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Citation: Radolf J, Pillay A, Cox D. .

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Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
Herpes simplex virus 1
Herpes simplex virus 2
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Image of FIGURE 1

Morphology of . (A) Scanning electron micrograph showing spiral shape. (B) Negatively stained view of the tips of two organisms. Note the insertion points (I) of periplasmic flagella (PF) near the ends. (C to E) Electron micrographs of ultrathin sections, showing the outer membrane (OM), the cytoplasmic membrane (CM), periplasmic flagella (PF), and the location of the cytoplasmic filaments (CF). Reprinted from reference with permission of Kluwer.

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Image of FIGURE 2

Human intestinal spirochetosis. (Top) H&E staining of a colonic biopsy sample showing a false brush border covering the luminal surface of the colon as observed by light microscopy. Reproduced from reference with permission from Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd. (Bottom) TEM showing attached end-on to the colonic mucosa, forming a false brush border. Magnification, ×11,000. Reproduced from reference with permission from the American Society for Microbiology.

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Image of FIGURE 3

The course of untreated syphilis. The presence of treponemes in mucocutaneous lesions and serologic responses (top) are juxtaposed with disease stage and manifestations (bottom). Reprinted with permission from reference .

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Image of FIGURE 4

PCR-based molecular typing of “street strains.” (Top) Schematic representation of all gene MseI RFLP patterns identified to date. (Bottom) Schematic showing different repeat sizes obtained by PCR. The size of each repeat is indicated above the amplicon. mw, molecular weight.

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Characteristics and major clinical features of the treponematoses

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Criteria for diagnosis of syphilis

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Laboratory tests used for direct detection of in clinical samples obtained during the various stages of syphilis

Applicable to all except oral lesions.

There is no commercial kit for this test, but FITC-conjugated polyclonal or monoclonal antibody can be purchased commercially.

not applicable.

CDC recommends against routine lumbar puncture, but it needs to be done for neurologic symptoms.

Nasal discharge or autopsy material can also be examined for

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Oligonucleotide primers and probes used for real-time multiplex PCR for GUD

Indicates final concentration of primer or probe in multiplex reaction.

Glycoprotein D gene.

Hemolysin A gene.

47-kDa immunogen gene.

Human ribonuclease P gene target is used as an internal control.

Fluorescent dyes.

Black hole quencher.

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Oligonucleotide primers and probes used for conventional multiplex PCR for GUD

Adapted from reference .

Glycoprotein B gene.

47-kDa immunogen gene.

Used as an internal control.

Envelope gene.

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Primers and thermocycling conditions for - and -specific PCR

Adapted from references and .

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Nontreponemal tests for syphilis serodiagnosis

Point-of-care test; FDA license in progress; trials in North and South America and Europe.

S, serum; C, CSF; P, plasma; B, blood.

For technical details, see (http://www.cdc.gov/std/syphilis/manual-1998/).

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Conventional treponemal tests for syphilis

S, serum; C, CSF

Some authorities use FTA-ABS on CSF as a means of ruling out neurosyphilis (see the text).

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Treponemal EIAs for syphilis

S, serum; P, plasma: r, recombinant antigen; Ag, antigen; Ab, antibody, HRP, horseradish peroxidase.

See reference .

Different conjugates required.

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Treponemal immunoblots and rapid tests for syphilis

Recombinant antigen.

S, serum; C, CSF; P, plasma; B, blood.

AlkP, alkaline phosphatase.

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Treponemal light-based tests for syphilis

Recombinant antigen.

S, serum; P, plasma.


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