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Chapter 53 : Campylobacter and Arcobacter

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Abstract:

Three closely related genera, , , and , are included in the family . Originally classified as free-living species, spp. are slender, curved gram-negative rods, 0.1 to 0.5 mm wide and 1 to 3 µm long. These species have no known pathogenicity for humans or animals, and are environmental organisms isolated from water sediments. spp. are aerotolerant, -like organisms frequently isolated from bovine and porcine products of abortion and feces of animals with enteritis. was reported to be the fourth most common -like organism isolated from patients with diarrhea and was also one of the most common non / species isolated over a 10-year period from over 73,000 stool samples. The Gram stain appearance of may differ from that of typical . Unfortunately, species are difficult to differentiate from species based on phenotypic tests. The 16S rRNA gene and 23S rRNA gene are widely used for genus-and species-specific tests. PCR assays based on these targets are described for 12 different species and three species. Broad-range molecular identification schemes involving restriction fragment analysis of PCR-amplified regions of the 16S or 23S rRNA genes have also been described for identification of and species. Special methods including alternative incubation techniques are required and should be performed by special request.

Citation: Fitzgerald C, Nachamkin I. 2011. Campylobacter and Arcobacter, p 885-899. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch53

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Lower Gastrointestinal Tract
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Upper Gastrointestinal Tract
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Campylobacter jejuni
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FIGURE 1

Practical algorithm for identifying and spp. that do not require increased hydrogen for primary isolation in the clinical laboratory. GNR, gram-negative rods; TSI, triple sugar iron agar. subsp. is variable for catalase and hippurate tests. Strains of subsp. can be variable for growth at 42°C. is variable for growth at 42°C and in the catalase test. produces variable results in the catalase test. is variable for growth at 42°C. Results for the catalase test are biovar dependent; bv. faecalis is catalase positive. Some strains of may grow better in an increased hydrogen environment. grows under microaerophilicconditions, but some strains require additional hydrogen. Rapid HS test. Urease-positive strains are referred to as the urease-positive thermophilic campylobacter group.

Citation: Fitzgerald C, Nachamkin I. 2011. Campylobacter and Arcobacter, p 885-899. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch53
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Reservoirs for and diseases associated with and species

The information on this table is from references , and .

GI, gastrointestinal; B, bloodstream infection; D, dental/oral; T, soft tissue; NR, not reported to be associated with human infections.

rabbits.

Biovar sputorum.

Biovar paraureolyticus.

Biovar faecalis.

Citation: Fitzgerald C, Nachamkin I. 2011. Campylobacter and Arcobacter, p 885-899. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch53
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Useful phenotypic properties of and species

Adapted from references , and . +, positive reaction; –, negative reaction; V, variable reaction; ND, not determined; TSI, triple sugar iton.

subsp. can be differentiated from subsp. by lack of growth on media containing 0.05% safranin ( ).

Anaerobic growth only.

Strains of and subsp. normally produce large amounts of HS in TSI agar ( ).

Citation: Fitzgerald C, Nachamkin I. 2011. Campylobacter and Arcobacter, p 885-899. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch53
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Differentiation of and by PCR

Abbreviations: cc, ; cj,

Citation: Fitzgerald C, Nachamkin I. 2011. Campylobacter and Arcobacter, p 885-899. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch53

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