionibacterium avidum sacroiliitis and osteomyelitis. Rev. Rhum. Engl. Ed. 64:5456.
52. Falsen, E.,, C. Pascual,, B. Sjödén,, M. Ohlén,, and M. D. Collins. 1999. Phenotypic and phylogenetic characterisation of a novel Lactobacillus species from human sources: description of Lactobacillus iners sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 49:217221.
53. Felten, A.,, C. Barreau,, C. Bizet,, P. H. Lagrange,, and A. Philippon. 1999. Lactobacillus species identification, H2O2 production, and antibiotic resistance and correlation with human clinical status. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:729733.
54. Fendukly, F.,, and B. Osterman. 2005. Isolation of Actinobaculum schaalii and Actinobaculum urinale from a patient with chronic renal failure. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:35673569.
55. Ferris, M. J.,, A. Masztal,, K. E. Aldridge,, J. D. Fortenberry,, P. L. J. Fidel,, and D. H. Martin. 2004. Association of Atopobium vaginae, a recently described metronidazole resistant anaerobe, with bacterial vaginosis. BMC Infect. Dis. 4:5.
56. Finegold, S. M.,, P. A. Lawson,, M.-L. Vaisanen,, D. R. Molitoris,, Y. Song,, C. Liu,, and M. D. Collins. 2004. Anaerofustis stercorihominis gen. nov., sp. nov., from human feces. Anaerobe 10:4145.
57. Finegold, S. M.,, S. St. John,, A. W. Vu,, C. M. Li,, D. Molitoris,, Y. Song,, C. M. Liu,, and H. M. Wexler. 2004. In vitro activity of ramoplanin and comparator drugs against anaerobic intestinal bacteria from the perspective of potential utility in pathology involving bowel flora. Anaerobe 10:205211.
58. Fiorino, A. S. 1996. Intrauterine contraceptive device-associated actinomycotic abscess and Actinomyces detection on cervical smear. Obstet. Gynecol. 87:142149.
59. Fouad, A. F.,, K. Y. Kum,, M. L. Clawson,, J. Barry,, C. Abenoja,, Q. Zhu,, M. Caimano,, and J. D. Radolf. 2003. Molecular characterization of the presence of Eubacterium spp and Streptococcus spp in endodontic infections. Oral Microbiol. Immunol. 18:249255.
60. Frank, J. A.,, C. I. Reich,, S. Sharma,, J. S. Weisbaum,, B. A. Wilson,, and G. J. Olsen. 2008. Critical evaluation of two primers commonly used for amplification of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74:24612470.
61. Fredricks, D. N.,, T. L. Fiedler,, K. K. Thomas,, B. B. Oakley,, and J. M. Marrazzo. 2007. Targeted PCR for detection of vaginal bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45:32703276.
62. Funke, G.,, A. von Graevenitz,, J. E. I. Clarridge,, and K. E. Bernard. 1997. Clinical microbiology of coryneform bacteria. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 10:125159.
63. Garner, J. P.,, M. Macdonald,, and P. K. Kumar. 2007. Abdominal actinomycosis. Int. J. Surg. 5:441448.
64. Geissdörfer, W.,, C. Böhmer,, K. Pelz,, C. Schoerner,, W. Frobenius,, and C. Bogdan. 2003. Tuboovarian abscess caused by Atopobium vaginae following transvaginal oocyte recovery. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:27882790.
65. Goldstein, E. J.,, D. M. Citron,, P. J. Goldman,, and R. J. Goldman. 2008. National hospital survey of anaerobic culture and susceptibility methods: III. Anaerobe 14:6872.
66. Goldstein, E. J.,, D. M. Citron,, C. V. Merriam,, Y. Warren,, K. L. Tyrrell,, and H. Fernandez. 2003. In vitro activities of telithromycin and 10 oral agents against aerobic and anaerobic pathogens isolated from antral puncture specimens from patients with sinusitis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47:19631967.
67. Goldstein, E. J.,, D. M. Citron,, C. V. Merriam,, Y. A. Warren,, K. L. Tyrrell,, and H. T. Fernandez. 2006. Comparative in vitro susceptibilities of 396 unusual anaerobic strains to tigecycline and eight other antimicrobial agents. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 50:35073513.
68. Goldstein, E. J.,, D. M. Citron,, C. V. Merriam,, Y. A. Warren,, K. L. Tyrrell,, and H. T. Fernandez. 2004. In vitro activities of the new semisynthetic glycopeptide telavancin (TD-6424), vancomycin, daptomycin, linezolid, and four comparator agents against anaerobic gram-positive species and Corynebacterium spp. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48: 21492152.
69. Goldstein, E. J.,, D. M. Citron,, C. V. Merriam,, Y. A. Warren,, K. L. Tyrrell,, H. T. Fernandez,, and A. Bryskier. 2005. Comparative in vitro activities of XRP 2868, pristinamycin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, vancomycin, daptomycin, linezolid, clarithromycin, telithromycin, clindamycin, and ampicillin against anaerobic gram-positive species, actinomycetes, and lactobacilli. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 49:408413.
70. Gomez-Garces, J. L.,, D. Balas,, M. T. Merino,, and J. Ignacio Alos. 1994. Mobiluncus curtisii bacteremia following septic abortion. Clin. Infect. Dis. 19:11661167.
71. Greub, G.,, and D. Raoult. 2002. “Actinobaculum massiliae,” a new species causing chronic urinary tract infection. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:39383941.
72. Günthard, H.,, A. Hany,, M. Turina,, and J. Wüst. 1994. Propionibacterium acnes as a cause of aggressive aortic valve endocarditis and importance of tissue grinding: case report and review. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32:30433045.
73. Halebian, S.,, B. Harris,, S. M. Finegold,, and R. D. Rolfe. 1981. Rapid method that aids in distinguishing gram-positive from gram-negative anaerobic bacteria. J. Clin. Microbiol. 13:444448.
74. Hall, V. 2008. Actinomyces-gathering evidence of human colonization and infection. Anaerobe 14:17.
75. Hall, V.,, M. D. Collins,, R. Hutson,, E. Falsen,, and B. I. Duerden. 2002. Actinomyces cardiffensis sp. nov. from human clinical sources. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:34273431.
76. Hall, V.,, M. D. Collins,, R. A. Hutson,, E. Falsen,, E. Inganas,, and B. I. Duerden. 2003. Actinobaculum urinale sp. nov., from human urine. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 53:679682.
77. Hall, V.,, M. D. Collins,, R. A. Hutson,, E. Inganas,, E. Falsen,, and B. I. Duerden. 2003. Actinomyces oricola sp. nov., from a human dental abscess. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 53:15151518.
78. Hall, V.,, M. D. Collins,, P. A. Lawson,, E. Falsen,, and B. I. Duerden. 2005. Actinomyces dentalis sp. nov., from a human dental abscess. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 55:427431.
79. Hall, V.,, M. D. Collins,, P. A. Lawson,, E. Falsen,, and B. I. Duerden. 2003. Actinomyces nasicola sp. nov., isolated from a human nose. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 53:14451448.
80. Hall, V.,, M. D. Collins,, P. A. Lawson,, R. A. Hutson,, E. Falsen,, E. Inganas,, and B. I. Duerden. 2003. Characterization of some Actinomyces-like isolates from human clinical sources: description of Varibaculum cambriensis gen. nov., sp. nov. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:640644.
81. Hall, V.,, P. R. Talbot,, S. L. Stubbs,, and B. I. Duerden. 2001. Identification of clinical isolates of Actinomyces species by amplified 16S ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:35553562.
82. Hansen, T.,, M. Kunkel,, C. J. Kirkpatrick,, and A. Weber. 2006. Actinomyces in infected osteoradionecrosis—underestimated? Hum. Pathol. 37:6167.
83. Hashimura, T.,, M. Sato,, and E. Hoshino. 2001. Detection of Slackia exigua, Mogibacterium timidum and Eubacterium saphenum from pulpal and periradicular samples using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Int. Endod. J. 34:463470.
84. Hecht, D. W.,, and J. R. Osmolski. 2003. Activities of garenoxacin (BMS-284756) and other agents against anaerobic clinical isolates. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47:910916.
85. Henssge, U.,, T. Do,, D. R. Radford,, S. C. Gilbert,, D. Clark,, and D. Beighton. 2009. Emended description of Actinomyces naeslundii and descriptions of Actinomyces oris sp. nov. and Actinomyces johnsonii sp. nov., previously identified as Actinomyces naeslundii genospecies 1, 2 and WVA 963. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbial. 59:509516.
86. Hill, G. B.,, O. M. Ayers,, and A. P. Kohan. 1987. Characteristics and sites of infection of Eubacterium nodatum, Eubacterium timidum, Eubacterium brachy, and other asaccharolytic eubacteria. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25:15401545.
87. Hoellman, D. B.,, L. M. Kelly,, K. Credito,, L. Anthony,, L. M. Ednie,, M. R. Jacobs,, and P. C. Appelbaum. 2002. In vitro antianaerobic activity of ertapenem (MK-0826) compared to seven other compounds. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46:220224.
88. Holmberg, A.,, R. Lood,, M. Morgelin,, B. Soderquist,, E. Holst,, M. Collin,, B. Christensson,, and M. Rasmussen. 2009. Biofilm formation by Propionibacterium acnes is a characteristic of invasive isolates. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 15: 787795.
89. Holst, E.,, A. R. Goffeng,, and B. Andersch. 1994. Bacterial vaginosis and vaginal microorganisms in idiopathic premature labor and association with pregnancy outcome. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32:176186.
90. Hoyles, L.,, M. D. Collins,, E. Falsen,, N. Nikolaitchouk,, and A. L. McCartney. 2004. Transfer of members of the genus Falcivibrio to the genus Mobiluncus, and emended description of the genus Mobiluncus. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 27:7283.
91. Hoyles, L.,, E. Ingana,, E. Falsen,, M. Drancourt,, N. Weiss,, A.L. McCartney,, and M. D. Collins. 2002. Bifidobacterium scardovii sp. nov., from human sources. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 52:995999.
92. Huys, G.,, M. Vancanneyt,, K. D’Haene,, E. Falsen,, G. Wauters,, and P. Vandamme. 2007. Alloscardovia omnicolens gen. nov., sp. nov., from human clinical samples. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 57:14421446.
93. Ison, C. A.,, and P. E. Hay. 2002. Validation of a simplified grading of Gram stained vaginal smears for use in genitourinary medicine clinics. Sex. Transm. Infect. 78:413415.
94. Jakab, E.,, R. Zbinden,, J. Gubler,, C. Ruef,, A. von Graevenitz,, and M. Krause. 1996. Severe infections caused by Propionibacterium acnes: an underestimated pathogen in late postoperative infections. Yale J. Biol. Med. 69:477482.
95. Jalava, J.,, and E. Eerola. 1999. Phylogenetic analysis of Fusobacterium alocis and Fusobacterium sulci based on 16S rRNA gene sequences: proposal of Filifactor alocis (Cato, Moore and Moore) comb. nov. and Eubacterium sulci (Cato, Moore and Moore) comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 49:13751379.
96. Jian, W.,, and X. Dong. 2002. Transfer of Bifidobacterium inopinatum and Bifidobacterium denticolens to Scardovia inopinata gen. nov., comb. nov., and Parascardovia denticolens gen. nov., comb. nov., respectively. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 52:809812.
97. Johnson, M. J.,, E. Thatcher,, and M. E. Cox. 1995. Techniques for controlling variability in gram staining of obligate anaerobes. J. Clin .Microbiol. 33:755758.
98. Jousimies-Somer, H. R.,, P. Summanen,, D. M. Citron,, E. J. Baron,, H. M. Wexler,, and S. M. Finegold. 2002. Wadsworth KTL Anaerobic Bacteriology Manual, 6th ed. Star Publishing, Belmont, CA.
99. Kageyama, A.,, and Y. Benno. 2000. Catenibacterium mitsuokai gen. nov., sp. nov., a gram-positive anaerobic bacterium isolated from human faeces. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 50: 15951599.
100. Kageyama, A.,, and Y. Benno. 2000. Phylogenic and phenotypic characterization of some Eubacterium-like isolates from human feces: description of Solobacterium moorei gen. nov., sp. nov. Microbiol. Immunol. 44:223227.
101. Kageyama, A.,, Y. Benno,, and T. Nakase. 1999. Phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence for the transfer of Eubacterium aerofaciens to the genus Collinsella as Collinsella aerofaciens gen. nov., comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 49:557565.
102. Klein, G.,, E. Zill,, R. Schindler,, and J. Louwers. 1998. Peritonitis associated with vancomycin-resistant Lactobacillus rhamnosus in a continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patient: organism identification, antibiotic therapy, and case report. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:17811783.
103. Kolbert, C. P.,, and D. H. Persing. 1999. Ribosomal DNA sequencing as a tool for identification of bacterial pathogens. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 2:299305.
104. Kumar, P. S.,, A. L. Griffen,, J. A. Barton,, B. J. Paster,, M. L. Moeschberger,, and E. J. Leys. 2003. New bacterial species associated with chronic periodontitis. J. Dent. Res. 82:338344.
105. Kumar, P. S.,, A. L. Griffen,, M. L. Moeschberger,, and E. J. Leys. 2005. Identification of candidate periodontal pathogens and beneficial species by quantitative 16S clonal analysis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:39443955.
106. Land, M. H.,, K. Rouster-Stevens,, C. R. Woods,, M. L. Cannon,, J. Cnota,, and A. K. Shetty. 2005. Lactobacillus sepsis associated with probiotic therapy. Pediatrics 115:178181.
107. Lane, D. J., 1991. 16S/23S rRNA sequencing, p. 115175. In E. Stackebrandt ,and M. Goodfellow (ed.), Nucleic Acid Techniques in Bacterial Systematics. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, United Kingdom.
108. Larsson, P.-G.,, B. Carlsson,, L. Fåhraeus,, T. Jakobsson,, and U. Forsum. 2004. Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis: need for validation of microscopic image area used for scoring bacterial morphotypes. Sex. Transm. Infect. 80:6367.
109. Lau, S. K.,, A. McNabb,, G. K. Woo,, L. Hoang,, A. M. Fung,, L. M. Chung,, P. C. Woo,, and K. Y. Yuen. 2007. Catabacter hongkongensis gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from blood cultures of patients from Hong Kong and Canada. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45:395401.
110. Lau, S. K.,, P. C. Woo,, A. M. Fung,, K. M. Chan,, G. K. Woo,, and K. Y. Yuen. 2004. Anaerobic, non-sporulating, gram-positive bacilli bacteraemia characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. J. Med. Microbiol. 53:12471253.
111. Lau, S. K.,, P. C. Woo,, G. K. Woo,, A. M. Fung,, M. K. Wong,, K. M. Chan,, D. M. Tam,, and K. Y. Yuen. 2004. Eggerthella hongkongensis sp. nov. and Eggerthella sinensis sp. nov., two novel Eggerthella species, account for half of the cases of Eggerthella bacteremia. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 49:255263.
112. Lawson, P. A.,, E. Falsen,, E. Akervall,, P. Vandamme,, and M. D. Collins. 1997. Characterization of some Actinomyces-like isolates from human clinical specimens: reclassification of Actinomyces suis (Soltys and Spratling) as Actinobaculum suis comb. nov. and description of Actinobaculum schaalii sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 47:899903.
113. Lawson, P. A.,, N. Nikolaitchouk,, E. Falsen,, K. Westling,, and M. D. Collins. 2001. Actinomyaces funkei sp. nov., isolated from human clinical specimens. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 51:853855.
114. Lawson, P. A.,, Y. Song,, C. Liu,, D. R. Molitoris,, M. L. Vaisanen,, M. D. Collins,, and S. M. Finegold. 2004. Anaerotruncus colihominis gen. nov., sp. nov., from human faeces. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 54:413417.
115. Levy, P. Y.,, F. Fenollar,, A. Stein,, F. Borrione,, E. Cohen,, B. Lebail,, and D. Raoult. 2008. Propionibacterium acnes postoperative shoulder arthritis: an emerging clinical entity. Clin. Infect. Dis. 46:18841886.
116. Liebetrau, A.,, A. C. Rodloff,, J. Behra-Miellet,, and L. Dubreuil. 2003. In vitro activities of a new des-fluoro(6) quinolone, garenoxacin, against clinical anaerobic bacteria. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47:36673671.
117. Ludwig, W.,, K.-H. Schleifer,, and W. B. Whitman,. 2008. Revised road map to the phylum Firmicutes, p. 114. In P. De Vos,, G. Garrity,, D. Jones,, N. R. Krieg,, W. Ludwig,, F. A. Rainey,, K.-H. Schleifer,, and W. B. Whitman (ed.), Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 3. Springer-Verlag, .
118. Mahlen, S. D.,, and J. E. Clarridge III. 2009. Site and clinical significance of Alloscardovia omnicolens and Bifidobacterium species isolated in the clinical laboratory. J. Clin. Microbiol. 47:32893293.
119. Mantzourani, M.,, M. Fenlon,, and D. Beighton. 2009. Association between Bifidobacteriaceae and the clinical severity of root caries lesions. Oral Microbiol. Immunol. 24:3237.
120. Mantzourani, M.,, S. C. Gilbert,, H. N. Sulong,, E. C. Sheehy,, S. Tank,, M. Fenlon,, and D. Beighton. 2009. The isolation of bifidobacteria from occlusal carious lesions in children and adults. Caries Res. 43:308313.
121. Maruo, T.,, M. 4. Sakamoto, C. Ito, T. Toda, and Y. Benno. 2008. Adlercreutzia equolifaciens gen. nov., sp. nov., an equol-producing bacterium isolated from human faeces, and emended description of the genus Eggerthella. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 58:12211227.
122. Mattarelli, P.,, C. Bonaparte,, B. Pot,, and B. Biavati. 2008. Proposal to reclassify the three biotypes of Bifidobacterium longum as three subspecies: Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum subsp. nov., Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis comb. nov. and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. suis comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 58:767772.
123. Meltzer, M. C.,, R. A. Desmond,, and J. R. Schwebke. 2008. Association of Mobiluncus curtisii with recurrence of bacterial vaginosis. Sex. Transm. Dis. 35:611613.
124. Menard, J. P.,, F. Fenollar,, M. Henry,, F. Bretelle,, and D. Raoult. 2008. Molecular quantification of Gardnerella vaginalis and Atopobium vaginae loads to predict bacterial vaginosis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 47:3343.
125. Moore, W. E. C.,, and L. V. Holdeman Moore,. 1986. Genus Eubacterium, p. 13531373. In P. H. A. Sneath,, N. S. Mair,, M. E. Sharpe,, and J. G. Holt (ed.), Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 1st ed. The Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore, MD.
126. Mosca, A.,, C. A. Strong,, and S. M. Finegold. 1993. UV red fluorescence of Eubacterium lentum. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31:10011002.
127. Moubareck, C.,, F. Gavini,, L. Vaugien,, M. J. Butel,, and F. Doucet-Populaire. 2005. Antimicrobial susceptibility of bifidobacteria. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 55:3844.
128. Munson, M. A.,, A. Banerjee,, T. F. Watson,, and W. G. Wade. 2004. Molecular analysis of the microflora associated with dental caries. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:30233029.
129. Munson, M. A.,, T. Pitt-Ford,, B. Chong,, A. J. Weightman,, and W. G. Wade. 2002. Molecular and cultural analysis of the microflora associated with endodontic infections. J. Dent. Res. 81:761766.
130. Nakazawa, F.,, S. E. Poco,, T. Ikeda,, M. Sato,, S. Kalfas,, G. Sundqvist,, and E. Hoshino. 1999. Cryptobacterium curtum gen. nov., sp. nov., a new genus of gram-positive anaerobic rod isolated from human oral cavities. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 49:11931200.
131. Nakazawa, F.,, S. E. Poco,, M. Sato,, T. Ikeda,, S. Kalfas,, G. Sundqvist,, and E. Hoshino. 2002. Taxonomic characterization of Mogibacterium diversum sp. nov. and Mogibacterium neglectum sp. nov., isolated from human oral cavities. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 52:115122.
132. Nakazawa, F.,, M. Sato,, S. E. Poco,, T. Hashimura,, T. Ikeda,, S. Kalfas,, G. Sundqvist,, and E. Hoshino. 2000. Description of Mogibacterium pumilum gen. nov., sp. nov. and Mogibacterium vescum gen. nov., sp. nov., and reclassification of Eubacterium timidum (Holdeman et al. 1980) as Mogibacterium timidum gen. nov., comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 50:679688.
133. Neef, P. A.,, H. Polenakovik,, J. E. Clarridge,, M. Saklayen,, L. Bogard,, and J. M. Bernstein. 2003. Lactobacillus paracasei continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis and review of the literature. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:27832784.
134. Nisbet, M.,, S. Briggs,, R. Ellis-Pegler,, M. Thomas,, and D. Holland. 2007. Propionibacterium acnes: an under-appreciated cause of post-neurosurgical infection. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 60:10971103.
135. Nugent, R. P.,, M. A. Krohn,, and S. L. Hillier. 1991. Reliability of diagnosing bacterial vaginosis is improved by a standardized method of gram stain interpretation. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29:297301.
136. Olsen, I.,, J. L. Johnson,, L. V. Moore,, and W. E. Moore. 1991. Lactobacillus uli sp. nov. and Lactobacillus rimae sp. nov. from the human gingival crevice and emended descriptions of Lactobacillus minutus and Streptococcus parvulus. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 41:261266.
137. Oprica, C.,, and C. E. Nord. 2005. European surveillance study on the antibiotic susceptibility of Propionibacterium acnes. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 11:204213.
138. Pajkrt, D.,, A. M. Simoons-Smit,, P. H. Savelkoul,, J. van den Hoek,, W. W. Hack,, and A. M. van Furth. 2003. Pyelonephritis caused by Actinobaculum schaalii in a child with pyeloureteral junction obstruction. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 22:438440.
139. Paster, B. J.,, S. K. Boches,, J. L. Galvin,, R. E. Ericson,, C. N. Lau,, V. A. Levanos,, A. Sahasrabudhe,, and F. E. Dewhirst. 2001. Bacterial diversity in subgingival plaque. J. Bacteriol. 183:37703783.
140. Pei, Z.,, E. J. Bini,, L. Yang,, M. Zhou,, F. Francois,, and M. J. Blaser. 2004. Bacterial biota in the human distal esophagus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101:42504255.
141. Piper, K. E.,, M. J. Jacobson,, R. H. Cofield,, J. W. Sperling,, J. Sanchez-Sotelo,, D. R. Osmon,, A. McDowell,, S. Patrick,, J. M. Steckelberg,, J. N. Mandrekar,, M. Fernandez Sampedro,, and R. Patel. 2009. Microbiologic diagnosis of prosthetic shoulder infection by use of implant sonication. J. Clin. Microbiol. 47:18781884.
142. Preza, D.,, I. Olsen,, J. A. Aas,, T. Willumsen,, B. Grinde,, and B. J. Paster. 2008. Bacterial profiles of root caries in elderly patients. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46:20152021.
143. Pulverer, G.,, H. Schutt-Gerowitt,, and K. P. Schaal. 2003. Human cervicofacial actinomycoses: microbiological data for 1997 cases. Clin. Infect. Dis. 37:490497.
144. Rautio, M. H.,, H. Saxen,, A. Siitonen,, R. Nikku,, and H. Jousimies-Somer. 2000. Bacteriology of histopathologically defined appendicitis in children. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 19:10781083.
145. Reinhard, M.,, J. Prag,, M. Kemp,, K. Andresen,, B. Klemmensen,, N. Højlyng,, S. H. Sørensen,, and J. J. Christensen. 2005. Ten cases of Actinobaculum schaalii infection: clinical relevance, bacterial identification, and antibiotic susceptibility. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:53055308.
146. Renvoise, A.,, D. Raoult,, and V. Roux. 2009. Actinomyces massiliensis sp. nov., isolated from a patient blood culture. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 59:540544.
147. Rocas, I. N.,, and J. F. Siqueira. 2005. Species-directed 16S rRNA gene nested PCR detection of Olsenella species in association with endodontic diseases. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 41:1216.
148. Rodriguez Jovita, M.,, M. D. Collins,, B. Sjöden,, and E. Falsen. 1999. Characterization of a novel Atopobium isolate from the human vagina: description of Atopobium vaginae sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 49:15731576.
149. Rohner, P.,, B. Pepey,, and R. Auckenthaler. 1997. Advantage of combining resin with lytic BACTEC blood culture media. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:26342638.
150. Rosenblatt, J. E.,, and D. R. Gustafson. 1995. Evaluation of the Etest for susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 22:279284.
151. Sabbe, L. J. M.,, D. V. D. Merwe,, L. Schouls,, A. Bergmans,, M. Vaneechoutte,, and P. Vandamme. 1999. Clinical spectrum of infections due to the newly described Actinomyces species A. turicensis, A. radingae, and A. europaeus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:813.
152. Sahuquillo-Arce, J. M.,, P. Ramirez-Galleymore,, J. Garcia,, V. Marti,, and D. Arizo. 2008. Mobiluncus curtisii bacteremia. Anaerobe 14:123124.
153. Sakata, S.,, M. Kitahara,, M. Sakamoto,, H. Hayashi,, M. Fukuyama,, and Y. Benno. 2002. Unification of Bifidobacterium infantis and Bifidobacterium suis as Bifidobacterium longum. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 52:19451951.
154. Salminen, M. K.,, H. Rautelin,, S. Tynkkynen,, T. Poussa,, M. Saxelin,, V. Valtonen,, and A. Järvinen. 2004. Lactobacillus bacteremia, clinical significance, and patient outcome, with special focus on probiotic L. rhamnosus GG. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38:6269.
155. Salonen, J. H.,, E. Eerola,, and O. Meurman. 1998. Clinical significance and outcome of anaerobic bacteremia. Clin. Infect. Dis. 26:14131417.
156. Santala, A.-M.,, N. Sarkonen,, V. Hall,, P. Carlson,, H. Jousimies-Somer,, and E. Könönen. 2004. Evaluation of four commercial test systems for identification of Actinomyces and some closely related species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:418420.
157. Sarkonen, N.,, E. Könönen,, E. Eerola,, M. Könönen,, H. Jousimies-Somer,, and P. Laine. 2005. Characterization of Actinomyces species isolated from failed dental implant fixtures. Anaerobe 11:231237.
158. Sarkonen, N.,, E. Könönen,, P. Summanen,, A. Kanervo,, A. Takala,, and H. Jousimies-Somer. 2000. Oral colonization with Actinomyces species in infants by two years of age. J. Dent. Res. 79:864867.
159. Sarkonen, N.,, E. Könönen,, P. Summanen,, M. Könönen,, and H. Jousimies-Somer. 2001. Phenotypic identification of Actinomyces and related species isolated from human sources. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:39553961.
160. Schabereiter-Gurtner, C.,, S. Maca,, S. Kaminsky,, S. Rolleke,, W. Lubitz,, and T. Barisani-Asenbauer. 2002. Investigation of an anaerobic microbial community associated with a corneal ulcer by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 43:193199.
161. Schwebke, J. R.,, and L. F. Lawing. 2001. Prevalence of Mobiluncus spp. among women with and without bacterial vaginosis as detected by polymerase chain reaction. Sex. Transm. Dis. 28:195199.
162. Schwebke, J. R.,, S. A. Lukehart,, M. C. Roberts,, and S. L. Hillier. 1991. Identification of two new antigenic subgroups within the genus Mobiluncus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29:22042208.
163. Schwiertz, A.,, G. L. Hold,, S. H. Duncan,, B. Gruhl,, M. D. Collins,, P. A. Lawson,, H. J. Flint,, and M. Blaut. 2002. Anaerostipes caccae gen. nov., sp. nov., a new saccharolytic, acetate-utilising, butyrate-producing bacterium from human faeces. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 25:4651.
164. Servin, A. L. 2004. Antagonistic activities of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria against microbial pathogens. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 28:405440.
165. Siqueira, J. F., Jr., and I. N. Rocas. 2009. The microbiota of acute apical abscesses. J. Dent. Res. 88:6165.
166. Siqueira, J. F.,, and I. N. Rocas. 2003. Detection of Filifactor alocis in endodontic infections associated with different formsof periradicular diseases. Oral Microbiol. Immunol. 18:263265.
167. Siqueira, J. F.,, and I. N. Rocas. 2003. Polymerase chain reaction detection of Propionibacterium propionicus and Actinomyces radicidentis in primary and persistent endodontic infections. Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. Endod. 96:215222.
168. Siqueira, J. F.,, and I. N. Rocas. 2003. Pseudoramibacter alactolyticus in primary endodontic infections. J. Endod. 29:735738.
169. Smith, A. J.,, V. Hall,, B. Thakker,, and C. G. Gemmell. 2005. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Actinomyces species with 12 antimicrobial agents. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 56:407409.
170. Snydman, D. R.,, N. V. Jacobus,, and L. A. McDermott. 2008. In vitro activities of doripenem, a new broad-spectrum carbapenem, against recently collected clinical anaerobic isolates, with emphasis on the Bacteroides fragilis group. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52:44924496.
171. Sohail, M. R.,, A. L. Gray,, L. M. Baddour,, I. M. Tleyjeh,, and A. Virk. 2009. Infective endocarditis due to Propionibacterium species. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 15:387394.
172. Sonbol, H.,, D. Spratt,, G. J. Roberts,, and V. S. Lucas. 2009. Prevalence, intensity and identity of bacteraemia following conservative dental procedures in children. Oral Microbiol. Immunol. 24:177182.
173. Strazzeri, J. C.,, and S. Anzel. 1986. Infected total hip arthroplasty due to Actinomyces israelii after dental extraction. A case report. Clin. Orthop. 210:128131.
174. Suau, A.,, R. Bonnet,, M. Sutren,, J. J. Godon,, G. R. Gibson,, M. D. Collins,, and J. Dore. 1999. Direct analysis of genes encoding 16S rRNA from complex communities reveals many novel molecular species within the human gut. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:47994807.
175. Sullivan, A.,, and C. E. Nord. 2006. Probiotic lactobacilli and bacteraemia in Stockholm. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 38:327331.
176. Tabanella, G.,, H. Nowzari,, and J. Slots. 2009. Clinical and microbiological determinants of ailing dental implants. Clin. Implant Dent. Relat. Res. 11:2436.
177. Taga, S. 2007. Diagnosis and therapy of pelvic actinomycosis. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res. 33:882885.
178. Talan, D. A.,, F. M. Abrahamian,, G. J. Moran,, D. M. Citron,, J. O. Tan,, and E. J. C. Goldstein. 2003. Clinical presentation and bacteriologic analysis of infected human bites in patients presenting to emergency departments. Clin. Infect. Dis. 37:14811489.
179. Talan, D. A.,, D. M. Citron,, F. M. Abrahamian,, G. J. Moran,, and E. J. C. Goldstein. 1999. Bacteriologic analysis of infected dog and cat bites. N. Engl. J. Med. 340:8592.
180. Thiolas, A.,, C. Bollet,, M. Gasmi,, M. Drancourt,, and D. Raoult. 2003. Eubacterium callanderi bacteremia: report of the first case. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:22352236.
181. Trampuz, A.,, K. E. Piper,, M. J. Jacobson,, A. D. Hanssen,, K. K. Unni,, D. R. Osmon,, J. N. Mandrekar,, F. R. Cockerill,, J. M. Steckelberg,, J. F. Greenleaf,, and R. Patel. 2007. Sonication of removed hip and knee prostheses for diagnosis of infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 357:654663.
182. Tunney, M. M.,, T. R. Field,, T. F. Moriarty,, S. Patrick,, G. Doering,, M. S. Muhlebach,, M. C. Wolfgang,, R. Boucher,, D. F. Gilpin,, A. McDowell,, and J. S. Elborn. 2008. Detection of anaerobic bacteria in high numbers in sputum from patients with cystic fibrosis. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care. Med. 177:9951001.
183. Turroni, F.,, A. Ribbera,, E. Foroni,, D. van Sinderen,, and M. Ventura. 2008. Human gut microbiota and bifidobacteria: from composition to functionality. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 94:3550.
184. Uckay, I.,, A. Dinh,, L. Vauthey,, N. Asseray,, N. Passuti,, M. Rottman,, J. Biziragusenyuka,, A. Riche,, P. Rohner,, D. Wendling,, S. Mammou,, R. Stern,, P. Hoffmeyer,, and L. Bernard. 2010. Spondylodiscitis due to Propionibacterium acnes: report of twenty-nine cases and a review of the literature. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 16:353358.
185. Uematsu, H.,, and E. Hoshino. 1992. Predominant obligate anaerobes in human periodontal pockets. J. Periodontal Res. 27:1519.
186. Uematsu, H.,, N. Sato,, M. Z. Hossain,, T. Ikeda,, and E. Hoshino. 2003. Degradation of arginine and other amino acids by butyrate-producing asaccharolytic anaerobic gram-positive rods in periodontal pockets. Arch. Oral Biol. 48:423429.
187. Vanagt, W. Y.,, W. J. Daenen,, and T. Delhaas. 2004. Propionibacterium acnes endocarditis on an annuloplasty ring in an adolescent boy. Heart 90:e56.
188. Vandamme, P.,, E. Falsen,, M. Vancanneyt,, M. Van Esbroeck,, D. Van de Merwe,, A. Bergmans,, L. Schouls,, and L. Sabbe. 1998. Characterization of A. turicensis and A. radingae strains from human clinical samples. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 48:503510.
189. Vandamme, P.,, B. Pot,, M. Gillis,, P. de Vos,, K. Kersters,, and J. Swings. 1996. Polyphasic taxonomy, a consensus approach to bacterial systematics. Microbiol. Rev. 60:407438.
190. Verhelst, R.,, H. Verstraelen,, G. Claeys,, G. Verschraegen,, J. Delanghe,, L. V. Simaey,, C. D. Ganck,, M. Temmerman,, and M. Vaneechoutte. 2004. Cloning of 16S rRNA genes amplified from normal and disturbed vaginal microflora suggests a strong association between Atopobium vaginae, Gardnerella vaginalis and bacterial vaginosis. BMC Microbiol. 4:16.
191. Wade, W. G.,, J. Downes,, D. Dymock,, S. J. Hiom,, A. J. Weightman,, F. E. Dewhirst,, B. J. Paster,, N. Tzellas,, and B. Coleman. 1999. The family Coriobacteriaceae: reclassification of Eubacterium exiguum (Poco et al. 1996) and Peptostreptococcus heliotrinreducens (Lanigan 1976) as Slackia exigua gen. nov., comb. nov. and Slackia heliotrinireducens gen. nov., comb. nov., and Eubacterium lentum (Prevot 1938) as Eggerthella lenta gen. nov., comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 49:595600.
192. Wagenlehner, F. M.,, B. Mohren,, K. G. Naber,, and H. F. Mannl. 2003. Abdominal actinomycosis. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 9:881885.
193. Walker, A. P.,, C. J. Krepel,, C. M. Gohr,, and C. E. Edmiston. 1994. Microflora of abdominal sepsis by locus of infection. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32:557558.
194. Willems, A.,, and M. D. Collins. 1996. Phylogenetic relationships of the genera Acetobacterium and Eubacterium sensu stricto and reclassification of Eubacterium alactolyticum as Pseudoramibacter alactolyticus gen. nov., comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 46:10831087.
195. Willems, A.,, W. E. Moore,, N. Weiss,, and M. D. Collins. 1997. Phenotypic and phylogenetic characterization of some Eubacterium-like isolates containing a novel type B wall murein from human feces: description of Holdemania filiformis gen. nov., sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 47:12011204.
196. Wilson, M. J.,, A. J. Weightman,, and W. G. Wade. 1997. Applications of molecular ecology in the characterisation of uncultured microorganisms associated with human disease. Rev. Med. Microbiol. 8:91101.
197. Wolin, M. J.,, T. L. Miller,, M. D. Collins,, and P. A. Lawson. 2003. Formate-dependent growth and homoacetogenic fermentation by a bacterium from human feces: description of Bryantella formatexigens gen. nov., sp. nov. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:63216326.
198. Wolin, M. J.,, T. L. Miller,, and P. A. Lawson. 2008. Proposal to replace the illegitimate genus name Bryantella Wolin et al. 2004VP with the genus name Marvinbryantia gen. nov. and to replace the illegitimate combination Bryantella formatexigens Wolin et al. 2004VP with Marvinbryantia formatexigens comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 58:742744.
199. Woo, P. C.,, A. M. Fung,, S. K. Lau,, J. L. Teng,, B. H. Wong,, M. K. Wong,, E. Hon,, G. W. Tang,, and K. Y. Yuen. 2003. Actinomyces hongkongensis sp. nov. a novel Actinomyces species isolated from a patient with pelvic actinomycosis. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 26:518522.
200. Wurdemann, D.,, B. J. Tindall,, R. Pukall,, H. Lunsdorf,, C. Strompl,, T. Namuth,, H. Nahrstedt,, M. Wos-Oxley,, S. Ott,, S. Schreiber,, K. N. Timmis,, and A. P. Oxley. 2009. Gordonibacter pamelaeae gen. nov., sp. nov., a new member of the Coriobacteriaceae isolated from a patient with Crohn’s disease, and reclassification of Eggerthella hongkongensis Lau et al. 2006 as Paraeggerthella hongkongensis gen. nov., comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 59:14051415.
201. Wüst, J.,, U. Steiger,, H. Vuong,, and R. Zbinden. 2000. Infection of a hip prosthesis by Actinomyces naeslundii. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:929930.
202. Yamamoto, T.,, X. Zhou,, C. J. Williams,, A. Hochwalt,, and L. J. Forney. 2009. Bacterial populations in the vaginas of healthy adolescent women. J. Pediatr. Adolesc. Gynecol. 22:1118.
203. Ze-Ze, L.,, R. Tenreiro,, A. Duarte,, M. J. Salgado,, J. Melo-Cristino,, L. Lito,, M. M. Carmo,, S. Felisberto,, and G. Carmo. 2004. Case of aortic endocarditis caused by Lactobacillus casei. J. Med. Microbiol. 53:451453.
204. Zhou, X.,, S. J. Bent,, M. G. Schneider,, C. C. Davis,, M. R. Islam,, and L. J. Forney. 2004. Characterization of vaginal microbial communities in adult healthy women using cultivation-independent methods. Microbiology 150:25652573.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Some features of non-spore-forming anaerobic gram-positive genera

+/–or +/–, variable aerotolerance within the genus; –, the genus contains only strictly anaerobic species.

+, positive; –, negative; v, variable; (+), decolorization in old culture.

A, acetic acid; B, butyric acid; C, caproic acid; F, formic acid; L, lactic acid; P, propionic acid; S, succinic acid; PAA, phenylacetic acid; parentheses, strain variation; ND, not determined.

Citation: Wade W, Könönen E. 2011. , and Other Non-Spore-Forming Anaerobic Gram-Positive Rods , p 817-833. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch49
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Genera of non-spore-forming anaerobic gram-positive rods detected in human infections

Citation: Wade W, Könönen E. 2011. , and Other Non-Spore-Forming Anaerobic Gram-Positive Rods , p 817-833. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch49
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Biochemical characteristics of and related bacteria encountered in human infections

Biochemical data from references , and .

colonies are nonpigmented on brucella agar but almost black on RLB, whereas other pigment-producing spp. appear as pinkish/brownish colonies onbrucella agar and as darker colonies on RLB.

+, positive; –, negative; v, variable; ND, no data.

(+) better growth in anaerobic conditions.

Abbreviations: α-Glu, α-glucosidase; β-NAG, β--acetyl-glucosaminidase; β-gal, β-galactosidase.

Abbreviations: Mal, maltose; Man, mannitol; Raf, raffinose; Suc, sucrose; Tre, trehalose.

Citation: Wade W, Könönen E. 2011. , and Other Non-Spore-Forming Anaerobic Gram-Positive Rods , p 817-833. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch49
Generic image for table
TABLE 4

Biochemical characteristics of propionibacteria encountered in human infections

Biochemical data compiled from references and . Symbols and abbreviations: +, positive; –, negative; v, variable; ND, no data.

Citation: Wade W, Könönen E. 2011. , and Other Non-Spore-Forming Anaerobic Gram-Positive Rods , p 817-833. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch49
Generic image for table
TABLE 5

Enzyme reactions useful in distinguishing species within the genera and

Biochemical data compiled from references , and . Symbols and abbreviations: +, positive; –, negative; v, variable; ND, no data; β-Gal, β-galactosidase.

In the original description, is facultatively anaerobic.

Citation: Wade W, Könönen E. 2011. , and Other Non-Spore-Forming Anaerobic Gram-Positive Rods , p 817-833. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch49
Generic image for table
TABLE 6

Biochemical characteristics of some human -like organisms

Biochemical data compiled from references , and . Symbols and abbreviations: +, positive reaction; –, negative reaction; v, variable reaction; ND, no data.

Citation: Wade W, Könönen E. 2011. , and Other Non-Spore-Forming Anaerobic Gram-Positive Rods , p 817-833. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch49

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error