1887

Chapter 5 : Immunoassays for the Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Immunoassays for the Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases , Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap05-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap05-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter summarizes the variety of different assays available and their particular application in the field of infectious diseases. The discussion emphasizes general assay design, with important caveats relevant to test interpretation and development. The first immunoassays available measured milligram to microgram quantities of antibodies and relied primarily upon precipitation reactions between antigen and antibody. There are many classic agglutination assays used in the diagnosis of infectious diseases, such as the Widal test for typhoid fever. The spectrum of immunologic assays is discussed in detail. Enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) can be broadly classified as either homogeneous or heterogeneous assays. Noncompetitive indirect solid-phase ELISA is one of the most frequently employed immunoassays in a clinical laboratory. There are various types of anti-animal antibodies; the most commonly reported are human anti-mouse antibodies (HAMA). There are many different assay designs which combine an array of technologies, including chemiluminescence (CL), fluorescence immunoassay (FIA), flow cytometry, and molecular diagnostics (PCR and use of oligonucleotides and nanoparticles). As these assays provide rapid results and can be performed with very small sample sizes, they have wide applicability to epidemiological studies and vaccine trials. These assays are also especially suited to the assessment of multiple biological agents in a variety of samples.

Citation: Carpenter A. 2011. Immunoassays for the Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases , p 60-72. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch5

Key Concept Ranking

Equine infectious anemia virus
0.47815618
0.47815618
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Direct and indirect IFAs.

Citation: Carpenter A. 2011. Immunoassays for the Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases , p 60-72. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch5
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Competitive EIA. Ab, antibody.

Citation: Carpenter A. 2011. Immunoassays for the Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases , p 60-72. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch5
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Noncompetitive indirect solid-phase ELISA.

Citation: Carpenter A. 2011. Immunoassays for the Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases , p 60-72. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch5
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

IgM capture assay.

Citation: Carpenter A. 2011. Immunoassays for the Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases , p 60-72. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch5
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5

Western blot procedure.

Citation: Carpenter A. 2011. Immunoassays for the Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases , p 60-72. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch5
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 6
FIGURE 6

Principle of IPCR. (a) DNA directly conjugated to reporter antibody; (b) DNA conjugated via an avidin-biotin reaction.

Citation: Carpenter A. 2011. Immunoassays for the Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases , p 60-72. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch5
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 7
FIGURE 7

Lateral-flow immunoassay.

Citation: Carpenter A. 2011. Immunoassays for the Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases , p 60-72. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch5
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555816728.chap5
1. Abbas, A. K.,, A. H. Lichtman,, and S. Pillai. 2007. Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 6th ed. Elsevier Saunders, Philadelphia, PA.
2. Abbas, A. K.,, and A. H. Lichtman. 2008. Basic Immunology, 3rd ed. W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, PA.
3. Adler, M.,, S. Schulz,, R. Fischer,, and C. M. Niemeyer. 2005. Detection of rotavirus from stool samples using standardized immuno-PCR (“Imperacer”) method with endpoint and real-time detection. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 12:333.
4. Adler, M.,, R. Wacker,, and C. M. Niemeyer. 2008. Sensitivity by combination: immuno-PCR and related technologies. Analyst 133:702718.
5. Banin, S.,, S. M. Wilson,, and C. J. Stanley. 2004. Demonstration of an alternative approach to immuno-PCR. Clin. Chem. 50:19321934.
6. Barletta, J.,, A. Bartolome,, and N. T. Constantine. 2009. Immunomagnetic quantitative immuno-PCR for detection of less than one HIV-1 virion. J. Virol Methods 157:122132.
7. Barletta, J. M.,, D. C. Edelman,, and N. T. Constantine. 2004. Lowering the detection limits of HIV-1 viral load using realtime immuno-PCR for HIV-1 p24 antigen. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 122:2027.
8. Bjerner, J.,, K. Nustaf,, L. F. Norum,, K. H. Olsen,, and O. P. Bermer. 2002. Immunometric assay interference. Clin. Chem. 48:613621.
9. Carpenter, A. B., 1997. Enzyme-linked immunoassays, p. 2029. In N. R. Rose,, E. Conway de Macario,, J. D. Folds,, H. C. Lane,, and R. M. Nakamura (ed.), Manual of Clinical Immunology, 5th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
10. Carpenter, A. B., 2002. Antibody-based methods, p. 2030. In N. R. Rose,, R. G. Hamilton,, and B. Detrick (ed.), Manual of Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 6th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
11.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2005. Positive test results for acute hepatitis A virus infection among persons with no recent history of acute hepatitis—United States, 2002-2004. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 54:453456.
12. Chan, C. P.,, Y. C. Cheung,, R. Renneberg,, and M. Seydack. 2008. New trends in immunoassays. Adv. Biochem. Eng. Biotechnol. 109:123154.
13. Chen, L.,, H. Wei,, Y. Guo,, Z. Cui,, Z. Zhang,, and X. E. Zhang. 2009. Gold nanoparticle enhanced immuno-PCR for ultrasensitive detection of Hantaan virus nucleocapsid protein. J. Immunol. Methods 346:6470.
14. Constantine, N. T.,, and H. Zink. 2005. HIV testing technologies after two decades of evolution. Indian J. Med. Res. 121:519538.
15. Dabkowski, B. 2009. Immunoassay: all eyes on efficiency, connectivity. CAP Today 23:1772.
16. Demers, L. M.,, and J. J. Miller. 2003. Immunoassay Testing: Interferences, Technology and Future Direction. [CD-ROM.] AACC Press, Washington, DC.
17. Deodhar, L.,, A. Gogate,, R. C. Padhi,, and C. R. Desai. 1998. Standardization of a dot blot immunoassay for antigen detection in cases of pulmonary tuberculosis and its evaluation with respect to the conventional techniques. Indian J. Med. Res. 108:7579.
18. Duthie, M. S.,, G. C. Ireton,, G.V. Kanaujia,, W. Goto,, H. Liang,, A. Bhatia,, J. M. Busceti,, M. Macdonald,, K. D. Neupane,, B. R. Sapkota,, M. Balagon,, C. Ranjit,, J. Esfandiari,, D. Carter,, and S. G. Reed. 2008. Selection of antigens and development of prototype tests for point-of-care leprosy diagnosis. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 10:15901597.
19. Ezan, E.,, and J. Grassi,. 2000. Optimization, p. 187210. In J. P. Gosling (ed.), Immunoassays. Practical Approach. Oxford University Press, Oxford, United Kingdom.
20. Galanti, L. M.,, J. Dell’Omo,, B. Wanet,, J. L. Guarin,, J. Jamart,, M. G. Garrino,, P. L. Masson,, and C. L. Cambiaso. 1997. Particle counting assay for anti-toxoplasma IgG antibodies. Comparison with four automated commercial enzymelinked immunoassays. J. Immunol. Methods 207:195201.
21. Gosling, J. P., 2000. Analysis by specific binding, p. 118. In J. P. Gosling (ed.), Immunoassays. Practical Approach. Oxford University Press, Oxford, United Kingdom.
22. Hindson, B. J.,, M. T. McBride,, A. J. Makarewicz,, B. D. Henderer,, U. Setlur,, S. M. Smith,, D. M. Gutierrez,, T. R. Metz,, S. L. Nasarabadi,, K. S. Venkateswaran,, S. W. Farrow,, B. W. Colston, Jr.,, and J. M. Dzenitis. 2005. Autonomous detection of aerosolized biological agents by multiplexed immunoassay with polymerase chain reaction confirmation. Anal. Chem. 77:284289.
23. Jolley, M. E.,, and M. S. Nasir. 2003. The use of fluorescence polarization assays for the detection of infectious diseases. Comb. Chem. High Throughput Screen. 6:235244.
24. Kasahara, Y., 1997. Agglutination immunoassays, p. 712. In N. R. Rose,, E. Conway de Macario,, J. D. Folds,, H. C. Lane,, and R. M. Nakamura (ed.), Manual of Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 5th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
25. Kemeny, D. M.,, and S. J. Challacombe. 1988. ELISA and Other Solid Phase Immunoassays. Theoretical and Practical Aspects. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, United Kingdom.
26. Kim, K. S.,, and J. K. Park. 2005. Magnetic force-based multiplexed immunoassay using superparamagnetic nanoparticles in microfluidic channel. Lab Chip 5:657664.
27. Kricka, L. J., 2006. Principles of immunochemical techniques, p. 219244. In C. A. Burtis,, E. R. Ashwood,, and D. E. Bruns (ed.), Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics, 4th ed. Elsevier Saunders, St. Louis, MO.
28. Kricka, L. J. 1999. Human anti-animal antibody interferences in immunological assays. Clin. Chem. 45:942956.
29. Kudo, T.,, A. Kido,, Y. Nishiyama,, H. Koganeya,, T. Okuda,, M. Nabeshima,, Y. Iinuma,, and S. Ichiyama. 2004. Wholeblood counting immunoassay as a short-turnaround test for detection of hepatitis B surface antigen, anti-hepatitis C virus antibodies, and anti-Treponema pallidum antibodies. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:42504252.
30. Liang, H.,, S. E. Cordova,, T. L. Kieft,, and S. Rogelj. 2003. A highly sensitive immuno-PCR assay for detecting group A streptococcus. J. Immunol. Methods 279:101110.
31. Liesenfeld, O.,, J. G. Montoya,, S. Kinney,, C. Press,, and J. S. Remington. 2001. Effect of testing for IgG avidity in the diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women: experience in a US reference laboratory. J. Infect. Dis. 183: 12481253.
32. Lowell, C., 2001. Clinical laboratory methods for detection of antigens and antibodies, p. 215233. In T. G. Parslow,, D. P. Stites,, A. I. Terr,, and J. B. Imboden (ed.), Medical Immunology, 10th ed. Lange Medical Books/McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.
33. Mahony, J. B.,, and M. A. Chernesky,. 1999. Immunoassays for the diagnosis of infectious diseases, p. 202214. In P. R. Murray,, E. J. Baron,, M. A. Pfaller,, F. C. Tenover,, and R. H. Yolken (ed.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 7th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
34. Marks, V. 2002. False-positive immunoassay results: a multicenter survey of erroneous immunoassay results from assays of 74 analytes in 10 donors from 66 laboratories in seven countries. Clin. Chem. 48:20082016.
35. Miller, J. J.,, and S. S. Levinson,. 1996>. Interferences in immunoassays, p. 165190. In E. P. Diamandis, and T. K. Christopoulous (ed.), Immunoassay. Academic Press, San Diego, CA..
36. Montoya, J. G.,, O. Liesenfeld,, S. Kinney,, C. Press,, and J. S. Remington. 2002. VIDAS test for avidity of Toxoplasmaspecific immunoglobulin G for confirmatory testing of pregnant women. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:25042508.
37. Nara, P. L.,, and G. Lin. 2005. HIV-1: the confounding variables of virus neutralization. Curr. Drug Targets Infect. Disord. 5:157170.
38. Niemeyer, C. M.,, M. Adler,, and R. Wacker. 2005. Immuno- PCR: high sensitivity detection of proteins by nucleic acid amplification. Trends Biotechnol. 23:208216.
39. Pai, N. P.,, J. P. Tulsky,, D. Cohan,, J. M. Colford, Jr.,, and A. L. Reingold. 2007. Rapid point-of-care HIV testing in pregnant women: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Trop. Med. Int. Health 12:162173.
40. Percival, D. A. 1996. The measurement of hormones and bacterial antigens using rapid particle-based immunoassays. Pure Appl. Chem. 68:18931895.
41. Prince, H. E.,, and A. L. Leber. 2002. Validation of an inhouse assay for cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin G (CMV IgG) avidity and relationship of avidity to CMV IgM levels. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 9:824827.
42. Prod’hom, G.,, and J. Bille. 2008. Use of POCT (point of care tests) in the diagnosis of infectious diseases. Rev. Med. Suisse 4:908913.
43. Reina, J.,, M. Munar,, and I. Blanco. 1996. Evaluation of a direct immunofluorescence assay, dot-blot enzyme immunoassay, and shell vial culture in the diagnosis of lower respiratory infections caused by influenza A virus. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 25:143145.
44. Reuter, T.,, B. H. Gilroyed,, T. W. Alexander,, A. Balachandran,, S. Czub,, and T. A. McAllister. 10 July 2009. Prion protein detection via direct immuno-quantitative real-time PCR. J. Microbiol. Methods. doi:10.1016/j .mimet.2009.07.001.
45. Reyburn, H.,, H. Mbakilwa,, R. Mwangi,, O. Mwerinde,, R. Olomi,, C. Drakeley,, and C. J. Whitty. 2007. Rapid diagnostic tests compared with malaria microscopy for guiding outpatient treatment of febrile illness in Tanzania: randomised trial. BMJ 334:403410.
46. Rodgers Channing, R. P., 1994. Clinical laboratory methods for detection of antigens and antibodies, p. 151194. In D. A. Stites,, A. I. Terr,, and T. G. Parslow (ed.), Basic and Clinical Immunology, 8th ed. Appleton and Lange, Norwalk, CT.
47. Ryall, R. G.,, C. J. Story,, and D. R. Turner. 1982. Reappraisal of the causes of the “hook effect” in two site immunoradiometric assays. Anal. Biochem. 127:308315.
48. Sabidó, M.,, A. S. Benzaken,, E. J. de-Andrade-Rodrigues,, and P. Mayaud. 2009. Rapid point-of-care diagnostic test for syphilis in high-risk populations, Manaus, Brazil. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 4:647649.
49. Shultz, E. K.,, C. Aliferis,, and D. Aronsky,. 2006. Clinical evaluation of methods, p. 409424. In C. A. Burtis,, E. R. Ashwood,, and D. E. Bruns (ed.), Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics, 4th ed. Elsevier Saunders, St. Louis, MO..
50. Tencza, S. B.,, K. R. Islam,, V. Kalia,, M. S. Nasir,, E. Jolley,, and R. C. Montelaro. 2000. Development of a fluorescence polarization-based diagnostic assay for equine infectious anemia virus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:18541859.
51. Thacker, W. L.,, and D. F. Talkington. 2000. Analysis of complement fixation and commercial enzyme immunoassays for detection of antibodies to Mycoplasma pneumoniae in human serum. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 7:778780.
52. Thomson, R. B., Jr.,, and H. Bertram. 2001. Laboratory diagnosis of central nervous system infections. Infect. Dis. Clin. N. Am. 15:10471071.
53. Tijssen, P. 1985. Practice and Theory of Enzyme Immunoassays. Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
54. Wu, J. T. 2000. Quantitative Immunoassay; a Practical Guide for Assay Establishment, Troubleshooting and Clinical Application. AACC Press, Washington, DC.
55. Zhang, W.,, M. Bielaszewska,, M. Pulz,, K. Becker,, A. W. Friedrich,, H. Karch,, and T. Kuczius. 2008. New immuno- PCR assay for detection of low concentrations of Shiga toxin 2 and its variants. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46:12921297.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Sensitivities of immunoassays

Data from references and .

Citation: Carpenter A. 2011. Immunoassays for the Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases , p 60-72. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch5

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error