1887

Chapter 53 : Campylobacter and Arcobacter

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Campylobacter and Arcobacter, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap53-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap53-2.gif

Abstract:

Three closely related genera, , , and , are included in the family . Originally classified as free-living species, spp. are slender, curved gram-negative rods, 0.1 to 0.5 mm wide and 1 to 3 µm long. These species have no known pathogenicity for humans or animals, and are environmental organisms isolated from water sediments. spp. are aerotolerant, -like organisms frequently isolated from bovine and porcine products of abortion and feces of animals with enteritis. was reported to be the fourth most common -like organism isolated from patients with diarrhea and was also one of the most common non / species isolated over a 10-year period from over 73,000 stool samples. The Gram stain appearance of may differ from that of typical . Unfortunately, species are difficult to differentiate from species based on phenotypic tests. The 16S rRNA gene and 23S rRNA gene are widely used for genus-and species-specific tests. PCR assays based on these targets are described for 12 different species and three species. Broad-range molecular identification schemes involving restriction fragment analysis of PCR-amplified regions of the 16S or 23S rRNA genes have also been described for identification of and species. Special methods including alternative incubation techniques are required and should be performed by special request.

Citation: Fitzgerald C, Nachamkin I. 2011. Campylobacter and Arcobacter, p 885-899. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch53

Key Concept Ranking

Lower Gastrointestinal Tract
0.48815012
Upper Gastrointestinal Tract
0.48143408
Campylobacter jejuni
0.45361122
0.48815012
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Practical algorithm for identifying and spp. that do not require increased hydrogen for primary isolation in the clinical laboratory. GNR, gram-negative rods; TSI, triple sugar iron agar. subsp. is variable for catalase and hippurate tests. Strains of subsp. can be variable for growth at 42°C. is variable for growth at 42°C and in the catalase test. produces variable results in the catalase test. is variable for growth at 42°C. Results for the catalase test are biovar dependent; bv. faecalis is catalase positive. Some strains of may grow better in an increased hydrogen environment. grows under microaerophilicconditions, but some strains require additional hydrogen. Rapid HS test. Urease-positive strains are referred to as the urease-positive thermophilic campylobacter group.

Citation: Fitzgerald C, Nachamkin I. 2011. Campylobacter and Arcobacter, p 885-899. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch53
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555816728.chap53
1. Abbott, S. L.,, M. Waddington,, D. Lindquist,, J. Ware,, W. Cheung,, J. Ely,, and J. M. Janda. 2005. Description of Campylobacter curvus and C. curvus-like strains associated with sporadic episodes of bloody gastroenteritis and Brainerd’s diarrhea. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:585588.
2. Ailes, E.,, L. Demma,, S. Hurd,, J. Hatch,, T. F. Jones,, D. Vugia,, A. Cronquist,, M. Tobin-D’Angelo,, K. Larson,, E. Laine,, K. Edge,, S. Zansky,, and E. Scallan. 2008. Continued decline in the incidence of Campylobacter infections, FoodNet 1996-2006. Foodborne Pathog. Dis. 5:329337.
3. Alm, R. A.,, P. Guerry,, M. E. Power,, H. Lior,, and T. J. Trust. 1991. Analysis of the role of flagella in the heat-labile Lior serotyping scheme of thermophilic campylobacters by mutant allele exchange. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29:24382445.
4. Al Rashid, S. T.,, I. Dakuna,, H. Louie,, D. Ng,, P. Vandamme,, W. Johnson,, and V. L. Chan. 2000. Identification of Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, C. lari, C. upsaliensis, Arcobacter butzleri, and A. butzleri-like species based on the glyA gene. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:14881494.
5. Anderson, K. F.,, J. A. Kiehlbauch,, D. C. Anderson,, H. M. McClure,, and I. K. Wachsmuth. 1993. Arcobacter (Campylobacter) butzleri-associated diarrheal illness in a nonhuman primate. Infect. Immun. 61:22202223.
6. Ang, C. W.,, K. A. Krogfelt,, P. Herbrink,, J. Keijser,, W. van Pelt,, T. Dalby,, M. Kuiif,, B. C. Jacobs,, M. P. Bergman,, P. Schiellerup,, and C. E. Visser. 2007. Validation of an ELISA for the diagnosis of recent Campylobacter infections in Guillain-Barré and reactive arthritis patients. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 13:915922.
7. Aspinall, S. T.,, D. R. Wareing,, P. G. Hayward,, and D. N. Hutchinson. 1996. A comparison of a new selective medium (CAT) with membrane filtration for the isolation of thermophilic campylobacters including Campylobacter upsaliensis. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 80:645650.
8. Barrett, T. J.,, C. M. Patton,, and G. K. Morris. 1988. Differentiation of Campylobacter species using phenotypic characterization. Lab. Med. 19:96102.
9. Black, R. E.,, D. Perlman,, M. L. Clements,, M. M. Levine,, and M. J. Blaser,. 1992. Human volunteer studies with Campylobacter jejuni, p. 207215. In I. Nachamkin,, M. J. Blaser,, and L. S. Tompkins (ed.), Campylobacter jejuni: Current Status and Future Trends. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
10. Blaser, M. J.,, and J. Engberg,. 2008. Clinical aspects of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli infections, p. 99121. In I. Nachamkin,, C. M. Szymanski,, and M. J. Blaser (ed.), Campylobacter, 3rd ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
11. Blaser, M. J.,, D. G. Newell,, S. A. Thompson,, and E. L. Zechner,. 2008. Pathogenesis of Campylobacter fetus, p. 401428. In I. Nachamkin,, C. M. Szymanski,, and M. J. Blaser (ed.), Campylobacter, 3rd ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
12. Boswell, T. C. J.,, and G. Kudesia. 1992. Serological cross-reactions between Legionella pneumophila and Campylobacter in the indirect fluorescent antibody test. Epidemiol. Infect. 109:291295.
13. Brazier, J. S.,, and S. A. Smith. 1989. Evaluation of the anoxomat: new technique for anaerobic and microaerophilic clinical bacteriology. J. Clin. Pathol. 42:640644.
14. Brightwell, G.,, E. Mowat,, R. Clemens,, J. Boerema,, D. J. Pulford,, and S. L. W. On. 2007. Development of a multiplex and real time PCR assay for the specific detection of Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacter cryaerophilus. J. Microbiol. Methods 68:318325.
15. Burnett, T. A.,, A. Hornitzky,, P. Kuhnert,, and S. P. Djordjevic. 2002. Speciating Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates from poultry and humans using six PCR-based assays. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 216:201209.
16. Cardarelli-Leite, P.,, K. Blom,, C. M. Patton,, M. A. Nicholson,, A. G. Steigerwalt,, S. B. Hunter,, D. J. Brenner,, T. J. Barrett,, and B. Swaminathan. 1996. Rapid identification of Campylobacter species by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of a PCR amplified fragment of the gene coding for 16S rRNA. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:6267.
17.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2009. Preliminary FoodNet data on the incidence of infection with pathogens transmitted commonly through food—10 states. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 58:333337.
18. Champion, O. L.,, S. Al-Jaberi,, R. A. Stabler,, and B. W. Wren,. 2008. Comparative genomics of Campylobacter jejuni, p. 6371. In I. Nachamkin,, C. Szymanski,, and M. J. Blaser (ed.), Campylobacter, 3rd ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
19. Clark, C. G.,, L. Bryden,, W. R. Cuff,, P. L. Johnson,, F. Jamieson,, B. Ciebin,, and G. Wang. 2005. Use of the Oxford multilocus sequence typing protocol and sequencing of the flagellin short variable region to characterize isolates from a large outbreak of waterborne Campylobacter sp. strains in Walkerton, Ontario, Canada. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:20802091.
20.Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. 2006. Methods for Antimicrobial Dilution and Disk Susceptibility Testing of Infrequently Isolated or Fastidious Bacteria. Approved guideline M45-A. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, PA.
21.Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. 2005. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing: Fifteenth Informational Supplement. M100-S15. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, PA.
22. Cochennec, F.,, L. Gazaigne,, P. Lesprit,, P. Desgranges,, E. Allaire,, and J. Becquemin. 2008. Aortoiliac aneurysms infected by Campylobacter fetus. J. Vasc. Surg. 48:815820.
23. Collado, L.,, I. Cleenwerck,, S. Van Trappen,, P. De Vos,, and M. J. Figueras. 2009. Arcobacter mytili sp. nov., an indoxyl acetate hydrolysis-negative bacterium isolated from mussels. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 59:13911396.
24. de Boer, E.,, J. J. H. C. Tilburg,, D. L. Woodward,, H. Lior,, and W. M. Johnson. 1996. A selective medium for the isolation of Arcobacter from meats. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 23:6466.
25. Debruyne, L.,, D. Gevers,, and P. Vandamme,. 2008. Taxonomy of the family Campylobacteraceae, p. 325. In I. Nachamkin,, C. M. Szymanski,, and M. J. Blaser (ed.), Campylobacter, 3rd ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
26. Debruyne, L.,, S. L. W. On,, E. De Brandt,, and P. Vandamme. 2009. Novel Campylobacter lari-like bacteria from humans and molluscs: description of Campylobacter peloridis sp. nov., Campylobacter lari subsp. concheus subsp. nov. and Campylobacter lari subsp. lari subsp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 59:11261132.
27. Debruyne, L.,, E. Samyn,, E. DeBrandt,, O. Vandenberg,, M. Heyndrickx,, and P. Vandamme. 2008. Comparative performance of different PCR assays for the identification of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Res. Microbiol. 159:8893.
28. Dediste, A.,, O. Vandenberg,, L. Vlaes,, A. Ebraert,, N. Douat,, P. Bahwere,, and J.-P. Butzler. 2003. Evaluation of the ProSpecT microplate assay for detection of Campylobacter: a routine laboratory perspective. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 9:10851090.
29. Denis, M.,, C. Soumet,, K. Rivoal,, G. Ermel,, D. Blivet,, G. Salvat,, and P. Colin. 1999. Development of a m-PCR assay for simultaneous identification of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 29:406410.
30. Dingle, K. E.,, F. M. Colles,, D. R. A. Wareing,, R. Ure,, A. J. Fox,, F. E. Bolton,, H. J. Bootsma,, R. J. L. Willems,, R. Urwin,, and M. C. J. Maiden. 2001. Multilocus sequence typing system for Campylobacter jejuni. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:1423.
31. Donachie, S. P.,, J. P. Bowman,, S. L. W. On,, and M. Alam. 2005. Arcobacter halophilus sp. nov., the first obligate halophile in the genus Arcobacter. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 55:12711277.
32. Endtz, H. P.,, C. W. Ang,, N. Van Den Braak,, A. Luijendijk,, B. C. Jacobs,, P. de Man,, J. M. van Duin,, A. van Belkum,, and H. A. Verbrugh. 2000. Evaluation of a new commercial immunoassay for rapid detection of Campylobacter jejuni in stool samples. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 19:794797.
33. Endtz, H. P.,, G. J. Ruijs,, A. H. Zwinderman,, T. van der Reijden,, M. Biever,, and R. P. Mouton. 1991. Comparison of six media, including a semisolid agar, for the isolation of various Campylobacter species from stool specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29:10071010.
34. Engberg, J.,, F. M. Aarestrup,, D. E. Taylor,, P. Gerner-Smidt,, and I. Nachamkin. 2001. Quinolone and macrolide resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli: resistance mechanisms and trends in human isolates. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 7:2434.
35. Engberg, J.,, S. L. W. On,, C. S. Harrington,, and P. Gerner-Smidt. 2000. Prevalence of Campylobacter, Arcobacter, Helicobacter, and Sutterella spp. in human fecal samples as estimated by a reevaluation of isolation methods for Campylobacter. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:286291.
36. Etoh, Y.,, F. E. Dewhirst,, B. J. Paster,, A. Yamamoto,, and N. Goto. 1993. Campylobacter showae sp. nov., isolated from the human oral cavity. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 43:631639.
37. Fermer, C.,, and E. O. Engvall. 1999. Specific PCR identification and differentiation of the thermophilic campylobacters, Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, C. lari, and C. upsaliensis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:33703373.
38. Figueras, M. J.,, L. Collado,, and J. Guarro. 2008. A new 16S rDNA RFLP method for the discrimination of the accepted species of Arcobacter. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 62:1115.
39. Fitzgerald, C.,, and I. Nachamkin,. 2007. Campylobacter and Arcobacter, p. 933946. In P. R. Murray,, E. J. Baron,, J. H. Jorgensen,, M. L. Landry,, and M. A. Pfaller (ed.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 9th ed. ASM Press, Washington DC.
40. Fitzgerald, C.,, A. Sails,, and B. Swaminathan,. 2005. Genetic techniques: molecular subtyping methods, p. 271293. In T. McMeekin (ed.), Detecting Pathogens in Food. Woodhouse Publishing, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
41. Fitzgerald, C.,, J. Whichard,, and I. Nachamkin,. 2008. Diagnosis and antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter species, p. 227243. In I. Nachamkin,, C. M. Szymanski,, and M. J. Blaser (ed.), Campylobacter, 3rd ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
42. Fouts, D. E.,, E. F. Mongodin,, R. E. Mandrell,, W. G. Miller,, D. A. Rasko,, J. Ravel,, L. M. Brinkac,, R. T. DeBoy,, C. T. Parker,, S. C. Daugherty,, R. J. Dodson,, A. S. Durkin,, R. Madupu,, S. A. Sullivan,, J. U. Shetty,, M. A. Ayodeji,, A. Shvartsveyn,, M. C. Schatz,, J. H. Badger,, C. M. Fraser,, and K. E. Nelson. 2005. Major structural differences and novel potential virulence mechanisms from the genomes of multiple Campylobacter species. PLoS Biol. 3:7285.
43. Gibreel, A.,, and D. E. Taylor. 2006. Macrolide resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 58:243255.
44. Gilbert, M.,, P. C. R. Godschalk,, C. T. Parker,, H. P. Endtz,, and W. W. Wakarchuk,. 2005. Genetic basis for the variation in the lipooligosaccharide outer core of Campylobacter jejuni and possible association of glycotransferase genes with post-infectious neuropathies, p. 219248. In J. M. Ketley, and M. E. Konkel (ed.), Campylobacter: Molecular and Cellular Biology. Horizon Bioscience, Norfolk, United Kingdom.
45. Gonzalez, I.,, K. A. Grant,, P. T. Richardson,, S. F. Park,, and M. D. Collins. 1997. Specific identification of the enteropathogens Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by using a PCR test based on the ceuE gene encoding a putative virulence determinant. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:759763.
46. Goossens, H.,, L. Vlaes,, M. De Boeck,, B. Pot,, K. Kersters,, J. Levy,, P. de Mol,, J. P. Butzler,, and P. Vandamme. 1990. Is “Campylobacter upsaliensis” an unrecognised cause of human diarrhoea? Lancet 335:584586.
47. Gorkiewicz, G.,, G. Feierl,, C. Schober,, F. Dieber,, J. Kofer,, R. Zechner,, and E. L. Zechner. 2003. Species-specific identification of campylobacters by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:25372546.
48. Guerrant, R. L.,, T. Van Gilder,, T. S. Steiner,, N. M. Thielman,, L. Slutsker,, R. V. Tauxe,, T. Hennessy,, P. M. Griffin,, H. L. DuPont,, R. B. Sack,, P. I. Tarr,, M. Neill,, I. Nachamkin,, L. B. Reller,, M. T. Osterholm,, M. L. Bennish,, and L. K. Pickering. 2001. Practice guidelines for managing infectious diarrhea. Clin. Infect. Dis. 32:331351.
49. Han, X. Y.,, J. J. Tarrand,, and D. C. Rice. 2005. Oral Campylobacter species involved in extraoral abscess: a report of three cases. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:25132515.
50. Hani, E.,, and V. L. Chan. 1995. Expression and characterization of Campylobacter jejuni benzoylglycine amidohydrolase (hippuricase) gene in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 177:23962402.
51. Harrington, C. S.,, and S. L. W. On. 1999. Extensive 16S rRNA gene sequence diversity in Campylobacter hyointestinalis strains: taxonomic and applied implications. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 49:11711175.
52. Hindiyeh, M.,, S. Jense,, S. Hohmann,, H. Benett,, C. Edwards,, W. Aldeen,, A. Croft,, J. Daly,, S. Mottice,, and K. C. Carroll. 2000. Rapid detection of Campylobacter jejuni in stool specimens by an enzyme immunoassay and surveillance for Campylobacter upsaliensis in the greater Salt Lake City area. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:30763079.
53. Hines, J.,, and I. Nachamkin. 1996. Effective use of the clinical microbiology laboratory for diagnosing diarrheal diseases. Clin. Infect. Dis. 23:12921301.
54. Hofreuter, D.,, J. Tsai,, R. O. Watson,, V. Novik,, B. Altman,, M. Benitez,, C. Clark,, C. Perbost,, T. Jarvic,, L. Du,, and J. E. Galan. 2006. Unique features of a highly pathogenic Campylobacter jejuni strain. Infect. Immun. 74:46944707.
55. Houf, K.,, S. L. W. On,, T. Coenye,, L. Debruyne,, S. De Smet,, and P. Vandamme. 2009. Arcobacter thereius sp. nov. isolated from pigs and ducks. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 59:25992604.
56. Houf, K.,, S. L. W. On,, T. Coenye,, J. Mast,, J. Van Hoof,, and P. Vandamme. 2005. Arcobacter cibarius sp. nov., isolated from broiler carcasses. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 55:713717.
57. Houf, K.,, and R. Stephan. 2007. Isolation and characterization of the emerging foodborne pathogen Arcobacter from human stool. J. Microbiol. Methods 68:408413.
58. Houf, K.,, A. Tutenel,, L. De Zutter,, J. Van Hoof,, and P. Vandamme. 2000. Development of a multiplex PCR assay for the simultaneous detection and identification of Arcobacter butzleri, Arcobacter cryaerophilus, and Arcobacter skirrowii. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 193:8994.
59. Hum, S.,, K. Quinn,, J. Brunner,, and S. L. On. 1997. Evaluation of a PCR assay for identification and differentiation of Campylobacter fetus subspecies. Aust. Vet. J. 75:827831.
60. Huysmans, M. B.,, J. D. Turnidge,, and J. H. Williams. 1995. Evaluation of API Campy in comparison with conventional methods for identification of thermophilic campylobacters. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:33453346.
61. Inglis, G. D.,, B. M. Hoar,, D. P. Whiteside,, and D. W. Morck. 2007. Campylobacter canadensis sp. nov., from captive whooping cranes in Canada. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 57:26362644.
62. Karlyshev, A. V.,, D. Linton,, N. A. Gregson,, A. J. Lastovica,, and B. W. Wren. 2000. Genetic and biochemical evidence of a Campylobacter jejuni capsular polysaccharide that accounts for Penner serotype specificity. Mol. Microbiol. 35:529541.
63. Kassenborg, H. D.,, K. E. Smith,, D. J. Vugia,, T. Rabatsky-Ehr,, M. R. Bates,, M. A. Carter,, N. B. Dumas,, M. P. Cassidy,, N. Marano,, R. V. Tauxe,, and F. J. Angulo. 2004. Fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter infections: eating poultry outside of the home and foreign travel are risk factors. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38(Suppl.3):279284.
64. Keramas, G.,, D. D. Bang,, M. Lund,, M. Madsen,, S. E. Rasmussen,, H. Bunkenborg,, P. Telleman,, and C. B. Christensen. 2003. Development of a sensitive DNA microarray suitable for rapid detection of Campylobacter spp. Mol. Cell. Probes 17:187196.
65. Kiehlbauch, J. A.,, D. J. Brenner,, M. A. Nicholson,, C. N. Baker,, C. M. Patton,, A. G. Steigerwalt,, and I. K. Wachsmuth. 1991. Campylobacter butzleri sp. nov. isolated from humans and animals with diarrheal illness. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29:376385.
66. Klena, J. D.,, and M. E. Konkel,. 2005. Methods for epidemiologic analysis of Campylobacter jejuni, p. 165179. In J. M. Ketley, and M. E. Konkel (ed.), Campylobacter: Molecular and Cellular Biology. Horizon Bioscience, Norfolk, United Kingdom.
67. Klena, J. D.,, C. T. Parker,, K. Knibb,, J. C. Ibbitt,, P. M. Devane,, S. T. Horn,, W. G. Miller,, and M. E. Konkel. 2004. Differentiation of Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter lari, and Campylobacter upsaliensis by a multiplex PCR developed from the nucleotide sequence of the lipid A gene lpxA. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:55495557.
68. Larson, C. L.,, J. E. Christensen,, S. A. Pacheco,, S. A. Minnich,, and M. E. Konkel,. 2008. Campylobacter jejuni secretes proteins via the flagellar type II secretion system that contribute to host cell invasion and gastroenteritis, p. 315332. In I. Nachamkin,, C. M. Szymanski,, and M. J. Blaser (ed.), Campylobacter, 3rd ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
69. Lastovica, A. J.,, and B. M. Allos,. 2008. Clinical significance of Campylobacter and related species other than Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, p. 123149. In I. Nachamkin,, C. M. Szymanski,, and M. J. Blaser (ed.), Campylobacter, 3rd ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
70. Lastovica, A. J.,, and M. B. Skirrow,. 2000. Clinical significance of Campylobacter and related species other than Campylobacter jejuni, p. 89121. In I. Nachamkin, and M. J. Blaser (ed.), Campylobacter. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
71. Lawson, A. J.,, S. L. W. On,, J. M. J. Logan,, and J. Stanley. 2001. Campylobacter hominis sp. nov., from the human gastrointestinal tract. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 51:651660.
72. Linton, D.,, A. J. Lawson,, R. J. Owen,, and J. Stanley. 1997. PCR detection, identification to species level, and fingerprinting of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli direct from diarrheic samples. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:25682572.
73. Logan, J. M. J.,, A. Burnens,, D. Linton,, A. J. Lawson,, and J. Stanley. 2000. Campylobacter lanienae sp. nov., a new species isolated from workers in an abattoir. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 50:865872.
74. MacFaddin, J. F., 2000. Hippurate hydrolysis test, p. 188204. In J. F. MacFaddin (ed.), Biochemical Tests for Identification of Medical Bacteria. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
75. MacFaddin, J. F., 2000. Indoxyl substrate hydrolysis tests, p. 233238. In J. F. MacFaddin (ed.), Biochemical Tests for Identification of Medical Bacteria. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
76. McDermott, P. F.,, S. M. Bodeis,, F. M. Aarestrup,, S. Brown,, M. Traczewski,, P. l. Fedorka-Cray,, M. Wallace,, I. A. Critchley,, C. Thornsberry,, S. Graff,, R. Flamm,, J. Beyer,, D. Shortridge,, L. J. Piddock,, V. Ricci,, M. M. Johnson,, R. N. Jones,, B. Reller,, S. Mirrett,, J. Aldrobi,, R. Rennie,, C. Brosnikoff,, L. Turnbull,, G. Stein,, S. Schooley,, R. A. Hanson,, and R. D. Walker. 2005. Development of a standardized susceptibility test for Campylobacter with quality-control ranges for ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, erythromycin, gentamicin and meropenem. Microb. Drug Resist. 10:124131.
77. McDermott, P. F.,, S. M. Bodeis-Jones,, T. R. Fritsche,, R. D. Walker, and the Campylobacter Susceptibility Testing Group. 2005. Broth microdilution susceptibility testing of Campylobacter jejuni and the determination of quality control ranges for fourteen antimicrobial agents. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:61366138.
78. McGill, K.,, L. Kelley,, R. H. Madden,, L. Moran,, C. Carroll,, A. O’Leary,, J. E. Moore,, E. McNamara,, M. O’Mahony,, S. Fanning,, and P. Whyte. 2009. Comparison of disc diffusion and epsilometer (E-test) testing techniques to determine antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter isolates of food and human clinical origin. J. Microbiol. Methods 79:238241.
79. Menard, A.,, F. Dachet,, V. Prouzet-Mauleon,, M. Oleastro,, and F. Megraud. 2005. Development of a real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer PCR to identify the main pathogenic Campylobacter spp. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 11:281287.
80. Miller, W. G., 2008. Comparative genomics of Campylobacter species other than Campylobacter jejuni, p. 7395. In I. Nachamkin,, C. Szymanski,, and M. J. Blaser (ed.), Campylobacter, 3rd ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
81. Miller, W. G.,, C. T. Parker,, S. Heath,, and A. J. Lastovica. 2007. Identification of genomic differences between Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni and C. jejuni subsp. doylei at the nap locus leads to the development of a C. jejuni subspeciation multiplex PCR method. BMC Microbiol. 7:11.
82. Miller, W. G.,, I. V. Wesley,, S. L. W. On,, K. Houf,, F. Megraud,, G. Wang,, E. Yee,, A. Srijan,, and C. J. Mason. 2009. First multi-locus sequence typing scheme for Arcobacter spp. BMC Microbiol. 9:196.
83. Mohran, Z. S.,, R. R. Arthur,, B. A. Oyofo,, L. F. Peruski,, M. O. Wasfy,, T. F. Ismail,, and J. R. Murphy. 1998. Differentiation of Campylobacter isolates on the basis of sensitivity to boiling in water as measured by PCR-detectable DNA. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64:363365.
84. Molbak, K.,, and A. H. Havelaar,. 2008. Burden of illness of campylobacteriosis and sequelae, p. 151162. In I. Nachamkin,, C. M. Szymanski,, and M. J. Blaser (ed.), Campylobacter, 3rd ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
85. Molitoris, E.,, H. M. Wexler,, and S. M. Finegold. 1997. Sources and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Campylobacter gracilis and Sutterella wadsworthensis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 25S:S264S265.
86. Morris, G. K.,, and C. M. Patton,. 1985. Campylobacter, p. 302308. In E. Lennette,, A. Balows,, W. J. Hausler, Jr.,, and H. J. Shadomy (ed.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
87. Nachamkin, I. 1997. Microbiologic approaches for studying Campylobacter in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome. J. Infect. Dis. 176(Suppl. 2):S106S114.
88. Nachamkin, I., 2001. Campylobacter jejuni, p. 179192. In M. P. Doyle,, L. R. Beuchat,, and T. J. Montville (ed.), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 2nd ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
89. Nachamkin, I.,, B. M. Allos,, and T. W. Ho. 1998. Campylobacter and Guillain-Barré Syndrome. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 11:555567.
90. Nachamkin, I.,, and S. Barbagallo. 1990. Culture confirmation of Campylobacter spp. by latex agglutination. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28:817818.
91. Nachamkin, I.,, B. S. Ung,, and M. Li. 2002. Increasing fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter jejuni, Pennsylvania, USA, 1982-2001. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8:15011503.
92. Nayak, R.,, T. M. Stewart,, and M. S. Nawaz. 2005. PCR identification of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni by partial sequencing of virulence genes. Mol. Cell. Probes 19:187193.
93. Nelson, J. M.,, K. E. Smith,, D. J. Vugia,, T. Rabatsky-Ehr,, S. D. Segler,, H. D. Kassenborg,, S. M. Zansky,, K. Joyce,, N. Marano,, R. M. Koekstra,, and F. J. Angulo. 2004. Prolonged diarrhea due to ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter infection. J. Infect. Dis. 190:11501157.
94. Newell, D. G.,, J. A. Frost,, B. Duim,, J. A. Wagenaar,, R. H. Madden,, J. van der Plas,, and S. L. W. On,. 2000. New developments in the subtyping of Campylobacter species, p. 2744. In I. Nachamkin, and M. J. Blaser (ed.), Campylobacter. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
95. Olsen, S. J.,, G. R. Hansen,, L. Bartlett,, C. Fitzgerald,, A. Sonder,, R. Manjrekar,, T. Riggs,, J. Kim,, R. Flahart,, G. Pezzino,, and D. L. Swerdlow. 2001. An outbreak of Campylobacter jejuni infections associated with food handler contamination: the use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. J. Infect. Dis. 183:164167.
96. Olson, C. K.,, S. Ethelberg,, W. van Pelt,, and R. V. Tauxe,. 2008. Epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni infections in industrialized nations, p. 163189. In I. Nachamkin,, C. M. Szymanski,, and M. J. Blaser (ed.), Campylobacter, 3rd ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
97. On, S. L.,, and P. J. Jordan. 2003. Evaluation of 11 PCR assays for species-level identification of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:330336.
98. On, S. L. W., 2005. Taxonomy, phylogeny and methods for the identification of Campylobacter species, p. 1342. In J. M. K. Konkel (ed.), Campylobacter: Molecular and Cellular Biology. Horizon Biosciences, Norwich, United Kingdom.
99. On, S. L. W. 2001. Taxonomy of Campylobacter, Arcobacter, Helicobacter and related bacteria: current status, future prospects and immediate concerns. J. Appl. Microbiol. 90:1S15S.
100. On, S. L. W. 1994. Confirmation of human Campylobacer concisus isolates misidentified as Campylobacter mucosalis and suggestions for improved differentiation between the two species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32:23052306.
101. On, S. L. W.,, H. I. Atabay,, J. E. L. Corry,, C. S. Harrington,, and P. Vandamme. 1998. Emended description of Campylobacter sputorum and revision of its infrasubspecific (biovar) divisions, including C. sputorum biovar paraureolyticus, a urease-producing variant from cattle and humans. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 48:195206.
102. On, S. L. W.,, N. McCarthy,, W. G. Miller,, and B. J. Gilpin,. 2008. Molecular epidemiology of Campylobacter species, p. 191211. In I. Nachamkin,, C. M. Szymanski,, and M. J. Blaser (ed.), Campylobacter, 3rd ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
103. Parkhill, J.,, B. W. Wren,, K. Mungall,, J. M. Ketley,, C. Churcher,, D. Basham,, T. Chillingworth,, R. M. Davies,, T. Feltwell,, S. Holroyd,, K. Jagels,, A. V. Karlyshev,, S. Moule,, M. J. Pallen,, C. W. Penn,, M. A. Quail,, M. A. Rajandream,, K. M. Rutherford,, A. H. M. van Vliet,, S. Whitehead,, and B. G. Barrell. 2000. The genome sequence of the foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni reveals hypervariable sequences. Nature 403:665668.
104. Patton, C. M.,, and I. K. Wachsmuth,. 1992. Typing schemes: are current methods useful?, p. 110128. In I. Nachamkin,, M. J. Blaser,, and L. S. Tompkins (ed.), Campylobacter jejuni: Current Status and Future Trends. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
105. Persson, S.,, and K. E. Olsen. 2005. Multiplex PCR for identification of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni from pure cultures and directly on stool samples. J. Med. Microbiol. 54:10431047.
106. Petruccelli, B. P.,, G. S. Murphy,, J. L. Sanchez,, S. Walz,, R. DeFraites,, J. Gelnett,, R. L. Haberberger,, P. Echeverria,, and D. N. Taylor. 1992. Treatment of traveler’s diarrhea with ciprofloxacin and loperamide. J. Infect. Dis. 165:557560.
107. Poly, F.,, T. Read,, D. R. Tribble,, S. Baqar,, M. Lorenzo,, and P. Guerry. 2007. Genome sequence of a clinical isolate of Campylobacter jejuni from Thailand. Infect. Immun. 75:34253433.
108. Popovic-Uroic, T.,, C. M. Patton,, I. K. Wachsmuth,, and P. Roeder. 1991. Evaluation of an oligonucleotide probe for identification of Campylobacter species. Lab. Med. 22:533539.
109. Prouzet-Mauleon, V.,, L. Labadi,, N. Bouges,, A. Menard,, and F. Megraud. 2006. Arcobacter butzleri: underestimated enteropathogen. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12:307309.
110. Quinones, B.,, C. T. Parker,, J. M. Janda, Jr.,, W. G. Miller,, and R. E. Mandrell. 2007. Detection and genotyping of Arcobacter and Campylobacter isolates from retail chicken samples by use of DNA oligonucleotide arrays. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73:36453655.
111. Rams, T. E.,, D. Feik,, and J. Slots. 1993. Campylobacter rectus in human periodontitis. Oral Microbiol. Immun. 8:230235.
112. Ribot, E. M.,, C. Fitzgerald,, K. Kubota,, B. Swaminathan,, and T. J. Barrett. 2001. Rapid pulsed-field gel electrophoresis protocol for subtyping Campylobacter jejuni. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:18891894.
113. Rossi, M.,, L. Debruyne,, R. G. Zanoni,, G. Manfreda,, J. Revez,, and P. Vandamme. 2009. Campylobacter avium sp. nov., a hippurate-positive species isolated from poultry. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 59:23642369.
114. Sails, A. D.,, B. Swaminathan,, and P. I. Fields. 2003. Utility of multilocus sequence typing as an epidemiological tool for investigation of outbreaks of gastroenteritis caused by Campylobacter jejuni. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:47334739.
115. Samuel, M. C.,, D. J. Vugia,, S. Shallow,, R. Marcus,, S. Segler,, T. McGivern,, H. Kassenborg,, K. Reilly,, M. Kennedy,, F. Angulo,, and R. V. Tauxe. 2004. Epidemiology of sporadic Campylobacter infection in the United States and declining trend in incidence, FoodNet 1996-1999. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38(Suppl. 3):165174.
116. Schuurman, T.,, R. F. de Boer,, E. van Zanten,, K. R. van Slochteren,, H. R. Scheper,, B. G. Dijk-Alberts,, A. V. M. Moller,, and A. M. D. Kooistra-Smid. 2007. Feasibility of a molecular screening method for detection of Salmonella enterica and Campylobacter jejuni in a routine community-based clinical microbiology laboratory. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45:36923700.
117. Skirrow, M. B. 1994. Diseases due to Campylobacter, Helicobacter and related bacteria. J. Comp. Pathol. 111:113149.
118. Skirrow, M. B.,, D. M. Jones,, E. Sutcliffe,, and J. Benjamin. 1993. Campylobacter bacteremia in England and Wales, 1981-1991. Epidemiol. Infect. 110:567573.
119. Stanley, J.,, A. P. Burnens,, D. Linton,, S. L. W. On,, M. Costas,, and R. J. Owen. 1992. Campylobacter helveticus sp. nov., a new thermophilic species from domestic animals: characterization, and cloning of a species-specific DNA probe. J. Gen. Microbiol. 138:22932303.
120. Taylor, B. V.,, J. Williamson,, J. Luck,, D. Coleman,, D. Jones,, and A. McGregor. 2004. Sensitivity and specificity of serology in determining recent acute Campylobacter infection. Int. Med. J. 34:250258.
121. Taylor, D. N.,, D. M. Perlman,, P. D. Echeverria,, U. Lexomboon,, and M. J. Blaser. 1993. Campylobacter immunity and quantitative excretion rates in Thai children. J. Infect. Dis. 168:754758.
122. Tenover, F. C.,, L. Carlson,, S. Barbagallo,, and I. Nachamkin. 1990. DNA probe culture confirmation assay for identification of thermophilic Campylobacter species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28:12841287.
123. Tissari, P.,, and H. Rautelin. 2007. Evaluation of an enzyme immunoassay-based stool antigen test to detect Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 58:171175.
124. Tolcin, R.,, M. M. LaSalvia,, B. A. Kirkley,, E. A. Vetter,, F. Cockerill,, and G. W. Procop. 2000. Evaluation of the Alexon-Trend ProSpecT Campylobacter Microplate Assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:38533855.
125. van Bergen, M. A.,, G. Simons,, van der Graafvan Bloois,, J. P. van Putten,, J. Rombout,, I. Wesley,, and J. A. Wagenaar. 2005. Amplified fragment length polymorphism based identification of genetic markers and novel PCR assay for differentiation of Campylobacter fetus subspecies. J. Med. Microbiol. 54:12171224.
126. Vandamme, P., 2000. Taxonomy of the Family Campylobacteraceae, p. 326. In I. Nachamkin, and M. J. Blaser (ed.), Campylobacter. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
127. Vandamme, P.,, M. I. Daneshvar,, F. E. Dewhirst,, B. J. Paster,, K. Kersters,, H. Goossens,, and C. W. Moss. 1995. Chemotaxonomic analyses of Bacteroides gracilis and Bacteroides ureolyticus and reclassification of B. gracilis as Campylobacter gracilis comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 45:145152.
128. Vandamme, P.,, and J. De Ley. 1991. Proposal for a new family, Campylobacteraceae. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 41:451455.
129. Vandamme, P.,, L. Debruyne,, E. De Brandt,, and E. Falsen. 2010. Reclassification of Bacteroides ureolyticus as Campylobacter ureolyticus comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 60:20162022.
130. Vandamme, P.,, M. Vancanneyt,, B. Pot,, L. Mels,, B. Hoste,, D. Dewettinck,, L. Vlaes,, C. Van den Borre,, R. Higgins,, J. Hommez,, K. Kersters,, J.-P. Butzler,, and H. Goossens. 1992. Polyphasic taxonomic study of the emended genus Arcobacter with Arcobacter butzleri comb. nov. and Arcobacter skirrowii sp. nov., an aerotolerant bacterium isolated from veterinary specimens. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 42:344356.
131. Vandamme, P.,, L. J. VanDoorn,, S. T. Alrashid,, W. G. V. Quint,, J. VanderPlas,, V. L. Chan,, and S. L. W. On. 1997. Campylobacter hyoilei Alderton et al. 1995 and Campylobacter coli Veron and Chatelain 1973 are subjective synonyms. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 47:10551060.
132. Vandenberg, O.,, A. Dediste,, K. Houf,, S. Ibekwem,, H. Souayah,, S. Cadranel,, N. Douat,, G. Zissis,, J.-P. Butzler,, and P. Vandamme. 2004. Arcobacter species in humans. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10:18631867.
133. Vandenberg, O.,, K. Houf,, N. Douat,, L. Vlaes,, P. Retore,, J. P. Butzler,, and A. Dediste. 2006. Antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical isolates of non-jejuni/coli campylobacters and arcobacters from Belgium. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 57:908913.
134. van Doorn, L. J.,, A. V. Van Haperen,, A. Burnens,, M. Huysmans,, P. Vandamme,, B. A. J. Giesendorf,, M. J. Blaser,, and W. G. V. Quint. 1999. Rapid identification of thermotolerant Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter lari, and Campylobacter upsaliensis from various geographic regions by a GTPase-based PCR-reverse hybridization assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:17901796.
135. Volokhov, D.,, V. Chizhikov,, K. Chumakov,, and A. Rasooly. 2003. Microarray-based identification of thermophilic Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, C. lari, and C. upsaliensis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:40714080.
136. Wasfy, M.,, B. Oyofo,, A. Elgindy,, and A. Churilla. 1995. Comparison of preservation media for storage of stool samples. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:21762178.
137. Wassenaar, T. M. 1997. Toxin production by Campylobacter spp. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 10:466476.
138. Willison, H. J. 2005. The immunobiology of Guillain-Barre syndromes. J. Peripher. Nerv. Syst. 10:94112.
139. Wybo, I.,, J. Breynaert,, S. Lauwers,, F. Lindenburg,, and K. Houf. 2004. Isolation of Arcobacter skirrowii from a patient with chronic diarrhea. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:18511852.
140. Zanoni, R. G.,, L. Debruyne,, M. Rossi,, J. Revez,, and P. Vandamme. 2009. Campylobacter cuniculorum sp. nov. from rabbits. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 59:16661671.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Reservoirs for and diseases associated with and species

The information on this table is from references , and .

GI, gastrointestinal; B, bloodstream infection; D, dental/oral; T, soft tissue; NR, not reported to be associated with human infections.

rabbits.

Biovar sputorum.

Biovar paraureolyticus.

Biovar faecalis.

Citation: Fitzgerald C, Nachamkin I. 2011. Campylobacter and Arcobacter, p 885-899. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch53
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Useful phenotypic properties of and species

Adapted from references , and . +, positive reaction; –, negative reaction; V, variable reaction; ND, not determined; TSI, triple sugar iton.

subsp. can be differentiated from subsp. by lack of growth on media containing 0.05% safranin ( ).

Anaerobic growth only.

Strains of and subsp. normally produce large amounts of HS in TSI agar ( ).

Citation: Fitzgerald C, Nachamkin I. 2011. Campylobacter and Arcobacter, p 885-899. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch53
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Differentiation of and by PCR

Abbreviations: cc, ; cj,

Citation: Fitzgerald C, Nachamkin I. 2011. Campylobacter and Arcobacter, p 885-899. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch53

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error