Chapter 51 : , and Other Anaerobic Gram-Negative Rods

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

, and Other Anaerobic Gram-Negative Rods, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap51-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap51-2.gif


Within the family , the genus consists of saccharolytic, bile-resistant, and nonpigmented species, mainly isolated from the gut. In a study using sequencing of the 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer regions of species, three phylogenetic clusters were formed. Many anaerobic gram-negative rods, e.g., different species within the genus , have unique cell morphology. Molecular methods are increasingly used for direct detection of bacteria from clinical specimens. The pigmented and species vary greatly in the degree and rapidity of pigment production (2 to 21 days), which ranges from buff to tan to black, depending primarily on the type of blood and the composition of the base medium used in the agar. Fluorescence under long-wavelength UV light can be helpful in presumptive identification; pigmented Prevotella and Porphyromonas colonies typically fluoresce red, and fluoresce yellow-green, and Desulfovibrio and Bilophila species, when tested with a drop of NaOH on a swab of cell paste, fluoresce red due to the presence of desulfoviridin pigment. In a survey, conducted at the National Taiwan University Hospital, the proportion of susceptible isolates of , , and/or species to many antimicrobials, especially cefmetazole, clindamycin, and the combination ampicillin-sulbactam, decreased during the period from 2000 to 2007.

Citation: Könönen E, Wade W, Citron D. 2011. , and Other Anaerobic Gram-Negative Rods, p 858-880. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch51

Key Concept Ranking

Gram-Negative Bacilli
Gram-Negative Cocci
Gram-Negative Coccobacilli
Gram-Negative Bacteria
Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis
16s rRNA Sequencing
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. Adékambi, T.,, M. Drancourt,, and D. Raoult. 2009. The rpoB gene as a tool for clinical microbiologists. Trends Microbiol. 17:3745.
2. Alauzet, C.,, F. Mory,, J. P. Carlier,, H. Marchandin,, E. Jumas-Bilak,, and A. Lozniewski. 2007. Prevotella nanceiensis sp. nov., isolated from human clinical samples. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 57:22162220.
3. Aldridge, K. E.,, D. Ashcraft,, K. Cambre,, C. L. Pierson,, S. G. Jenkins,, and J. E. Rosenblatt. 2001. Multicenter survey of the changing in vitro antimicrobial susceptibilities of clinical isolates of Bacteroides fragilis group, Prevotella, Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas, and Peptostreptococcus species. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:12381243.
4. Al Masalma, M.,, D. Raoult,, and V. Roux. 2009. Phocaeicola abscessus gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic bacterium isolated from human brain abscess sample. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 59:22322237.
5. Amess, J. A.,, W. O’Neill,, C. N. Giollariabhaigh,, and J. K. Dytrych. 2007. A six-month audit of the isolation of Fusobacterium necrophorum from patients with sore throat in a district general hospital. Br. J. Biomed. Sci. 64:6365.
6. Bahrani-Mougeot, F. K.,, B. J. Paster,, S. Coleman,, S. Barbuto,, M. T. Brennan,, J. Noll,, T. Kennedy,, P. C. Fox,, and P. B. Lockhart. 2007. Molecular analysis of oral and respiratory bacterial species associated with ventilator-associated pneumonia. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45:15881593.
7. Bahrani-Mougeot, F. K.,, B. J. Paster,, S. Coleman,, J. Ashar,, S. Barbuto,, and P. B. Lockhart. 2008. Diverse and novel oral bacterial species in blood following dental procedures. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46:21292132.
8. Bakir, M. A.,, M. Kitahara,, M. Sakamoto,, M. Matsumoto,, and Y. Benno. 2006. Bacteroides intestinalis sp. nov., isolated from human faeces. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 56:151154.
9. Bakir, M. A.,, M. Kitahara,, M. Sakamoto,, M. Matsumoto,, and Y. Benno. 2006. Bacteroides finegoldii sp. nov., isolated from human faeces. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 56:931935.
10. Bakir, M. A.,, M. Sakamoto,, M. Kitahara,, M. Matsumoto,, and Y. Benno. 2006. Bacteroides dorei sp. nov., isolated from human faeces. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 56:16391643.
11. Baron, E. J. 1997. Bilophila wadsworthia: a unique gram-negative anaerobic rod. Anaerobe 3:8386.
12. Berger, P.,, T. Adékambi,, M. N. Mallet,, and M. Drancourt. 2005. Prevotella massiliensis sp. nov. isolated from human blood. Res. Microbiol. 156:967973.
13. Bik, E. M.,, P. B. Eckburg,, S. R. Gill,, K. E. Nelson,, E. A. Purdom,, F. Francois,, G. Perez-Perez,, M. J. Blaser,, and D. A. Relman. 2006. Molecular analysis of the bacterial microbiota in the human stomach. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103:732737.
14. Bisharat, N.,, L. Goldstein,, R. Raz,, and M. Elias. 2001. Gram-negative anaerobic endocarditis: two case reports and review of the literature. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 20:651654.
15. Bisiaux-Salauze, B.,, C. Perez,, M. Sebald,, and J. C. Petit. 1990. Bacteremias caused by Selenomonas artemidis and Selenomonas infelix. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28:140142.
16. Bittar, F.,, H. Richet,, J. C. Dubus,, M. Reynaud-Gaubert,, N. Stremler,, J. Sarles,, D. Raoult,, and J. M. Rolain. 2008. Molecular detection of multiple emerging pathogens in sputa from cystic fibrosis patients. PLoS One 3:e2908.
17. Blairon, L.,, Y. De Gheldre,, B. Delaere,, A. Sonet,, A. Bosly,, and Y. Glupczynski. 2006. A 62-month retrospective epidemiological survey of anaerobic bacteraemia in a university hospital. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 12:527532.
18. Boennelycke, M.,, J. J. Christensen,, M. Arpi,, and S. Krause. 2007. Leptotrichia amnionii found in septic abortion in Denmark. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 39:382383.
19. Bolstad, A. I.,, H. B. Jensen,, and V. Bakken. 1996. Taxonomy, biology, and periodontal aspects of Fusobacterium nucleatum. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 9:5571.
20. Brazier, J. S. 2006. Human infections with Fusobacterium necrophorum. Anaerobe 12:165172.
21. Brook, I. 2002. Microbiology of polymicrobial abscesses and implications for therapy. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 50:805810.
22. Brook, I. 2008. Microbiology and management of joint and bone infections due to anaerobic bacteria. J. Orthop. Sci. 13:160169.
23. Brook, I. 2008. Infective endocarditis caused by anaerobic bacteria. Arch. Cardiovasc. Dis. 101:665676.
24. Brook, I. 2009. Pericarditis caused by anaerobic bacteria. Int. 2. J. Antimicrob. Agents 33:297300.
25. Caram, L. B.,, J. P. Linefsky,, K. M. Read,, D. R. Murdoch,, T. Lalani,, C. W. Woods,, L. B. Reller,, S. S. Kanj,, M. M. Premru,, S. Ryan,, M. Al-Hegelan,, P. Y. Donnio,, C. Orezzi,, M. G. Paiva,, C. Tribouilloy,, R. Watkin,, O. Harris,, D. P. Eisen,, G. R. Corey,, C. H. Cabell,, C. A. Petti, et al. 2008. Leptotrichia endocarditis: report of two cases from the International Collaboration on Endocarditis (ICE) database and review of previous cases. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 27:139143.
26. Carlier, J. P.,, M. Bedora-Faure,, G. K’ouas,, C. Alauzet,, and F. Mory. 2009. Proposal to unify Clostridium orbiscindens Winter et al. 1991 and Eubacterium plautii (Seguin 1928) Hofstad and Aasjord 1982, with description of Flavonifractor plautii gen. nov., comb. nov. and reassignment of Bacteroides capillosus to Pseudoflavonifractor capillosus gen. nov., comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 60:585590.
27. Cerdeno-Tarraga, A. M.,, S. Patrick,, L. C. Crossman,, G. Blakely,, V. Abratt,, N. Lennard,, I. Poxton,, B. Duerden,, B. Harris,, M. A. Quail,, A. Barron,, L. Clark,, C. Corton,, J. Doggett,, M. T. Holden,, N. Larke,, A. Line,, A. Lord,, H. Norbertczak,, D. Ormond,, C. Price,, E. Rabbinowitsch,, J. Woodward,, B. Barrell,, and J. Parkhill. 2005. Extensive DNA inversions in the B. fragilis genome control variable gene expression. Science 307:14631465.
28. Chassard, C.,, E. Delmas,, P. A. Lawson,, and A. Bernalier-Donadille. 2008. Bacteroides xylanisolvens sp. nov., a xylan-degrading bacterium isolated from human faeces. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 58:10081013.
29. Chhour, K. L.,, M. A. Nadkarni,, R. Byun,, F. E. Martin,, N. A. Jacques,, and N. Hunter. 2005. Molecular analysis of microbial diversity in advanced caries. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:843849.
30. Citron, D. M.,, Y. A. Warren,, M. K. Hudspeth,, and E. J. Goldstein. 2000. Survival of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in purulent clinical specimens maintained in the Copan Venturi Transystem and Becton Dickinson Port-a-Cul transport systems. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:892894.
31. Citron, D. M. 2002. Update on the taxonomy and clinical aspects of the genus Fusobacterium. Clin. Infect. Dis. 35(Suppl. 1):S22S27.
32. Citron, D. M.,, E. J. Goldstein,, C. V. Merriam,, B. A. Lipsky,, and M. A. Abramson. 2007. Bacteriology of moderate-to-severe diabetic foot infections and in vitro activity of antimicrobial agents. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45:28192828.
33. Clarridge, J. E., III. 2004. Impact of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis for identification of bacteria on clinical microbiology and infectious diseases. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 17:840862.
34. Collins, M. D.,, L. Hoyles,, E. Tornqvist,, R. von Essen,, and E. Falsen. 2001. Characterization of some strains from human clinical sources which resemble “Leptotrichia sanguinegens”: description of Sneathia sanguinegens sp. nov., gen. nov. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 24:358361.
35. Conrads, G.,, M. C. Claros,, D. M. Citron,, K. L. Tyrrell,, V. Merriam,, and E. J. Goldstein. 2002. 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer sequences for analysis of the phylogenetic relationships among species of the genus Fusobacterium. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 52:493499.
36. Conrads, G.,, D. M. Citron,, R. Mutters,, S. Jang,, and E. J. Goldstein. 2004. Fusobacterium canifelinum sp. nov., from the oral cavity of cats and dogs. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 27:407413.
37. Contreras, A.,, N. Doan,, C. Chen,, T. Rusitanonta,, M. J. Flynn,, and J. Slots. 2000. Importance of Dialister pneumosintes in human periodontitis. Oral Microbiol. Immunol. 15:269272.
38. De Martino, S. J.,, I. Mahoudeau,, J. P. Brettes,, Y. Piemont,, H. Monteil,, and B. Jaulhac. 2004. Peripartum bacteremias due to Leptotrichia amnionii and Sneathia sanguinegens, rare causes of fever during and after delivery. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:59405943.
39. DiGiulio, D. B.,, R. Romero,, H. P. Amogan,, J. P. Kusanovic,, E. M. Bik,, F. Gotsch,, C. J. Kim,, O. Erez,, S. Edwin,, and D. A. Relman. 2008. Microbial prevalence, diversity and abundance in amniotic fluid during preterm labor: a molecular and culture-based investigation. PLoS One 3:e3056.
40. Domann, E.,, G. Hong,, C. Imirzalioglu,, S. Turschner,, J. Kühle,, C. Watzel,, T. Hain,, H. Hossain,, and T. Chakraborty. 2003. Culture-independent identification of pathogenic bacteria and polymicrobial infections in the genitourinary tract of renal transplant recipients. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:55005510.
41. Downes, J.,, M. Munson,, and W. G. Wade. 2003. Dialister invisus sp. nov., isolated from the human oral cavity. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 53:19371940.
42. Downes, J.,, I. C. Sutcliffe,, T. Hofstad,, and W. G. Wade. 2006. Prevotella bergensis sp. nov., isolated from human infections. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 56:609612.
43. Downes, J.,, I. C. Sutcliffe,, V. Booth,, and W. G. Wade. 2007. Prevotella maculosa sp. nov., isolated from the human oral cavity. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 57:29362939.
44. Downes, J.,, S. J. Hooper,, M. J. Wilson,, and W. G. Wade. 2008. Prevotella histicola sp. nov., isolated from the human oral cavity. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 58:17881791.
45. Downes, J.,, M. Liu,, E. Kononen,, and W. G. Wade. 2009. Prevotella micans sp. nov., isolated from the human oral cavity. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 59:771774.
46. Downes, J.,, S. R. Vartoukian,, F. E. Dewhirst,, J. Izard,, T. Chen,, W. H. Yu,, I. C. Sutcliffe,, and W. G. Wade. 2009. Pyramidobacter piscolens gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the phylum “Synergistetes” isolated from the human oral cavity. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 59:972980.
47. Downes, J.,, A. C. Tanner,, F. E. Dewhirst,, and W. G. Wade. 2010. Prevotella saccharolytica sp. nov., isolated from the human oral cavity. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 60: 24582461.
48. Elgouhari, H.,, M. Othman,, and W. H. Gerstein. 2007. Bacteroides fragilis vertebral osteomyelitis: case report and a review of the literature. South. Med. J. 100:506511.
49. Enwonwu, C. O.,, W. A. Falkler,, and E. O. Idigbe. 2000. Oro-facial gangrene (noma/cancrum oris): pathogenetic mechanisms. Crit. Rev. Oral Biol. Med. 11:159171.
50. Eribe, E. R.,, B. J. Paster,, D. A. Caugant,, F. E. Dewhirst,, V. K. Stromberg,, G. H. Lacy,, and I. Olsen. 2004. Genetic diversity of Leptotrichia and description of Leptotrichia goodfellowii sp. nov., Leptotrichia hofstadii sp. nov., Leptotrichia shahii sp. nov. and Leptotrichia wadei sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 54:583592.
51. Eribe, E. R.,, and I. Olsen. 2008. Leptotrichia species in human infections. Anaerobe 14:131137.
52. Faveri, M.,, M. P. Mayer,, M. Feres,, L. C. de Figueiredo,, F. E. Dewhirst,, and B. J. Paster. 2008. Microbiological diversity of generalized aggressive periodontitis by 16S rRNA clonal analysis. Oral Microbiol. Immunol. 23:112118.
53. Fenner, L.,, V. Roux,, M. N. Mallet,, and D. Raoult. 2005. Bacteroides massiliensis sp. nov., isolated from blood culture of a newborn. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 55:13351337.
54. Fenner, L.,, V. Roux,, P. Ananian,, and D. Raoult. 2007. Alistipes finegoldii in blood cultures from colon cancer patients. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 13:12601262.
55. Fihman, V.,, L. Raskine,, F. Petitpas,, J. Mateo,, R. Kania,, J. Gravisse,, M. Resche-Rigon,, I. Farhat,, B. Berçot,, D. Payen,, M. J. Sanson-Le Pors,, P. Herman,, and A. Mebazaa. 2008. Cervical necrotizing fasciitis: 8-years’ experience of microbiology. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 27:691695.
56. Finegold, S. M.,, M. L. Vaisanen,, M. Rautio,, E. Eerola,, P. Summanen,, D. Molitoris,, Y. Song,, C. Liu,, and H. Jousimies-Somer. 2004. Porphyromonas uenonis sp. nov., a pathogen for humans distinct from P. asaccharolytica and P. endodontalis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:52985301.
57. Fredricks, D. N.,, T. L. Fiedler,, and J. M. Marrazzo. 2005. Molecular identification of bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis. N. Engl. J. Med. 353:18991911.
58. Fredricks, D. N.,, T. L. Fiedler,, K. K. Thomas,, C. M. Mitchell,, and J. M. Marrazzo. 2009. Changes in vaginal bacterial concentrations with intravaginal metronidazole therapy for bacterial vaginosis as assessed by quantitative PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 47:721726.
59. Gal, M.,, and J. S. Brazier. 2004. Metronidazole resistance in Bacteroides spp. carrying nim genes and the selection of slow-growing metronidazole-resistant mutants. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 54:109116.
60. Glazunova, O. O.,, T. Launay,, D. Raoult,, and V. Roux. 2007. Prevotella timonensis sp. nov., isolated from a human breast abscess. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 57:883886.
61. Glupczynski, Y.,, C. Berhin,, and H. Nizet. 2009. Antimicrobial susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria in Belgium as determined by E-test methodology. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 28:261267.
62. Gmür, R.,, C. Wyss,, Y. Xue,, T. Thurnheer,, and B. Guggenheim. 2004. Gingival crevice microbiota from Chinese patients with gingivitis or necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis. Eur. J. Oral Sci. 112:3341.
63. Golan, Y.,, L. A. McDermott,, N. V. Jacobus,, E. J. Goldstein,, S. Finegold,, L. J. Harrell,, D. W. Hecht,, S. G. Jenkins,, C. Pierson,, R. Venezia,, J. Rihs,, P. Iannini,, S. L. Gorbach,, and D. R. Snydman. 2003. Emergence of fluoroquinolone resistance among Bacteroides species. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 52: 208213.
64. Goldstein, E. J. C.,, D. M. Citron,, V. A. Peraino,, and S. A. Cross. 2003. Desulfovibrio desulfuricans bacteremia and review of human Desulfovibrio infections. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:27522754.
65. Goldstein, E. J. C.,, D. M. Citron,, C. V. Merriam,, Y. A. Warren,, K. L. Tyrrell,, and H. T. Fernandez. 2006. Comparative in vitro susceptibilities of 396 unusual anaerobic strains to tigecycline and eight other antimicrobial agents. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 50:35073513.
66. Goldstein, E. J.,, D. M. Citron,, P. J. Goldman,, and R. J. Goldman. 2008. National hospital survey of anaerobic culture and susceptibility methods: III. Anaerobe 14:6872.
67. Gomes, B. P.,, R. C. Jacinto,, E. T. Pinheiro,, E. L. Sousa,, A. A. Zaia,, C. C. Ferraz,, and F. J. Souza-Filho. 2005. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens in endodontic lesions detected by culture and by PCR. Oral Microbiol. Immunol. 20:211215.
68. Goto, M.,, S. Hitomi,, and T. Ishii. 2007. Bacterial arthritis caused by Leptotrichia amnionii. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45:20822083.
69. Gürsoy, M.,, G. Haraldsson,, M. Hyvönen,, T. Sorsa,, R. Pajukanta,, and E. Könönen. 2009. Does the frequency of Prevotella intermedia increase during pregnancy? Oral Microbiol. Immunol. 24:299303.
70. Hagelskjaer Kristensen, L.,, and J. Prag. 2008. Lemierre’s syndrome and other disseminated Fusobacterium necrophorum infections in Denmark: a prospective epidemiological and clinical survey. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 27:779789.
71. Han, X. Y.,, J. S. Weinberg,, S. S. Prabhu,, S. J. Hassenbusch,, G. N. Fuller,, J. J. Tarrand,, and D. P. Kontoyiannis. 2003. Fusobacterial brain abscess: a review of five cases and an analysis of possible pathogenesis. J. Neurosurg. 99:693700.
72. Han, Y. W.,, A. Ikegami,, C. Rajanna,, H. I. Kawsar,, Y. Zhou,, M. Li,, H. T. Sojar,, R. J. Genco,, H. K. Kuramitsu,, and C. X. Deng. 2005. Identification and characterization of a novel adhesin unique to oral fusobacteria. J. Bacteriol. 187:53305340.
73. Han, Y. W.,, T. Shen,, P. Chung,, I. A. Buhimschi,, and C. S. Buhimschi. 2009. Uncultivated bacteria as etiologic agents of intra-amniotic inflammation leading to preterm birth. J. Clin. Microbiol. 47:3847.
74. Hardham, J. M.,, K. W. King,, K. Dreier,, J. Wong,, C. Strietzel,, R. R. Eversole,, C. Sfintescu,, and R. T. Evans. 2008. Transfer of Bacteroides splanchnicus to Odoribacter gen. nov. as Odoribacter splanchnicus comb. nov., and description of Odoribacter denticanis sp. nov., isolated from the crevicular spaces of canine periodontitis patients. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 58:103109.
75. Hayashi, H.,, K. Shibata,, M. Sakamoto,, S. Tomita,, and Y. Benno. 2007. Prevotella copri sp. nov. and Prevotella stercorea sp. nov., isolated from human faeces. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 57:941946.
76. Hayashi, H.,, K. Shibata,, M. A. Bakir,, M. Sakamoto,, S. Tomita,, and Y. Benno. 2007. Bacteroides coprophilus sp. nov., isolated from human faeces. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 57:13231326.
77. Hecht, D. W. 2004. Prevalence of antibiotic resistance in anaerobic bacteria: worrisome developments. Clin. Infect. Dis. 39:9297.
78. Hecht, D. W. 2007. Routine anaerobic blood cultures: back where we started? Clin. Infect. Dis. 44:901903.
79. Heidelberg, J. F.,, R. Seshadri,, S. A. Haveman,, C. L. Hemme,, I. T. Paulsen,, J. F. Kolonay,, J. A. Eisen,, N. Ward,, B. Methe,, L. M. Brinkac,, S. C. Daugherty,, R. T. Deboy,, R. J. Dodson,, A. S. Durkin,, R. Madupu,, W. C. Nelson,, S. A. Sullivan,, D. Fouts,, D. H. Haft,, J. Selengut,, J. D. Peterson,, T. M. Davidsen,, N. Zafar,, L. Zhou,, D. Radune,, G. Dimitrov,, M. Hance,, K. Tran,, H. Khouri,, J. Gill,, T. R. Utterback,, T. V. Feldblyum,, J. D. Wall,, G. Voordouw,, and C. M. Fraser. 2004. The genome sequence of the anaerobic, sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough. Nat. Biotechnol. 22:554559.
80. Holt, S. C.,, and J. L. Ebersole. 2005. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia: the “red complex,” a prototype polybacterial pathogenic consortium in periodontitis. Periodontol. 2000 38:72122.
81. Hudspeth, M. K.,, S. Hunt Gerardo,, M. F. Maiden,, D. M. Citron,, and E. J. C. Goldstein. 1999. Characterization of Bacteroides forsythus strains from cat and dog bite wounds in humans and comparison with monkey and human oral strains. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:20032006.
82. Huggan, P. J.,, and D. R. Murdoch. 2008. Fusobacterial infections: clinical spectrum and incidence of invasive disease. J. Infect. 57:283289.
83. Ivanova, N.,, S. Gronow,, A. Lapidus,, A. Copeland,, T. G. Del Rio,, M. Nolan,, S. Lucas,, F. Chen,, H. Tice,, J.-F. Cheng,, E. Saunders,, D. Bruce,, L. Goodwin,, T. Brettin,, J. C. Detter,, C. Han,, S. Pitluck,, N. Mikhailova,, A. Pati,, K. Mavrommatis,, A. Chen,, K. Palaniappan,, M. Land,, L. Hauser,, Y.-J. Chang,, C. D. Jeffries,, P. Chain,, C. Rohde,, M. Goker,, J. Bristow,, J. A. Eisen,, V. Markowitz,, P. Hugenholtz,, N. C. Kyrpides,, and H.-P. Klenk. 2009. Complete genome sequence of Leptotrichia buccalis type strain (C-1013-bT). Stand. Genom. Sci. 1:126132.
84. Iwai, T.,, Y. Inoue,, M. Umeda,, Y. Huang,, N. Kurihara,, M. Koike,, and I. Ishikawa. 2005. Oral bacteria in the occluded arteries of patients with Buerger disease. J. Vasc. Surg. 42:107115.
85. Iwata, K.,, and M. Takahashi. 2008. Is anaerobic blood culture necessary? If so, who needs it? Am. J. Med. Sci. 336:5863.
86. Jamal, W.,, M. Shahin,, and V. O. Rotimi. 2010. Surveillance and trends of antimicrobial resistance among clinical isolates of anaerobes in Kuwait hospitals from 2002 to 2007. Anaerobe 16:15.
87. Jensen, A.,, L. Hagelskjaer Kristensen,, H. Nielsen,, and J. Prag. 2008. Minimum requirements for a rapid and reliable routine identification and antibiogram of Fusobacterium necrophorum. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 27:557563.
88. Johnson, C. C.,, and S. M. Finegold. 1987. Uncommonly encountered, motile, anaerobic gram-negative bacilli associated with infection. Rev. Infect. Dis. 9:11501162.
89. Jousimies-Somer, H.,, P. Summanen,, D. M. Citron,, E. J. Baron,, H. M. Wexler,, and S. M. Finegold. 2002. Wadsworth-KTL Anaerobic Bacteriology Manual, 6th ed. Star Publishing, Belmont, CA.
90. Jumas-Bilak, E.,, H. Jean-Pierre,, J. P. Carlier,, C. Teyssier,, K. Bernard,, B. Gay,, J. Campos,, F. Morio,, and H. Marchandin. 2005. Dialister micraerophilus sp. nov. and Dialister propionicifaciens sp. nov., isolated from human clinical samples. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 55:24712478.
91. Jumas-Bilak, E.,, J. P. Carlier,, H. Jean-Pierre,, D. Citron,, K. Bernard,, A. Damay,, B. Gay,, C. Teyssier,, J. Campos,, and H. Marchandin. 2007. Jonquetella anthropi gen. nov., sp. nov., the first member of the candidate phylum ‘Synergistetes’ isolated from man. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 57:27432748.
92. Jumas-Bilak, E.,, L. Roudière,, and H. Marchandin. 2009. Description of ‘Synergistetes’ phyl. nov. and emended description of the phylum ‘Deferribacteres’ and of the family Syntrophomonadaceae, phylum ‘Firmicutes. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 59:10281035.
93. Kapatral, V.,, I. Anderson,, N. Ivanova,, G. Reznik,, T. Los,, A. Lykidis,, A. Bhattacharyya,, A. Bartman,, W. Gardner,, G. Grechkin,, L. Zhu,, O. Vasieva,, L. Chu,, Y. Kogan,, O. Chaga,, E. Goltsman,, A. Bernal,, N. Larsen,, M. D’Souza,, T. Walunas,, G. Pusch,, R. Haselkorn,, M. Fonstein,, N. Kyrpides,, and R. Overbeek. 2002. Genome sequence and analysis of the oral bacterium Fusobacterium nucleatum strain ATCC 25586. J. Bacteriol. 184:20052018.
94. Katsandri, A.,, J. Papaparaskevas,, A. Pantazatou,, G. L. Petrikkos,, G. Thomopoulos,, D. P. Houhoula,, and A. Avlamis. 2006. Two cases of infections due to multidrugresistant Bacteroides fragilis group strains. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:34653467.
95. Kawanami, T.,, K. Fukuda,, K. Yatera,, T. Kido,, C. Yoshii,, H. Taniguchi,, and M. Kido. 2009. Severe pneumonia with Leptotrichia sp. detected predominantly in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid by use of 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 47:496498.
96. Kim, M. S.,, S. W. Roh,, and J. W. Bae. 2010. Bacteroides faecis sp. nov., isolated from human faeces. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 60:25722576.
97. Klug, T. E.,, M. Rusan,, K. Fuursted,, and T. Ovesen. 2009. Fusobacterium necrophorum: most prevalent pathogen in peritonsillar abscess in Denmark. Clin. Infect. Dis. 49:14671472.
98. Kolenbrander, P. E.,, R. N. Andersen,, and L. V. Moore. 1989. Coaggregation of Fusobacterium nucleatum, Selenomonas flueggei, Selenomonas infelix, Selenomonas noxia, and Selenomonas sputigena with strains from 11 genera of oral bacteria. Infect. Immun. 57:31943203.
99. Kolenbrander, P. E. 2000. Oral microbial communities: biofilms, interactions, and genetic systems. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 54:413437.
100. Könönen, E.,, H. Jousimies-Somer,, and S. Asikainen. 1994. The most frequently isolated gram-negative anaerobes in saliva and subgingival samples taken from young women. Oral Microbiol. Immunol. 9:126128.
101. Könönen, E.,, M.-L. Väisänen,, S. M. Finegold,, R. Heine,, and H. Jousimies-Somer. 1996. Cellular fatty acid analysis and enzyme profiles of Porphyromonas catoniae, a frequent colonizer of the oral cavity in children. Anaerobe 2:329335.
102. Könönen, E. 2000. Development of oral bacterial flora in young children. Ann. Med. 32:107112.
103. Könönen, E.,, S. Paju,, P. J. Pussinen,, M. Hyvönen,, P. Di Tella,, L. Suominen-Taipale,, and M. Knuuttila. 2007. Population-based study of salivary carriage of periodontal pathogens in adults. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45:24462451.
104. Kumar, P. S.,, A. L. Griffen,, J. A. Barton,, B. J. Paster,, M. L. Moeschberger,, and E. J. Leys. 2003. New bacterial species associated with chronic periodontitis. J. Dent. Res. 82:338344.
105. Kuwahara, T.,, A. Yamashita,, H. Hirakawa,, H. Nakayama,, H. Toh,, N. Okada,, S. Kuhara,, M. Hattori,, T. Hayashi,, and Y. Ohnishi. 2004. Genomic analysis of Bacteroides fragilis reveals extensive DNA inversions regulating cell surface adaptation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101:1491914924.
106. Langendijk, P.S.,, E. M. Kulik,, H. Sandmeier,, J. Meyer,, and J. S. van der Hoeven. 2001. Isolation of Desulfomicrobium orale sp. nov. and Desulfovibrio strain NY682, oral sulfate-reducing bacteria involved in human periodontal disease. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 51:10351044.
107. Larsson, P.-G.,, B. Carlsson,, L. Fåhraeus,, T. Jakobsson,, and U. Forsum. 2004. Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis: need for validation of microscopic image area used for scoring bacterial morphotypes. Sex. Transm. Infect. 80:6367.
108. Lassmann, B.,, D. R. Gustafson,, C. M. Wood,, and J. E. Rosenblatt. 2007. Reemergence of anaerobic bacteremia. Clin. Infect. Dis. 44:895900.
109. Lawson, P. A.,, E. Moore,, and E. Falsen. 2008. Prevotella amnii sp. nov., isolated from human amniotic fluid. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 58:8992.
110. Legaria, M. C.,, G. Lumelsky,, V. Rodriguez,, and S. Rosetti. 2005. Clindamycin-resistant Fusobacterium varium bacteremia and decubitus ulcer infection. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:42934295.
111. Le Moal, G.,, C. Landron,, G. Grollier,, B., Bataille,, F. Roblot,, P. Nassans,, and B. Becq-Giraudon. 2003. Characteristics of brain abscess with isolation of anaerobic bacteria. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 35:318321.
112. León, R.,, N. Silva,, A. Ovalle,, A. Chaparro,, A. Ahumada,, M. Gajardo,, M. Martinez,, and J. Gamonal. 2007. Detection of Porphyromonas gingivalis in the amniotic fluid in pregnant women with a diagnosis of threatened premature labor. J. Periodontol. 78:12491255.
113. Ley, R. E.,, P. J. Turnbaugh,, S. Klein,, and J. I. Gordon. 2006. Microbial ecology: human gut microbes associated with obesity. Nature 444:10221023.
114. Lin, W. J.,, W. T. Lo,, C. C. Chu,, M. L. Chu,, and C. C. Wang. 2006. Bacteriology and antibiotic susceptibility of community-acquired intra-abdominal infection in children. J. Microbiol. Immunol. Infect. 39:249254.
115. Liu, C. Y.,, Y. T. Huang,, C. H. Liao,, L. C. Yen,, H. Y. Lin,, and P. R. Hsueh. 2008. Increasing trends in antimicrobial resistance among clinically important anaerobes and Bacteroides fragilis isolates causing nosocomial infections: emerging resistance to carbapenems. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52:31613168.
116. Lockhart, P. B.,, M. T. Brennan,, H. C. Sasser,, P. C. Fox,, J. Paster,, and F. K. Bahrani-Mougeot. 2008. Bacteremia associated with toothbrushing and dental extraction. Circulation 117:31183125.
117. Loubinoux, J.,, F. M. Valente,, I. A. Pereira,, A. Costa,, P. A. Grimont,, and A. E. Le Faou. 2002. Reclassification of the only species of the genus Desulfomonas, Desulfomonas pigra, as Desulfovibrio piger comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 52:13051308.
118. Loubinoux, J.,, B. Jaulhac,, Y. Piemont,, H. Monteil,, and A. E. Le Faou. 2003. Isolation of sulfate-reducing bacteria from human thoracoabdominal pus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:13041306.
119. Maiden, M. F.,, A. Tanner,, and W. E. Moore. 1992. Identification of Selenomonas species by whole-genomic DNA probes, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, biochemical tests and cellular fatty acid analysis. Oral Microbiol. Immunol. 7:713.
120. Malnick, H.,, K. Williams,, J. Phil-Ebosie,, and A. S. Levy. 1990. Description of a medium for isolating Anaerobiospirillum spp., a possible cause of zoonotic disease, from diarrheal feces and blood of humans and use of the medium in a survey of human, canine, and feline feces. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28:13801384.
121. Malnick, H. 1997. Anaerobiospirillum thomasii sp. nov., an anaerobic spiral bacterium isolated from the feces of cats and dogs and from diarrheal feces of humans, and emendation of the genus Anaerobiospirillum. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 47:381384.
122. Mättö, J.,, S. Asikainen,, M. L. Väisänen,, M. Rautio,, M. Saarela,, P. Summanen,, S. Finegold,, and H. Jousimies-Somer. 1997. Role of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, and Prevotella nigrescens in extraoral and some odontogenic infections. Clin. Infect. Dis. 25(Suppl. 2):S194S198.
123. Mira, A.,, R. Pushker,, B. A. Legault,, D. Moreira,, and F. Rodríguez-Valera. 2004. Evolutionary relationships of Fusobacterium nucleatum based on phylogenetic analysis and comparative genomics. BMC Evol. Biol. 4:50.
124. Moen, K.,, J. G. Brun,, M. Valen,, L. Skartveit,, E. K. Eribe,, I. Olsen,, and R. Jonsson. 2006. Synovial inflammation in active rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis facilitates trapping of a variety of oral bacterial DNAs. Clin. Exp. Rheumatol. 24:656663.
125. Molitoris, E.,, H. M. Wexler,, and S. M. Finegold. 1997. Sources and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Campylobacter gracilis and Sutterella wadsworthensis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 25(Suppl. 2):S264S265.
126. Moore, L. V. H.,, J. L. Johnson,, and W. E. C. Moore. 1987. Selenomonas noxia sp. nov., Selenomonas flueggei sp. nov., Selenomonas infelix sp. nov., Selenomonas dianae sp. nov., and Selenomonas artemidis sp. nov., from the human gingival crevice. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 37:271280.
127. Morgenstein, A. A.,, D. M. Citron,, and S. M. Finegold. 1981. New medium selective for Fusobacterium species and differential for Fusobacterium necrophorum. J. Clin. Microbiol. 13:666669.
128. Morio, F.,, H. Jean-Pierre,, L. Dubreuil,, E. Jumas-Bilak,, L. Calvet,, G. Mercier,, R. Devine,, and H. Marchandin. 2007. Antimicrobial susceptibilities and clinical sources of Dialister species. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51:44984501.
129. Morotomi, M.,, F. Nagai,, H. Sakon,, and R. Tanaka. 2008. Dialister succinatiphilus sp. nov. and Barnesiella intestinihominis sp. nov., isolated from human faeces. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 58:27162720.
130. Morotomi, M.,, F. Nagai,, H. Sakon,, and R. Tanaka. 2009. Paraprevotella clara gen. nov., sp. nov., and Paraprevotella xylaniphila sp. nov., members of the family ‘Prevotellaceae’ isolated from human faeces. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 59:18951900.
131. Mory, F.,, J. P. Carlier,, C. Alauzet,, M. Thouvenin,, H. Schuhmacher,, and A. Lozniewski. 2005. Bacteremia caused by a metronidazole resistant Prevotella sp. strain. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:53805383.
132. Mory, F.,, C. Alauzet,, C. Matuszeswski,, P. Riegel,, and A. Lozniewski. 2009. Evaluation of the new Vitek 2 ANC card for identification of medically relevant anaerobic bacteria. J. Clin. Microbiol. 47:19231926.
133. Mousa, H. A. 1997. Aerobic, anaerobic and fungal burn wound infections. J. Hosp. Infect. 37:317323.
134. Munson, M. A.,, T. Pitt-Ford,, B. Chong,, A. Weightman,, and W. G. Wade. 2002. Molecular and cultural analysis of the microflora associated with endodontic infections. J. Dent. Res. 81:761766.
135. Nagai, F.,, M. Morotomi,, H. Sakon,, and R. Tanaka. 2009. Parasutterella excrementihominis gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel member of the family Alcaligenaceae, isolated from human faeces. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 59:17931797.
136. Nagai, F.,, M. Morotomi,, Y. Watanabe,, H. Sakon,, and R. Tanaka. 2010. Alistipes indistinctus sp. nov. and Odoribacter laneus sp. nov., common members of the human intestinal microbiota isolated from faeces. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 60:12961302.
137. Nagy, E.,, T. Maier,, E. Urban,, G. Terhes,, and M. Kostrzewa, on behalf of the ESCMID Study Group on Antimicrobial Resistance in Anaerobic Bacteria. 2009. Species identification of clinical isolates of Bacteroides by matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 15:796802.
138. Naito, M.,, H. Hirakawa,, A. Yamashita,, N. Ohara,, M. Shoji,, H. Yukitake,, K. Nakayama,, H. Toh,, F. Yoshimura,, S. Kuhara,, M. Hattori,, T. Hayashi,, and K. Nakayama. 2008. Determination of the genome sequence of Porphyromonas gingivalis strain ATCC 33277 and genomic comparison with strain W83 revealed extensive genome rearrangements in P. gingivalis. DNA Res. 15:215225.
139. Nakazawa, H.,, A. Arakaki,, S. Narita-Yamada,, I. Yashiro,, K. Jinno,, N. Aoki,, A. Tsuruyama,, Y. Okamura,, S. Tanikawa,, N. Fujita,, H. Takeyama,, and T. Matsunaga. 2009. Whole genome sequence of Desulfovibrio magneticus strain RS-1 revealed common gene clusters in magnetotactic bacteria. Genome Res. 19:18011808.
140. Nelson, K. E.,, R. D. Fleischmann,, R. T. DeBoy,, I. T. Paulsen,, D. E. Fouts,, J. A. Eisen,, S. C. Daugherty,, R. J. Dodson,, A. S. Durkin,, M. Gwinn,, D. H. Haft,, J. F. Kolonay,, W. C. Nelson,, T. Mason,, L. Tallon,, J. Gray,, D. Granger,, H. Tettelin,, H. Dong,, J. L. Galvin,, M. J. Duncan,, F. E. Dewhirst,, and C. M. Fraser. 2003. Complete genome sequence of the oral pathogenic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis strain W83. J. Bacteriol. 185:55915601.
141. 141 Ng, L. S.,, L. L. Kwang,, S. C. Yeow,, and T. Y. Tan. 2008. Anaerobic culture of diabetic foot infections: organisms and antimicrobial susceptibilities. Ann. Acad. Med. Singapore 37:936939.
142. Nguyen, M. H.,, V. L. Yu,, A. J. Morris,, L. McDermott,, M. W. Wagener,, L. Harrell,, and D. R. Snydman. 2000.Antimicrobial resistance and clinical outcome of Bacteroides bacteraemia: findings of a multicenter prospective observational trial. Clin. Infect. Dis. 30:870876.
143. Oakley, B. B.,, T. L. Fiedler,, J. M. Marrazzo,, and D. N. Fredricks. 2008. Diversity of human vaginal bacterial communities and associations with clinically defined bacterial vaginosis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74:48984909.
144. Papaparaskevas, J.,, A. Pantazatou,, A. Katsandri,, N. J. Legakis,, A. Avlamis, et al. 2005. Multicentre survey of the in-vitro activity of seven antimicrobial agents, including ertapenem, against recently isolated gram-negative anaerobic bacteria in Greece. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 11:820824.
145. Papaparaskevas, J.,, A. Pantazatou,, A. Katsandri,, D. P. Houhoula,, N. J. Legakis,, A. Tsakris,, and A. Avlamis. 2008. Moxifloxacin resistance is prevalent among Bacteroides and Prevotella species in Greece. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 62:137141.
146. Paster, B. J.,, F. E. Dewhirst,, I. Olsen,, and G. J. Fraser. 1994. Phylogeny of Bacteroides, Prevotella, and Porphyromonas spp. and related bacteria. J. Bacteriol. 176:725732.
147. Paster, B. J.,, S. K. Boches,, J. L. Galvin,, R. E. Ericson,, C. N. Lau,, V. A. Levanos,, A. Sahasrabudhe,, and F. E. Dewhirst. 2001. Bacterial diversity in human subgingival plaque. J. Bacteriol. 183:37703783.
148. Pearce, M. A.,, D. A. Devine,, R. A. Dixon,, and T. J. van Steenbergen. 2000. Genetic heterogeneity in Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella nigrescens, Prevotella corporis and related species isolated from oral and nonoral sites. Oral Microbiol. Immunol. 15:8995.
149. Pei, Z.,, E. J. Bini,, L. Yang,, M. Zhou,, F. Francois,, and M. J. Blaser. 2004. Bacterial biota in the human distal esophagus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101:42504255.
150. Penders, J.,, C. Thijs,, C. Vink,, F. F. Stelma,, B. Snijders,, I. Kummeling,, P. A. van den Brandt,, and E. E. Stobberingh. 2006. Factors influencing the composition of the intestinal microbiota in early infancy. Pediatrics 118:511521.
151. Persson, R.,, J. Hitti,, R. Verhelst,, M. Vaneechoutte,, R. Persson,, R. Hirschi,, M. Weibel,, M. Rothen,, M. Temmerman,, K. Paul,, and D. Eschenbach. 2009. The vaginal microflora in relation to gingivitis. BMC Infect. Dis. 9:6.
152. Pienaar, C.,, A. J. Kruger,, E. C. Venter,, and J. D. Pitout. 2003. Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens bacteraemia. J. Clin. Pathol. 56:316318.
153. Pimentel, J. D.,, and R. C. Chan. 2007. Desulfovibrio fairfieldensis bacteremia associated with choledocholithiasis and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45:27472750.
154. Prasad, K. N.,, A. M. Mishra,, D. Gupta,, N. Husain,, M. Husain,, and R. K. Gupta. 2006.Analysisofmicrobialetiologyand mortality in patients with brain abscess. J. Infect. 53:221227.
155. Pye, A. D.,, D. E. Lockhart,, M. P. Dawson,, C. A. Murray,, and A. J. Smith. 2009. A review of dental implants and infection. J. Hosp. Infect. 72:104110.
156. Rautio, M.,, H. Saxén,, A. Siitonen,, R. Nikku,, and H. Jousimies-Somer. 2000. Bacteriology of histopathologically defined appendicitis in children. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 19:10781083.
157. Rautio, M.,, E. Eerola,, M. L. Väisänen-Tunkelrott,, D. Molitoris,, P. Lawson,, M. D. Collins,, and H. Jousimies-Somer. 2003. Reclassification of Bacteroides putredinis (Weinberg et al., 1937) in a new genus Alistipes gen. nov., as Alistipes putredinis comb. nov., and description of Alistipes finegoldii sp. nov., from human sources. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 26:182188.
158. Rennie, R. P.,, C. Brosnikoff,, L. Turnbull,, L. B. Reller,, S. Mirrett,, W. Janda,, K. Ristow,, and A. Krilcich. 2008. Multicenter evaluation of the Vitek 2 anaerobe and Corynebacterium identification card. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46:26462651.
159. Riggio, M. P.,, H. Aga,, C. A. Murray,, M. S. Jackson,, A. Lennon,, N. Hammersley,, and J. Bagg. 2007. Identification of bacteria associated with spreading odontogenic infections by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. Endod. 103:610617.
160. Riordan, T. 2007. Human infection with Fusobacterium necrophorum (necrobacillosis), with a focus on Lemierre’s syndrome. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 20:622659.
161. Robert, C.,, C. Chassard,, P. A. Lawson,, and A. Bernalier-Donadille. 2007. Bacteroides cellulosilyticus sp. nov., a cellulolytic bacterium from the human gut microbial community. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 57:15161520.
162. Roberts, S. A.,, K. P. Shore,, S. D. Paviour,, D. Holland,, and A. J. Morris. 2006. Antimicrobial susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria in New Zealand: 1999-2003. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 57:992998.
163. Rôças, I. N.,, and J. F. Siqueira, Jr. 2006. Characterization of Dialister species in infected root canals. J. Endod. 32:10571061.
164. Rôças, I. N.,, and J. F. Siqueira, Jr. 2008. Root canal microbiota of teeth with chronic apical periodontitis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46:35993606.
165. Rousée, J. M.,, D. Bermond,, Y. Piémont,, C. Tournoud,, R. Heller,, P. Kehrli,, M. L. Harlay,, H. Monteil,, and B. Jaulhac. 2002. Dialister pneumosintes associated with human brain abscesses. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:38713873.
166. Sakamoto, M.,, M. Suzuki,, M. Umeda,, I. Ishikawa,, and Y. Benno. 2002. Reclassification of Bacteroides forsythus (Tanner et al. 1986) as Tannerella forsythensis corrig., gen. nov., comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 52:841849.
167. Sakamoto, M.,, and Y. Benno. 2006. Reclassification of Bacteroides distasonis, Bacteroides goldsteinii and Bacteroides merdae as Parabacteroides distasonis gen. nov., comb. nov., Parabacteroides goldsteinii comb. nov. and Parabacteroides merdae comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 56:15991605.
168. Sakamoto, M.,, M. Kitahara,, and Y. Benno. 2007. Parabacteroides johnsonii sp. nov., isolated from human faeces. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 57:293296.
169. Sakamoto, M.,, P. T. Lan,, and Y. Benno. 2007. Barnesiella viscericola gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel member of the family Porphyromonadaceae isolated from chicken caecum. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 57:342346.
170. Sakamoto, M.,, K. Ohkusu,, T. Masaki,, H. Kako,, T. Ezaki,, and Y. Benno. 2007. Prevotella pleuritidis sp. nov., isolated from pleural fluid. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 57:17251728.
171. Sakamoto, M.,, N. Suzuki,, N. Matsunaga,, K. Koshihara,, M. Seki,, H. Komiya,, and Y. Benno. 2009. Parabacteroides gordonii sp. nov., isolated from human blood cultures. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 59:28432847.
172. Sakamoto, M.,, N. Suzuki,, and M. Okamoto. 2010. Prevotella aurantiaca sp. nov., isolated from the human oral cavity. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 60:500503.
173. Sakon, H.,, F. Nagai,, M. Morotomi,, and R. Tanaka. 2008. Sutterella parvirubra sp. nov. and Megamonas funiformis sp. nov., isolated from human faeces. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 58:970975.
174. Salonen, J. H.,, E. Eerola,, and O. Meurman. 1998. Clinical significance and outcome of anaerobic bacteremia. Clin. Infect. Dis. 26:14131417.
175. Sears, C. L. 2009. Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis: a rogue among symbiotes. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 22:349369.
176. Seng, P.,, M. Drancourt,, F. Gouriet,, B. La Scola,, P. E. Fournier,, J. M. Rolain,, and D. Raoult. 2009. Ongoing revolution in bacteriology: routine identification of bacteria by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Clin. Infect. Dis. 49:543551.
177. Shah, H. N.,, and M. D. Collins. 1988. Proposal for reclassfication of Bacteroides asaccharolyticus, Bacteroides gingivalis, and Bacteroides endodontalis in a new genus, Porphyromonas. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 38:128131.
178. Shah, H. N.,, and M. D. Collins. 1989. Proposal to restrict the genus Bacteroides (Castellani and Chalmers) to Bacteroides fragilis and closely related species. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 39:8587.
179. Shah, H. N.,, and D. M. Collins. 1990. Prevotella, a new genus to include Bacteroides melaninogenicus and related species formerly classified in the genus Bacteroides. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 40:205208.
180. Shukla, S. K.,, P. R. Meier,, P. D. Mitchell,, D. N. Frank,, and K. D. Reed. 2002. Leptotrichia amnionii sp. nov., a novel bacterium isolated from the amniotic fluid of a woman after intrauterine fetal demise. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:33463349.
181. Simmon, K. E.,, S. Mirrett,, L. B. Reller,, and C. A. Petti. 2008. Genotypic diversity of anaerobic isolates from bloodstream infections. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46:15961601.
182. Siqueira, J. F., Jr.,, and I. N. Rôças. 2004. Nested PCR detection of Centipeda periodontii in primary endodontic infections. J. Endod. 30:135137.
183. Siqueira, J. F., Jr., and I. N. Rôças. 2009. The microbiota of acute apical abscesses. J. Dent. Res. 88:6165.
184. Sixou, J. L.,, C. Magaud,, A. Jolivet-Gougeon,, M. Cormier,, and M. Bonnaure-Mallet. 2003. Evaluation of the mandibular third molar pericoronitis flora and its susceptibility to different antibiotics prescribed in France. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:57945797.
185. Snydman, D. R.,, N. V. Jacobus,, L. A. McDermott,, R. Ruthazer,, Y. Golan,, E. J. Goldstein,, S. M. Finegold,, L. J. Harrell,, D. W. Hecht,, S. G. Jenkins,, C. Pierson,, R. Venezia,, V. Yu,, J. Rihs,, and S. L. Gorbach. 2007. National survey on the susceptibility of Bacteroides fragilis group: report and analysis of trends in the United States from 1997 to 2004. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51:16491655.
186. Sobel, J. D. 2000. Bacterial vaginosis. Annu. Rev. Med. 51:349356.
187. Socransky, S. S.,, A. D. Haffajee,, M. A. Cugini,, C. Smith,, and R. L. Kent, Jr. 1998. Microbial complexes in subgingival plaque. J. Clin. Periodontol. 25:134144.
188. Song, Y. L.,, C. X. Liu,, M. McTeague,, and S. M. Finegold. 2004. Bacteroides nordii” sp. nov. and “Bacteroides salyersae” sp. nov. isolated from clinical specimens of human intestinal origin. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:55655570.
189. Song, Y.,, C. Liu,, J. Lee,, M. Bolanos,, M. L. Vaisanen,, and S. M. Finegold. 2005. Bacteroides goldsteinii” sp. nov. isolated from clinical specimens of human intestinal origin. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:45224527.
190. Song, Y.,, C. Liu,, M. Bolanos,, J. Lee,, M. McTeague,, and S. M. Finegold. 2005. Evaluation of 16S rRNA sequencing and reevaluation of a short biochemical scheme for identification of clinically significant Bacteroides species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:15311537.
191. Song, Y.,, E. Könönen,, M. Rautio,, C. Liu,, A. Bryk,, E. Eerola,, and S. M. Finegold. 2006. Alistipes onderdonkii sp. nov. and Alistipes shahii sp. nov., of human origin. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 56:1985ndash;1990.
192. Stîngu, C. S.,, A. C. Rodloff,, H. Jentsch,, R. Schaumann,, and K. Eschrich. 2008. Rapid identification of oral anaerobic bacteria cultivated from subgingival biofilm by MALDITOF-MS. Oral Microbiol. Immunol. 23:372376.
193. Strauss, J.,, A. White,, C. Ambrose,, J. McDonald,, and E. Allen-Vercoe. 2008. Phenotypic and genotypic analyses of clinical Fusobacterium nucleatum and Fusobacterium periodonticum isolates from the human gut. Anaerobe 14:301309.
194. Su, T. M.,, C. M. Lan,, Y. D. Tsai,, T. C. Lee,, C. H. Lu,, and W. N. Chang. 2008. Multiloculated pyogenic brain abscess: experience in 25 patients. Neurosurgery 62 (Suppl.2):556561.
195. Summanen, P. H.,, B. Durmaz,, M. L. Väisänen,, C. Liu,, D. Molitoris,, E. Eerola,, I. M. Helander,, and S. M. Finegold. 2005. Porphyromonas somerae sp. nov., a pathogen isolated from humans and distinct from Porphyromonas levii. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:44554459.
196. Summanen, P. H.,, P. A. Lawson,, and S. M. Finegold. 2009. Porphyromonas bennonis sp. nov., isolated from human clinical specimens. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 59:17271732.
197. Talan, D. A.,, D. M. Citron,, F. M. Abrahamian,, G. J. Moran,, E. J. Goldstein, et al. 1999. Bacteriologic analysis of infected dog and cat bites. N. Engl. J. Med. 340:8592.
198. Talan, D. A.,, F. M. Abrahamian,, G. J. Moran,, D. M. Citron,, J. O. Tan,, E. J. Goldstein, et al. 2003. Clinical presentation and bacteriologic analysis of infected human bites in patients presenting to emergency departments. Clin. Infect. Dis. 37:14811489.
199. Tanner, A.,, M. F. Maiden,, P. J. Macuch,, L. L. Murray,, and R. L. Kent, Jr. 1998. Microbiota of health, gingivitis, and initial periodontitis. J. Clin. Periodontol. 25:8598.
200. Tanner, A. C.,, and J. Izard. 2006. Tannerella forsythia, a periodontal pathogen entering the genomic era. Periodontology 2000 42:88113.
201. Tee, W.,, P. Midolo,, P. H. Janssen,, T. Kerr,, and M. L. Dyall-Smith. 2001. Bacteremia due to Leptotrichia trevisanii sp. nov. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 20:765769.
202. Tunney, M. M.,, T. R. Field,, T. F. Moriarty,, S. Patrick,, G. Doering,, M. S. Muhlebach,, M. C. Wolfgang,, R. Boucher,, D. F. Gilpin,, A. McDowell,, and J. S. Elborn. 2008. Detection of anaerobic bacteria in high numbers in sputum from patients with cystic fibrosis. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 177:9951001.
203. Ulstrup, A. K.,, and S. H. Hartzen. 2006. Leptotrichia buccalis: a rare cause of bacteraemia in non-neutropenic patients. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 38:712716.
204. Urbán, E.,, A. Hortobágyi,, K. Szentpáli,, and E. Nagy. 2004. Two intriguing Bilophila wadsworthia cases from Hungary. J. Med. Microbiol. 53:11671169.
205. Vandamme, P.,, M. I. Daneshvar,, F. E. Dewhirst,, B. J. Paster,, K. Kersters,, H. Goossens,, and C. W. Moss. 1995. Chemotaxonomic analyses of Bacteroides gracilis and Bacteroides ureolyticus and reclassification of B. gracilis as Campylobacter gracilis comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 45:145152.
206. Vartoukian, S. R.,, R. M. Palmer,, and W. G. Wade. 6. 2009. Diversity and morphology of members of the phylum “Synergistetes” in periodontal health and disease. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 75:37773786.
207. Walker, C. B.,, S. Stolyar,, D. Chivian,, N. Pinel,, J. A. Gabster,, P. S. Dehal,, Z. He,, Z. K. Yang,, H. C. Yen,, J. Zhou,, J. D. Wall,, T. C. Hazen,, A. P. Arkin,, and D. A. Stahl. 2009. Contribution of mobile genetic elements to Desulfovibrio vulgaris genome plasticity. Environ. Microbiol. 11:22442252.
208. Wareham, D. W.,, M. Wilks,, D. Ahmed,, J. S. Brazier,, and M. Millar. 2005. Anaerobic sepsis due to multidrug-resistant Bacteroides fragilis: microbiological cure and clinical response with linezolid therapy. Clin. Infect. Dis. 40:e67e68.
209. Warren, Y. A.,, D. M. Citron,, C. V. Merriam,, and E. J. Goldstein. 2005. Biochemical differentiation and comparison of Desulfovibrio species and other phenotypically similar genera. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:40414045.
210. Watanabe, Y.,, F. Nagai,, M. Morotomi,, H. Sakon,, and R. Tanaka. 2010. Bacteroides clarus sp. nov., Bacteroides fluxus sp. nov. and Bacteroides oleiciplenus sp. nov., isolated from human faeces. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 60:18641869.
211. Wexler, H. M.,, D. Reeves,, P. H. Summanen,, E. Molitoris,, M. McTeague,, J. Duncan,, K. H. Wilson,, and S. M. Finegold. 1996. Sutterella wadsworthensis gen. nov., sp. nov., bile-resistant microaerophilic Campylobacter gracilis-like clinical isolates. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 46:252258.
212. Wexler, H. M. 2007. Bacteroides: the good, the bad, and the nitty-gritty. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 20:593621.
213. Wolcott, R. D.,, V. Gontcharova,, Y. Sun,, and S. E. Dowd. 2009. Evaluation of the bacterial diversity among and within individual venous leg ulcers using bacterial tag-encoded FLX and titanium amplicon pyrosequencing and metagenomic approaches. BMC Microbiol. 9:226.
214. Wybo, I.,, D. Piérard,, I. Verschraegen,, M. Reynders,, K. Vandoorslaer,, G. Claeys,, M. Delmée,, Y. Glupczynski,, B. Gordts,, M. Ieven,, P. Melin,, M. Struelens,, J. Verhaegen,, and S. Lauwers. 2007. Third Belgian multicentre survey of antibiotic susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 59:132139.
215. Xu, J.,, M. K. Bjursell,, J. Himrod,, S. Deng,, L. K. Carmichael,, H. C. Chiang,, L. V. Hooper,, and J. I. Gordon. 2003. A genomic view of the human-Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron symbiosis. Science 299:20742076.
216. Xu, J.,, M. A. Mahowald,, R. E. Ley,, C. A. Lozupone,, M. Hamady,, E. C. Martens,, B. Henrissat,, P. M. Coutinho,, P. Minx,, P. Latreille,, H. Cordum,, A. Van Brunt,, K. Kim,, R. S. Fulton,, L. A. Fulton,, S. W. Clifton,, R. K. Wilson,, R. D. Knight,, and J. I. Gordon. 2007. Evolution of symbiotic bacteria in the distal human intestine. PLoS Biol. 5:e156.