Chapter 65 : Antibacterial Agents

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Antibacterial Agents, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap65-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap65-2.gif


Antimicrobial chemotherapy has played a vital role in the treatment of human infectious diseases since the discovery of penicillin in the 1920s. Hundreds of antimicrobial agents have been developed or synthesized to date, and a broad number and variety of agents are currently available for clinical use. However, the sheer numbers and continuing development of agents make it difficult for clinicians to keep up with progress in the field. This chapter provides an overview of the antibacterial agents currently marketed in the United States, with major emphasis on their mechanisms of action, spectra of activity, important pharmacologic parameters, and toxicities. The major antibacterial action of penicillins is derived from their ability to inhibit a number of bacterial enzymes, namely penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), that are essential for peptidoglycan synthesis. Cephalosporins are generally very well tolerated. The monobactams are β-lactams with various side chains affixed to a monocyclic nucleus. Since the first aminoglycoside, streptomycin, was introduced, this class of antibiotic has played a vital role in the treatment of serious gram-negative infections. The currently available aminoglycosides are derived from spp. or from spp. Tetracyclines are broad-spectrum bacteriostatic antibiotics with the hydronaphthacene nucleus, which contains four fused rings. Glycylcyclines are a group of semisynthetic tetracycline derivatives containing a glycylamido substitution at position 9. Streptogramins are natural cyclic peptides produced by spp. They are a unique class of antibiotics in which each member is a combination of at least two structurally unrelated components, groups A and B streptogramins.

Citation: Yao J, Moellering R. 2011. Antibacterial Agents, p 1043-1081. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch65

Key Concept Ranking

Bacterial Proteins
Antibacterial Agents
Gram-Negative Bacteria
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of FIGURE 1

Chemical structures of b-lactam antibiotics.

Citation: Yao J, Moellering R. 2011. Antibacterial Agents, p 1043-1081. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch65
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Ackermann, G.,, and A. C. Rodloff. 2003. Drugs of the 21st century: telithromycin (HMV 3647)—the first ketolide. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 51:497511.
2. Agwuh, K. N.,, and A. MacGowan. 2006. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the tetracyclines including glycylcyclines. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 58:256265.
3. Albanese, J.,, M. Leone,, B. Bruguerolle,, M. L. Ayem,, B. Lacarelle,, and C. Martin. 2000. Cerebrospinal fluid penetration and pharmacokinetics of vancomycin administered by continuous infusion to mechanically ventilated patients in an intensive care unit. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44:13561358.
4. Aldridge, K. E.,, D. Ashcraft,, K. Cambre,, C. L. Pierson,, S. G. Jenkins,, and J. E. Rosenblatt. 2001. Multicenter survey of the changing in vitro antimicrobial susceptibilities of clinical isolates of Bacteroides fragilis group, Prevotella, Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas, and Peptostreptococcus species. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:12381243.
5. Anderson, V. R.,, and C. M. Perry. 2008. Levofloxacin: a review of its use as a high-dose, short-course treatment for bacterial infection. Drugs 68:535565.
6. Appelbaum, P. C.,, M. R. Jacobs,, S. K. Spangler,, and S. Yamabe. 1986. Comparative activity of beta-lactamase inhibitors YTR 830, clavulanate, and sulbactam combined with beta-lactams against beta-lactamase-producing anaerobes. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 30:789791.
7. Arbeit, R. D.,, D. Maki,, F. P. Tally,, E. Campanaro,, B. I. Eisenstein, and the Daptomycin Investigators, 98-01 and 99-01. 2004. The safety and efficacy of daptomycin for the treatment of complicated skin and skin-structure infections. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38:16731681.
8. Arhin, F. F.,, D. C. Draghi,, C. M. Pillar,, T. R. Parr, Jr.,, G. Moeck,, and D. F. Sahm. 2009. Comparative in vitro activity profile of oritavancin against recent gram-positive clinical isolates. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53:47624771.
9. Arias, C. A.,, K. V. Singh,, D. Panesso,, and B. E. Murray. 2007. Time-kill and synergism studies of ceftobiprole against Enterococcus faecalis, including beta-lactamase-producing and vancomycin-resistant isolates. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51:20432047.
10. Aswapokee, N.,, and H. C. Neu. 1978. A sulfone betalactam compound which acts as a beta-lactamase inhibitor. J. Antibiot. (Tokyo) 31:12381244.
11. Attassi, K.,, E. Hershberger,, R. Alam,, and M. J. Zervos. 2002. Thrombocytopenia associated with linezolid therapy. Clin. Infect. Dis. 34:695698.
12. Attwood, R. J.,, and K. L. LaPlante. 2007. Telavancin: a novel lipoglycopeptide antimicrobial agent. Am. J. Health Syst. Pharm. 64:23352348.
13. Baciewicz, A. M.,, A. Al-Nimir,, and P. Whelan. 2005. Azithromycin-induced hepatotoxicity. Am. J. Med. 118: 14381439.
14. Baddour, L. M.,, W. R. Wilson,, A. S. Bayer,, V. G. Fowler, Jr.,, A. F. Bolger,, M. E. Levison,, P. Ferrieri,, M. A. Gerber,, L. Y. Tani,, M. H. Gewitz,, D. C. Tong,, J. M. Steckelberg,, R. S. Baltimore,, S. T. Shulman,, J. C. Burns,, D. A. Falace,, J. W. Newburger,, T. J. Pallasch,, M. Takahashi,, and K. A. Taubert. 2005. Infective endocarditis: diagnosis, antimicrobial therapy, and management of complications. Circulation 111:394434.
15. Bailey, J.,, and K. M. Summers. 2008. Dalbavancin: a new lipoglycopeptide antibiotic. Am. J. Health Syst. Pharm. 65:599610.
16. Baldwin, C. M.,, K. A. Lyseng-Williamson,, and S. J. Keam. 2008. Meropenem: a review of its use in the treatment of serious bacterial infections. Drugs 68:803838.
17. Balfour, J. A.,, and D. P. Figgitt. 2001. Telithromycin. Drugs 61:815829.
18. Ball, P. 2000. Quinolone generations: natural history or natural selection? J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 46(Suppl. 1):1724.
19. Ball, P.,, L. Mandell,, Y. Niki,, and G. Tillotson. 1999. Comparative tolerability of the newer fluoroquinolone antibacterials. Drug Saf. 21:407421.
20. Bansal, M. B.,, S. K. Chuah,, and H. Thadepalli. 1985. In vitro activity and in vivo evaluation of ticarcillin plus clavulanic acid against aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Am. J. Med. 79:3338.
21. Barry, A. L.,, and S. D. Brown. 1995. Antibacterial spectrum of fosfomycin trometamol. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 35:228230.
22. Barry, A. L.,, P. C. Fuchs,, and S. D. Brown. 2001. In vitro activities of daptomycin against 2,789 clinical isolates from 11 North American medical centers. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:19191922.
23. Barry, A. L.,, and R. N. Jones. 1987. Cefixime: spectrum of antibacterial activity against 16,016 clinical isolates. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 6:954957.
24. Barry, A. L.,, R. N. Jones,, and C. Thornsberry. 1988. In vitro activities of azithromycin (CP 62,993), clarithromycin (A-56268; TE-031), erythromycin, roxithromycin, and clindamycin. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 32:752754.
25. Barry, A. L.,, C. Thornsberry,, R. N. Jones,, and T. L. Gavan. 1985. Aztreonam: antibacterial activity, beta-lactamase stability, and interpretive standards and quality control guidelines for disk-diffusion susceptibility tests. Rev. Infect. Dis. 7(Suppl. 4):S594S604.
26. Bartlett, J. G. 1982. Anti-anaerobic antibacterial agents. Lancet ii:478481.
27. Bartlett, J. G. 1992. Antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Clin. Infect. Dis. 15:573581.
28. Bassetti, M.,, E. Righi,, and C. Viscoli. 2008. Novel betalactam antibiotics and inhibitor combinations. Expert Opin. Investig. Drugs 17:285296.
29. Bates, R. D.,, and M. C. Nahata. 1994. Once-daily administration of aminoglycosides. Ann. Pharmacother. 28:757766.
30. Bauernfeind, A. 1993. In-vitro activity of dirithromycin in comparison with other new and established macrolides. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 31(Suppl. 3):3949.
31. Bearden, D. T.,, M. M. Neuhauser,, and K. W. Garey. 2001. Telithromycin: an oral ketolide for respiratory infections. Pharmacotherapy 21:12041222.
32. Berkey, P.,, D. Moore,, and K. Rolston. 1988. In vitro susceptibilities of Nocardia species to newer antimicrobial agents. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 32:10781079.
33. Betriu, C.,, I. Rodriguez-Avial,, M. Gomez,, E. Culebras,, and J. J. Picazo. 2005. Changing patterns of fluoroquinolone resistance among Bacteroides fragilis group organisms over a 6-year period (1997-2002). Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 53:221223.
34. Biedenbach, D. J.,, R. N. Jones,, and T. R. Fritsche. 2008. Antimicrobial activity of cefditoren tested against contemporary (2004-2006) isolates of Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis responsible for community-acquired respiratory tract infections in the United States. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 61:240244.
35. Billeter, M.,, M. J. Zervos,, A. Y. Chen,, J. R. Dalovisio,, and C. Kurukularatne. 2008. Dalbavancin: a novel once-weekly lipoglycopeptide antibiotic. Clin. Infect. Dis. 46:577583.
36. Bliziotis, I. A.,, F. Ntziora,, K. R. Lawrence,, and M. E. Falagas. 2007. Rifampin as adjuvant treatment of gram-positive bacterial infections: a systematic review of comparative clinical trials. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 26:849856.
37. Bonora, M. G.,, M. Solbiati,, E. Stepan,, A. Zorzi,, A. Luzzani,, M. R. Catania,, and R. Fontana. 2006. Emergence of linezolid resistance in the vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium multilocus sequence typing C1 epidemic lineage. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:11531155.
38. Bouanchaud, D. H. 1997. In-vitro and in-vivo antibacterial activity of quinupristin/dalfopristin. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 39(Suppl. A):1521.
39. Boyce, J. M. 1996. Preventing staphylococcal infections by eradicating nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus: proceeding with caution. Infect. Control. Hosp. Epidemiol. 17:775779.
40. Bradley, S. F.,, M. A. Ramsey,, T. M. Morton,, and C. A. Kauffman. 1995. Mupirocin resistance: clinical and molecular epidemiology. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 16:354358.
41. Bressler, A. M.,, S. M. Zimmer,, J. L. Gilmore,, and J. Somani. 2004. Peripheral neuropathy associated with prolonged use of linezolid. Lancet Infect. Dis. 4:528531.
42. Brown-Elliott, B. A.,, C. J. Crist,, L. B. Mann,, R. W. Wilson,, and R. J. Wallace, Jr. 2003. In vitro activity of linezolid against slowly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47:17361738.
43. Brummett, R. E.,, and K. E. Fox. 1989. Vancomycin- and erythromycin-induced hearing loss in humans. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33:791796.
44. Buesing, M. A.,, and J. H. Jorgensen. 1984. In vitro activity of aztreonam in combination with newer beta-lactams and amikacin against multiply resistant gram-negative bacilli. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 25:283285.
45. Bush, K.,, J. S. Freudenberger,, and R. B. Sykes. 1982. Interaction of azthreonam and related monobactams with betalactamases from gram-negative bacteria. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 22:414420.
46. Bush, K.,, M. Heep,, M. J. Macielag,, and G. J. Noel. 2007. Anti-MRSA beta-lactams in development, with a focus on ceftobiprole: the first anti-MRSA beta-lactam to demonstrate clinical efficacy. Expert Opin. Investig. Drugs 16:419429.
47. Bushby, S. R. 1973. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole: in vitro microbiological aspects. J. Infect. Dis. 128(Suppl.):S442S462.
48. Carpenter, C. F.,, and H. F. Chambers. 2004. Daptomycin: another novel agent for treating infections due to drug-resistant gram-positive pathogens. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38:9941000.
49. Carroll, O. M.,, P. A. Bryan,, and R. J. Robinson. 1966. Stevens-Johnson syndrome associated with long-acting sulfonamides. JAMA 195:691693.
50. Casewell, M. W.,, and R. L. Hill. 1985. In-vitro activity of mupirocin (pseudomonic acid) against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 15:523531.
51.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2010. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2010. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 59(RR-12):1110.
52.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2009. Guidelines for the prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections among HIV-exposed and HIV-infected children. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 58(RR-11):1166.
53. Cetinkaya, Y.,, P. Falk,, and C. G. Mayhall. 2000. Vancomycin- resistant enterococci. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 13:686707.
54. Cherubin, C. E. 1981. Antibiotic resistance of Salmonella in Europe and the United States. Rev. Infect. Dis. 3:11051126.
55. Cherubin, C. E.,, and D. B. Azabache. 1992. While nearly no one was watching: the rise of erythromycin and clindamycin resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes. Antimicrobic Newsl. 8:3744.
56. Chopra, I.,, and M. Roberts. 2001. Tetracycline antibiotics: mode of action, applications, molecular biology, and epidemiology of bacterial resistance. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 65:232260.
57. Citron, D. M.,, K. L. Tyrrell,, H. Fernandez,, C. V. Merriam,, and E. J. C. Goldstein. 2005. In vitro activities of tinidazole and metronidazole against Clostridium difficile, Prevotella bivia and Bacteroides fragilis. Anaerobe 11:315317.
58. Citron, D. M.,, K. L. Tyrrell,, C. V. Merriam,, and E. J. Goldstein. 2010. In vitro activity of ceftaroline against 623 diverse strains of anaerobic bacteria. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 54:16271632.
59. Clark, J.,, and A. Wallace. 1967. The susceptibility of mycobacteria to rifamide and rifampicin. Tubercle 48:144148.
60. Clay, K. D.,, J. S. Hanson,, S. D. Pope,, R. W. Rissmiller,, P. P. Purdum,, and P. M. Banks. 2006. Severe hepatotoxicity of telithromycin: three case reports and literature review. Ann. Intern. Med. 144:E1E6.
61. Clemett, D.,, and A. Markham. 2000. Linezolid. Drugs 59:815827.
62. Cohen, M. A.,, E. T. Joannides,, G. E. Roland,, M. A. Meservey,, M. D. Huband,, M. A. Shapiro,, J. C. Sesnie,, and C. L. Heifetz. 1994. In vitro evaluation of cefdinir (FK482), a new oral cephalosporin with enhanced antistaphylococcal activity and beta-lactamase stability. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 18:3139.
63. Collins, L. A.,, G. M. Eliopoulos,, C. B. Wennersten,, M. J. Ferraro,, and R. C. Moellering, Jr. 1993. In vitro activity of ramoplanin against vancomycin-resistant gram-positive organisms. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 37:13641366.
64. Coppens, L.,, and J. Klastersky. 1979. Comparative study of anti-pseudomonas activity of azlocillin, mezlocillin, and ticarcillin. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 15:396399.
65. Copper, R. D. 1992. The carbacephems: a new beta-lactam antibiotic class. Am. J. Med. 92(Suppl. 6A):2S6S.
66. Courvalin, P. 2006. Vancomycin resistance in gram-positive cocci. Clin. Infect. Dis. 42(Suppl. 1):S25S34.
67. Craig, W. A. 1997. The pharmacology of meropenem, a new carbapenem antibiotic. Clin. Infect. Dis. 24(Suppl. 2):S266S275.
68. Cui, L.,, E. Tominaga,, H.-M. Neoh,, and K. Hiramatsu. 2006. Correlation between reduced daptomycin susceptibility and vancomycin resistance in vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 50:10791082.
69. Cynamon, M. H.,, and G. S. Palmer. 1983. In vitro activity of amoxicillin in combination with clavulanic acid against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 24: 429431.
70. Dalhoff, A.,, and F. J. Schmitz. 2003. In vitro antibacterial activity and pharmacodynamics of new quinolones. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 22:203221.
71. Dannemann, B.,, J. A. McCutchan,, D. Israelski,, D. Antoniskis,, C. Leport,, B. Luft,, J. Nussbaum,, N. Clumeck,, P. Morlat,, J. Chiu,, J. L. Vilde,, P. Haseltine,, J. Leedom,, J. Remington,, M. Orellana,, D. Feigal,, A. Bartok, et al. 1992. Treatment of toxoplasmic encephalitis in patients with AIDS: a randomized trial comparing pyrimethamine plus clindamycin to pyrimethamine plus sulfadiazine. Ann. Intern. Med. 116:3343.
72. Das, B.,, A. V. Rajarao,, S. Rudra,, A. Yadav,, A. Ray,, M. Pandya,, A. Rattan,, and A. Mehta. 2009. Synthesis and biological activity of novel oxazolidinones. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 19:64246428.
73. Davey, P. G.,, and A. H. Williams. 1991. A review of the safety profile of teicoplanin. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 27(Suppl. B):6973.
74. Davidson, R. N.,, M. den Boer,, and K. Ritmeijer. 2009. Paromomycin. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 103:653660.
75. Davies, J. E. 1983. Resistance to aminoglycosides: mechanisms and frequency. Rev. Infect. Dis. 5(Suppl. 2):S261S267.
76. Davies, S.,, P. D. Sparham,, and R. C. Spencer. 1987. Comparative in-vitro activity of five fluoroquinolones against mycobacteria. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 19:605609.
77. Denton, M.,, and K. G. Kerr. 1998. Microbiological and clinical aspects of infection associated with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 11:5780.
78. Dewsnup, D. H.,, and D. N. Wright. 1984. In vitro susceptibility of Nocardia asteroides to 25 antimicrobial agents. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 25:165167.
79. Drawz, S. M.,, and R. A. Bonomo. 2010. Three decades of beta-lactamase inhibitors. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 23:160201.
80. Drusano, G. 2001. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic considerations in antimicrobial selection: focus on telithromycin. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 7(Suppl. 3):2429.
81. Drusano, G. L.,, S. C. Schimpff,, and W. L. Hewitt. 1984. The acylampicillins: mezlocillin, piperacillin, and azlocillin. Rev. Infect. Dis. 6:1332.
82. Dudley, M. N.,, J. C. McLaughlin,, G. Carrington,, J. Frick,, C. H. Nightingale,, and R. Quintiliani. 1986. Oral bacitracin vs vancomycin therapy for Clostridium difficile-induced diarrhea: a randomized double-blind trial. Arch. Intern. Med. 146:11011104.
83. DuPont, H. L. 2005. Travelers’ diarrhea: antimicrobial therapy and chemoprevention. Nat. Clin. Pract. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2:191198.
84. Eady, E. A.,, J. I. Ross,, and J. H. Cove. 1990. Multiple mechanisms of erythromycin resistance. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 26:461465.
85. Edwards, D. I. 1993. Nitroimidazole drugs—action and resistance mechanisms. I. Mechanisms of action. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 31:920.
86. Edwards, J. R. 1995. Meropenem: a microbiological overview. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 36(Suppl. A):117.
87. Eliopoulos, G. M.,, and C. T. Eliopoulos,. 1993. Activity in vitro of the quinolones, p. 161193. In D. C. Hooper, and J. S. Wolfson (ed.), Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents, 2nd ed. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
88. Eliopoulos, G. M.,, K. Klimm,, M. J. Ferraro,, G. A. Jacoby,, and R. C. Moellering, Jr. 1989. Comparative in vitro activity of piperacillin combined with the beta-lactamase inhibitor tazobactam (YTR 830). Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 12:481488.
89. Engberg, J.,, F. M. Aarestrup,, D. E. Taylor,, P. Gerner-Smidt,, and I. Nachamkin. 2001. Quinolone and macrolide resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli: resistance mechanisms and trends in human isolates. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 7:2434.
90. Falagas, M. E.,, and I. A. Bliziotis. 2006. Quinolones for treatment of human brucellosis: critical review of the evidence from microbiological and clinical studies. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 50:2233.
91. Falagas, M. E.,, and S. K. Kasiakou. 2005. Colistin: the revival of polymyxins for the management of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacterial infections. Clin. Infect. Dis. 40:13331341.
92. Falagas, M. E.,, I. I. Siempos,, and K. Z. Vardakas. 2008. Linezolid versus glycopeptide or beta-lactam for treatment of gram-positive bacterial infections: meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Lancet Infect. Dis. 8:5366.
93. Farrell, D. J.,, and D. Felmingham. 2004. Activities of telithromycin against 13,874 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated collected between 1999 and 2003. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48:18821884.
94. Farver, D. K.,, D. D. Hedge,, and S. C. Lee. 2005. Ramoplanin: a lipoglycodepsipeptide antibiotic. Ann. Pharmacother. 39:863868.
95. Fass, R. J. 1983. Comparative in vitro activities of third-generation cephalosporins. Arch. Intern. Med. 143:17431745.
96. Fass, R. J.,, E. A. Copelan,, J. T. Brandt,, M. L. Moeschberger,, and J. J. Ashton. 1987. Platelet-mediated bleeding caused by broad-spectrum penicillins. J. Infect. Dis. 155:12421248.
97. Fee, W. E., Jr. 1980. Aminoglycoside ototoxicity in the human. Laryngoscope 90(Suppl. 24):119.
98. Fekete, T. 1993. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and implications for epidemiology and therapy. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 6:2233.
99. Fekety, R.,, J. Silva,, B. Buggy,, and H. G. Deery. 1984. Treatment of antibiotic-associated colitis with vancomycin. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 14(Suppl. D):97102.
100. Felmingham, D. 2001. Microbiological profile of telithromycin, the first ketolide antimicrobial. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 7(Suppl. 3):210.
101. Fernandez-Mazarrasa, C.,, O. Mazarrasa,, J. Calvo,, A. del Arco,, and L. Martinez-Martinez. 2009. High concentrations of manganese in Mueller-Hinton agar increase MICs of tigecycline determined by Etest. J. Clin. Microbiol. 47:827829.
102. Fernandez-Roblas, R.,, J. Esteban,, F. Cabria,, J. C. Lopez,, M. S. Jimenez,, and F. Soriano. 2000. In vitro susceptibilities of rapidly growing mycobacteria to telithromycin (HMR 3647) and seven other antimicrobials. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44:181182.
103. Finch, R. G. 1996. Antibacterial activity of quinupristin/ dalfopristin: rationale for clinical use. Drugs 51(Suppl. 1):3137.
104. Finland, M.,, C. Garner,, C. Wilcox,, and L. D. Sabath. 1976. Susceptibility of beta-hemolytic streptococci to 65 antibacterial agents. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 9:1119.
105. Finlay, J.,, L. Miller,, and J. A. Poupard. 2003. A review of the antimicrobial activity of clavulanate. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 52:1823.
106. Forouzesh, A.,, P. A. Moise,, and G. Sakoulas. 2009. Vancomycin ototoxicity: a reevaluation in an era of increasing doses. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53:483486.
107. Forrest, G. N.,, and K. Tamura. 2010. Rifampin combination therapy for nonmycobacterial infections. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 23:1434.
108. Frampton, J. E.,, R. N. Brogden,, H. D. Langtry,, and M. M. Buckley. 1992. Cefpodoxime proxetil: a review of its antibacterial activity, pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic potential. Drugs 44:889917.
109. Franceschi, F.,, Z. Kanyo,, E. C. Sherer,, and J. Sutcliffe. 2004. Macrolide resistance from the ribosome perspective. Curr. Drug Targets Infect. Disord. 4:177191.
110. Freeman, L. D.,, D. R. Hooper,, D. F. Lathen,, D. P. Nelson,, W. O. Harrison,, and D. S. Anderson. 1983. Brief prophylaxis with doxycycline for the prevention of traveler’s diarrhea. Gastroenterology 84:276280.
111. French, G. 2003. Safety and tolerability of linezolid. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 51(Suppl. S2):ii45ii53.
112. Friedman, L.,, J. D. Alder,, and J. A. Silverman. 2006. Genetic changes that correlate with reduced susceptibility to daptomycin in Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 50:21372145.
113. Frost, P.,, G. D. Weinstein,, and E. C. Gomez. 1972. Phototoxic potential of minocycline and doxycycline. Arch. Dermatol. 105:681683.
114. Fu, K. P.,, and H. C. Neu. 1976. In vitro study of netilmicin compared with other aminoglycosides. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 10:526534.
115. Fuller, A. T.,, G. Mellows,, M. Woolford,, G. T. Banks,, K. D. Barrow,, and E. B. Chain. 1971. Pseudomonic acid: an antibiotic produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens. Nature 234:416417.
116. Fung-Tomc, J. C. 1997. Fourth-generation cephalosporins. Clin. Microbiol. Newsl. 19:129136.
117. Galimand, M.,, P. Courvalin,, and T. Lambert. 2003. Plasmid-mediated high-level resistance to aminoglycosides in Enterobacteriaceae due to 16S rRNA methylation. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47:25652571.
118. Gardner, T. B.,, and D. R. Hill. 2001. Treatment of giardiasis. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 14:114128.
119. Gentry, D. R.,, S. F. Rittenhouse,, L. McCloskey,, and D. J. Holmes. 2007. Stepwise exposure of Staphylococcus aureus to pleuromutilins is associated with stepwise acquisition of mutations in rplC and minimally affects susceptibility to retapamulin. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51:20482052.
120. Geraci, J. E.,, and W. R. Wilson. 1981. Vancomycin therapy for infective endocarditis. Rev. Infect. Dis. 3(Suppl.):S250S258.
121. Gerber, M. A.,, R. S. Baltimore,, C. B. Eaton,, M. Gewitz,, A. H. Rowley,, S. T. Shulman,, and K. A. Taubert. 2009. Prevention of rheumatic fever and diagnosis and treatment of acute streptococcal pharyngitis. Circulation 119:15411551.
122. Gerson, S. L.,, S. L. Kaplan,, J. B. Bruss,, V. Le,, F. M. Arellano,, B. Hafkin,, and D. J. Kuter. 2002. Hematologic effects of linezolid: summary of clinical experience. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46:27232726.
123. Gettig, J. P.,, C. W. Crank,, and A. H. Philbrick. 2008. Faropenem medoxomil. Ann. Pharmacother. 42:8090.
124. Goa, K. L.,, and S. Noble. 2003. Panipenem/betamipron. Drugs 63:913925; discussion 926.
125. Golan, Y.,, L. A. McDermott,, N. V. Jacobus,, E. J. C. Goldstein,, S. Finegold,, L. J. Harrell,, D. W. Hecht,, S. G. Jenkins,, C. Pierson,, R. Venezia,, J. Rihs,, P. Iannini,, S. L. Gorbach,, and D. R. Snydman. 2003. Emergence of fluoroquinolones resistance among Bacteroides species. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 52:208213.
126. Goldfarb, J.,, D. Crenshaw,, J. O’Horo,, E. Lemon,, and J. L. Blumer. 1988. Randomized clinical trial of topical mupirocin versus oral erythromycin for impetigo. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 32:17801783.
127. Goldstein, E. J.,, D. M. Citron,, C. V. Merriam,, Y. A. Warren,, K. L. Tyrrell,, and H. T. Fernandez. 2006. Comparative in vitro susceptibilities of 396 unusual anaerobic strains to tigecycline and eight other antimicrobial agents. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 50:35073513.
128. Goldstein, E. J.,, D. M. Citron,, C. V. Merriam,, Y. A. Warren,, K. L. Tyrrell,, and H. T. Fernandez. 2003. In vitro activities of daptomycin, vancomycin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, linezolid, and five other antimicrobials against 307 gram-positive anaerobic and 31 Corynebacterium clinical isolates. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47:337341.
129. Goldstein, E. J.,, D. M. Citron,, K. L. Tyrrell,, and Y. A. Warren. 2004. Bactericidal activity of telavancin, vancomycin and metronidazole against Clostridium difficile. Anaerobe 48:21492152.
130. Goldstein, E. J.,, D. M. Citron,, C. Vreni Merriam,, Y. Warren,, and K. L. Tyrrell. 2000. Comparative in vitro activities of ertapenem (MK-0826) against 1,001 anaerobes isolated from human intra-abdominal infections. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44:23892394.
131. Gordin, F. M.,, G. L. Simon,, C. B. Wofsy,, and J. Mills. 1984. Adverse reactions to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Ann. Intern. Med. 100:495499.
132. Gorzynski, E. A.,, D. Amsterdam,, T. R. Beam, Jr.,, and C. Rotstein. 1989. Comparative in vitro activities of teicoplanin, vancomycin, oxacillin, and other antimicrobial agents against bacteremic isolates of gram-positive cocci. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33:20192022.
133. Grasela, D. M. 2000. Clinical pharmacology of gatifloxacin, a new fluoroquinolone. Clin. Infect. Dis. 31(Suppl. 2):S51S58.
134. Gravestock, M. B. 2005. Recent developments in the discovery of novel oxazolidinone antibacterials. Curr. Opin. Drug Discov. Dev. 8:469477.
135. Greenwood, D. 1988. Microbiological properties of teicoplanin. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 21(Suppl. A):113.
136. Grosset, J.,, and S. Leventis. 1983. Adverse effects of rifampin. Rev. Infect. Dis. 5(Suppl. 3):S440S450.
137. Grossman, E. R.,, A. Walchek,, and H. Freedman. 1971. Tetracyclines and permanent teeth: the relation between dose and tooth color. Pediatrics 47:567570.
138. Gump, D. W. 1981. Vancomycin for treatment of bacterial meningitis. Rev. Infect. Dis. 3(Suppl.):S289S292.
139. Gutmann, L.,, M. D. Kitzis,, S. Yamabe,, and J. F. Acar. 1986. Comparative evaluation of a new beta-lactamase inhibitor, YTR 830, combined with different beta-lactam antibiotics against bacteria harboring known beta-lactamases. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 29:955957.
140. Guttler, R. B.,, G. W. Counts,, C. K. Avent,, and H. N. Beaty. 1971. Effect of rifampin and minocycline on meningococcal carrier rates. J. Infect. Dis. 124:199205.
141. Hammerschlag, M. R.,, and R. Sharma. 2008. Use of cethromycin, a new ketolide, for treatment of community-acquired respiratory infections. Expert Opin. Investig. Drugs 17:387400.
142. Hansen, L. H.,, P. Mauvais,, and S. Douthwaite. 1999. The macrolide-ketolide antibiotic binding site is formed by structures in domains II and V of 23S ribosomal RNA. Mol. Microbiol. 31:623631.
143. Hawkey, P. M. 2003. Mechanisms of quinolone action and microbial response. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 51(Suppl. 1):2935.
144. Hayden, M. K.,, K. Rezai,, R. A. Hayes,, K. Lolans,, J. P. Quinn,, and R. A. Weinstein. 2005. Development of daptomycin resistance in vivo in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:52855287.
145. Hegde, S. S.,, N. Reyes,, T. Wiens,, N. Vanasse,, R. Skinner,, J. McCullough,, K. Kaniga,, J. Pace,, R. Thomas,, J. P. Shaw,, G. Obedencio,, and J. K. Judice. 2004. Pharmacodynamics of telavancin (TD-6424), a novel bactericidal agent, against gram-positive bacteria. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48:30433050.
146. Hiramatsu, K. 2001. Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a new model of antibiotic resistance. Lancet Infect. Dis. 1:147155.
147. Hisanaga, T.,, D. J. Hoban,, and G. G. Zhanel. 2005. Mechanisms of resistance to telithromycin in Streptococcus pneumoniae. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 56:447450.
148. Hitchings, G. H. 1973. Mechanism of action of trimethoprim- sulfamethoxazole. J. Infect. Dis. 128(Suppl.):433436.
149. Hoban, D. J.,, S. K. Bouchillon,, and M. J. Dowzicky. 2007. Antimicrobial susceptibility of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producers and multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii throughout the United States and comparative in vitro activity of tigecycline, a new glycylcycline antimicrobial. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 57:423428.
150. Hobbs, J. K.,, K. Miller,, A. J. O’Neill,, and I. Chopra. 2008. Consequences of daptomycin-mediated membrane damage in Staphylococcus aureus. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 62:10031008.
151. Hoellman, D. B.,, G. Lin,, L. M. Ednie,, A. Rattan,, M. R. Jacobs,, and P. C. Appelbaum. 2003. Antipneumococcal and antistaphylococcal activities of ranbezolid (RBX 7644), a new oxazolidinone, compared to those of other agents. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47:11481150.
152. Hoeprich, P. D.,, and D. M. Warshauer. 1974. Entry of four tetracyclines into saliva and tears. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 5:330336.
153. Hof, H.,, O. Zak,, E. Schweizer,, and A. Denzler. 1984. Antibacterial activities of nitrothiazole derivatives. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 14:3139.
154. Holmberg, L.,, G. Boman,, L. E. Bottiger,, B. Eriksson,, R. Spross,, and A. Wessling. 1980. Adverse reactions to nitrofurantoin: analysis of 921 reports. Am. J. Med. 69:733738.
155. Hooton, T. M.,, and W. E. Stamm. 1997. Diagnosis and treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infection. Infect. Dis. Clin. N. Am. 11:551581.
156. Hope, R.,, M. Warner,, S. Mushtaq,, M. E. Ward,, T. Parsons,, and D. M. Livermore. 2005. Effect of medium type, age and aeration on the MICs of tigecycline and classical tetracyclines. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 56:10421046.
157. Huang, D. B.,, and H. L. DuPont. 2005. Rifaximin: a novel antimicrobial for enteric infections. J. Infect. Dis. 50:97106.
158. Hughes, J.,, and G. Mellows. 1978. Inhibition of isoleucyl-transfer ribonucleic acid synthetase in Escherichia coli by pseudomonic acid. Biochem. J. 176:305318.
159. Hunfeld, K.-P.,, T. A. Wichelhaus,, R. Rodel,, G. Acker,, V. Brade,, and P. Kraiczy. 2004. Comparison of in vitro activities of ketolides, macrolides, and an azalide against the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48:344347.
160. Insa, R.,, E. Cercenado,, M. J. Goyanes,, A. Morente,, and E. Bouza. 2007. In vitro activity of tigecycline against clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 59:583585.
161. Jacoby, G. A.,, and L. S. Munoz-Price. 2005. The new betalactamases. N. Engl. J. Med. 352:380391.
162. Jacoby, G. A.,, and L. Sutton. 1989. Pseudomonas cepacia susceptibility to sulbactam. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33:583584.
163. Jiang, Z. D.,, S. Ke,, E. Palazzini,, L. Riopel,, and H. Dupont. 2000. In vitro activity and fecal concentration of rifaximin after oral administration. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44:22052206.
164. Johnson, A. P.,, A. H. Uttley,, N. Woodford,, and R. C. George. 1990. Resistance to vancomycin and teicoplanin: an emerging clinical problem. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 3:280291.
165. Johnson, D. M.,, D. J. Biedenbach,, M. L. Beach,, M. A. Pfaller,, and R. N. Jones. 2000. Antimicrobial activity and in vitro susceptibility test development for cefditoren against Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus species. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 37:99105.
166. Johnson, D. M.,, M. G. Stilwell,, T. R. Fritsche,, and R. N. Jones. 2006. Emergence of multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae: report from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (1999-2003). Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 56:6974.
167. Jones, R. N. 2006. Microbiological features of vancomycin in the 21st century: minimum inhibitory concentration creep, bactericidal/static activity, and applied breakpoints to predict clinical outcomes or detect resistant strains. Clin. Infect. Dis. 42(Suppl. 1):S13S24.
168. Jones, R. N. 1989. Review of the in-vitro spectrum and characteristics of cefmetazole (CS-1170). J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 23(Suppl. D):112.
169. Jones, R. N.,, and A. L. Barry. 1983. Cefoperazone: a review of its antimicrobial spectrum, beta-lactamase stability, enzyme inhibition, and other in vitro characteristics. Rev. Infect. Dis. 5(Suppl. 1):S108S126.
170. Jones, R. N.,, D. J. Biedenbach,, and D. M. Johnson. 2000. Cefditoren activity against nearly 1,000 non-fastidious bacterial isolates and the development of in vitro susceptibility test methods. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 37:143146.
171. Jones, R. N.,, H. K. Huynh,, and D. J. Biedenbach. 2004. Activities of doripenem (S-4661) against drug-resistant clinical pathogens. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48:31363140.
172. Jones, R. N.,, J. T. Kirby,, and P. R. Rhomberg. 2008. Comparative activity of meropenem in US medical centers (2007): initiating the 2nd decade of MYSTIC program surveillance. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 61:203213.
173. Jorgensen, J. H.,, S. A. Crawford,, M. L. McElmeel,, and C. G. Whitney. 2004. Activities of cethromycin and telithromycin against recent North American isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48:605607.
174. Kahan, F. M.,, J. S. Kahan,, P. J. Cassidy,, and H. Kropp. 1974. The mechanism of action of fosfomycin (phosphonomycin). Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 235:364386.
175. Keam, S. J. 2008. Doripenem: a review of its use in the treatment of bacterial infections. Drugs 68:20212057.
176. Kelesidis, T.,, D. E. Karageorgopoulos,, I. Kelesidis,, and M. E. Falagas. 2008. Tigecycline for the treatment of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae: a systematic review of the evidence from microbiological and clinical studies. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 62:895904.
177. Kelkar, P. S.,, and J. T. Li. 2001. Cephalosporin allergy. N. Engl. J. Med. 345:804809.
178. Kenny, G. E.,, T. M. Hooton,, M. C. Roberts,, F. D. Cartwright,, and J. Hoyt. 1989. Susceptibilities of genital mycoplasmas to the newer quinolones as determined by the agar dilution method. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33:103107.
179. Kirst, H. A.,, and G. D. Sides. 1989. New directions for macrolide antibiotics: structural modifications and in vitro activity. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33:14131418.
180. Klugman, K. P. 1990. Pneumococcal resistance to antibiotics. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 3:171196.
181. Knapp, C. C.,, J. Sierra-Madero,, and J. A. Washington. 1989. Activity of ticarcillin/clavulanate and piperacillin/ tazobactam (YTR 830; CL-298,741) against clinical isolates and against mutants derepressed for class I beta-lactamase. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 12:511515.
182. Knight, V.,, J. W. Draper,, E. A. Brady,, and C. A. Attmore. 1952. Methenamine mandelate: antimicrobial activity, absorption and excretion. Antibiot. Chemother. 2:615635.
183. Kohlhoff, S. A.,, and R. Sharma. 2007. Iclaprim. Expert Opin. Investig. Drugs 16:14411448.
184. Koo, H. L.,, H. L. Dupont,, and D. B. Huang. 2009. The role of rifaximin in the treatment and chemoprophylaxis of travelers’ diarrhea. Ther. Clin. Risk Manag. 5:841848.
185. Kosowska-Shick, K.,, C. Clark,, G. A. Pankuch,, P. McGhee,, B. Dewasse,, L. Beachel,, and P. C. Appelbaum. 2009. Activity of telavancin against staphylococci and enterococci determined by MIC and resistance selection studies. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53:42174224.
186. Kuck, N. A.,, N. V. Jacobus,, P. J. Petersen,, W. J. Weiss,, and R. T. Testa. 1989. Comparative in vitro and in vivo activities of piperacillin combined with the beta-lactamase inhibitors tazobactam, clavulanic acid, and sulbactam. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33:19641969.
187. Lamb, H. M.,, D. P. Figgitt,, and D. Faulds. 1999. Quinupristin/ dalfopristin: a review of its use in the management of serious gram-positive infections. Drugs 58:10611097.
188. Landman, D.,, C. Georgescu,, D. A. Martin,, and J. Quale. 2008. Polymyxins revisited. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 21:449465.
189. Lawrence, K. R.,, M. Adra,, and P. K. Gillman. 2006. Serotonin toxicity associated with the use of linezolid: a review of postmarketing data. Clin. Infect. Dis. 42:15781583.
190. Lawson, D. H.,, and B. J. Paice. 1982. Adverse reactions to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Rev. Infect. Dis. 4:429433.
191. Leclercq, R. 2002. Mechanisms of resistance to macrolides and lincosamides: nature of the resistance elements and their clinical implications. Clin. Infect. Dis. 34:482492.
192. Lee, E.,, S. Burger,, J. Shah,, C. Melton,, M. Mullen,, F. Warren,, and R. Press. 2003. Linezolid-associated toxic optic neuropathy: a report of 2 cases. Clin. Infect. Dis. 37: 13891391.
193. Leigh, D. A. 1981. Antibacterial activity and pharmacokinetics of clindamycin. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 7(Suppl. A): 39.
194. Lell, B.,, and P. G. Kremsner. 2002. Clindamycin as an antimalarial drug: review of clinical trials. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46:23152320.
195. Leonard, S. N.,, C. M. Cheung,, and M. J. Rybak. 2008. Activities of ceftobiprole, linezolid, vancomycin, and daptomycin against community-associated and hospital-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52:29742976.
196. Li, J.,, R. L. Nation,, J. D. Turnidge,, R. W. Milne,, K. Coulthard,, C. R. Rayner,, and D. L. Paterson. 2006. Colistin: the re-emerging antibiotic for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections. Lancet Infect. Dis. 6:589601.
197. Lin, S. W.,, P. L. Carver,, and D. D. DePestel. 2006. Dalbavancin: a new option for the treatment of gram-positive infections. Ann. Pharmacother. 40:449460.
198. Lindberg, R.,, H. Fredlund,, R. Nicholas,, and M. Unemo. 2007. Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates with reduced susceptibility to cefixime and ceftriaxone: association with genetic polymorphisms in penA, mtrR, porB1b, and ponA. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51:21172122.
199. Linden, P. K.,, R. C. Moellering, Jr.,, C. A. Wood,, S. J. Rehm,, J. Flaherty,, F. Bompart,, and G. H. Talbot. 2001. Treatment of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium infections with quinupristin/dalfopristin. Clin. Infect. Dis. 33:18161823.
200. Lipsky, B. A.,, and C. A. Baker. 1999. Fluoroquinolone toxicity profiles: a review focusing on newer agents. Clin. Infect. Dis. 28:352364.
201. Livermore, D. M. 2003. Linezolid in vitro: mechanism and antibacterial spectrum. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 51(Suppl. 2):ii9ii16.
202. Livermore, D. M.,, S. Mushtaq,, M. Warner,, C. Miossec,, and N. Woodford. 2008. NXL104 combinations versus Enterobacteriaceae with CTX-M extended-spectrum betalactamases and carbapenemases. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 62:10531056.
203. Lode, H.,, K. Borner,, P. Koeppe,, and T. Schaberg. 1996. Azithromycin: review of key chemical, pharmacokinetic and microbiological features. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 37(Suppl. C):18.
204. Lodise, T. P.,, B. Lomaestro,, J. Graves,, and G. L. Drusano. 2008. Larger vancomycin doses (at least four grams per day) are associated with an increased incidence of nephrotoxicity. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52:13301336.
205. Lofmark, S.,, H. Fang,, M. Hedberg,, and C. Edlund. 2005. Inducible metronidazole resistance and nim genes in clinical Bacteroides fragilis group isolates. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 49:12531256.
206. Long, J. K.,, T. K. Choueiri,, G. S. Hall,, R. K. Avery,, and M. A. Sekeres. 2005. Daptomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia. Mayo Clin. Proc. 80:12151216.
207. Low, D. E. 1995. Quinupristin/dalfopristin: spectrum of activity, pharmacokinetics, and initial clinical experience. Microb. Drug Resist. 1:223234.
208. Low, D. E.,, S. Brown,, and D. Felmingham. 2004. Clinical and bacteriological efficacy of the ketolide telithromycin against isolates of key respiratory pathogens: a pooled analysis of phase III studies. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 10:2736.
209. Low, D. E.,, A. McGeer,, and R. Poon. 1989. Activities of daptomycin and teicoplanin against Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, including evaluation of susceptibility testing recommendations. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33:585588.
210. Lunde, C. S.,, S. R. Hartouni,, J. W. Janc,, M. Mammen,, P. P. Humphrey,, and B. M. Benton. 2009. Telavancin disrupts the functional integrity of the bacterial membrane through targeted interaction with the cell wall precursor lipid II. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53:33753383.
211. Lutsar, I.,, G. H. McCracken, Jr.,, and I. R. Friedland. 1998. Antibiotic pharmacodynamics in cerebrospinal fluid. Clin. Infect. Dis. 27:11171127.
212. MacGowan, A. P. 2003. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of linezolid in healthy volunteers and patients with gram-positive infections. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 51(Suppl. S2):ii17ii25.
213. MacGowan, A. P. 2008. Tigecycline pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic update. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 62(Suppl. 1):i11i16.
214. Mandell, G. L. 1983. The antimicrobial activity of rifampin: emphasis on the relation to phagocytes. Rev. Infect. Dis. 5(Suppl. 3):S463S467.
215. Maravic, G. 2004. Macrolide resistance based on the erm-mediated rRNA methylation. Curr. Drug Targets Infect. Disord. 4:193202.
216. Marchese, A.,, and G. C. Schito. 2001. The oxazolidinones as a new family of antimicrobial agent. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 7(Suppl. 4):6674.
217. Markantonis, S. L.,, N. Markou,, M. Fousteri,, N. Sakellaridis,, S. Karatzas,, I. Alamanos,, E. Dimopoulou,, and G. Baltopoulos. 2009. Penetration of colistin into cerebrospinal fluid. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53:49074910.
218. Maurin, M.,, S. Gasquet,, C. Ducco,, and D. Raoult. 1995. MICs of 28 antibiotic compounds for 14 Bartonella (formerly Rochalimaea) isolates. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 39:23872391.
219. Maurin, M.,, and D. Raoult. 2001. Use of aminoglycosides in treatment of infections due to intracellular bacteria. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:29772986.
220. McAleese, F.,, P. Petersen,, A. Ruzin,, P. M. Dunman,, E. Murphy,, S. J. Projan,, and P. A. Bradford. 2005. A novel MATE family efflux pump contributes to the reduced susceptibility of laboratory-derived Staphylococcus aureus mutants to tigecycline. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 49:18651871.
221. McCracken, G. H., Jr. 2000. Pharmacodynamics of gatifloxacin in experimental models of pneumococcal meningitis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 31(Suppl. 2):S45S50.
222. McDowell, T. D.,, and K. E. Reed. 1989. Mechanism of penicillin killing in the absence of bacterial lysis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33:16801685.
223. McGee, L.,, D. Biek,, Y. Ge,, M. Klugman,, M. du Plessis,, A. M. Smith,, B. Beall,, C. G. Whitney,, and K. P. Klugman. 2009. In vitro evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of ceftaroline against cephalosporin-resistant isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53:552556.
224. McGehee, R. F., Jr.,, C. B. Smith,, C. Wilcox,, and M. Finland. 1968. Comparative studies of antibacterial activity in vitro and absorption and excretion of lincomycin and clinimycin. Am. J. Med. Sci. 256:279292.
225. McOsker, C. C.,, and P. M. Fitzpatrick. 1994. Nitrofurantoin: mechanism of action and implications for resistance development in common uropathogens. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 33(Suppl. A):2330.
226. Meagher, A. K.,, P. G. Ambrose,, T. H. Grasela,, and E. J. Ellis-Grosse. 2005. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of tigecycline. Clin. Infect. Dis. 41(Suppl. 5):S333S340.
227.Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics. 2008. Fluoroquinolones and tendon injuries. Med. Lett. Drugs Ther. 50:93.
228.Medical Letteron Drugs and Therapeutics. 2007. Treatment of Lyme disease. Med. Lett. Drugs Ther. 49:4951.
229.Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics. 2007. Drugs for parasitic infections. Treat. Guidel. Med. Lett. 5(Suppl.):e1e15.
230. Meka, V. G.,, and H. S. Gold. 2004. Antimicrobial resistance to linezolid. Clin. Infect. Dis. 39:10101015.
231. Mendez, J. L.,, H. F. Nadrous,, T. E. Hartman,, and J. H. Ryu. 2005. Chronic nitrofurantoin-induced lung disease. Mayo Clin. Proc. 80:12981302.
232. Michalopoulos, A.,, and E. Papadakis. 2010. Inhaled anti-infective agents: emphasis on colistin. Infection 38:8188.
233. Moellering, R. C. 2003. Linezolid: the first oxazolidinone antimicrobial. Ann. Intern. Med. 138:135142.
234. Moellering, R. C.,, P. K. Linden,, J. Reinhardt,, E. A. Blumberg,, F. Bompart,, and G. H. Talbot for the Synercid Emergency Use Group. 1999. The efficacy and safety of quinupristin/ dalfopristin for the treatment of infections caused by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 44:251261.
235. Moellering, R. C., Jr. 1984. Pharmacokinetics of vancomycin. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 14(Suppl. D):4352.
236. Monk, J. P.,, and D. M. Campoli-Richards. 1987. Ofloxacin: a review of its antibacterial activity, pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic use. Drugs 33:346391.
237. Moore, I. F.,, D. W. Hughes,, and G. D. Wright. 2005. Tigecycline is modified by the flavin-dependent monooxygenase TetX. Biochemistry 44:1182911835.
238. Moosdeen, F.,, J. D. Williams,, and S. Yamabe. 1988. Antibacterial characteristics of YTR 830, a sulfone beta-lactamase inhibitor, compared with those of clavulanic acid and sulbactam. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 32:925927.
239. Morgan-Linnell, S. K.,, L. Becnel Boyd,, D. Steffen,, and L. Zechiedrich. 2009. Mechanisms accounting for fluoroquinolone resistance in Escherichia coli clinical isolates. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53:235241.
240. Morris, A. B.,, R. B. Brown,, and M. Sands. 1993. Use of rifampin in nonstaphylococcal, nonmycobacterial disease. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 37:17.
241. Morrissey, I.,, Y. Ge,, and R. Janes. 2009. Activity of the new cephalosporin ceftaroline against bacteraemia isolates from patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 33:515519.
242. Murray, B. E. 1990. The life and times of the Enterococcus. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 3:4665.
243. Muscato, J. J.,, D. W. Wilbur,, J. J. Stout,, and R. A. Fahrlender. 1991. An evaluation of the susceptibility patterns of gram-negative organisms isolated in cancer centres with aminoglycoside usage. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 27(Suppl. C):17.
244. Mushtaq, S.,, Y. Ge,, and D. M. Livermore. 2004. Doripenem versus Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro: activity against characterized isolates, mutants, and transconjugants and resistance selection potential. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48:30863092.
245. Myrianthefs, P.,, S. L. Markantonis,, K. Vlachos,, M. Anagnostaki,, E. Boutzouka,, D. Panidis,, and G. Baltopoulos. 2006. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of linezolid in neurosurgical patients. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 50:39713976.
246. Nadelman, R. B.,, S. W. Luger,, E. Frank,, M. Wisniewski,, J. J. Collins,, and G. P. Wormser. 1992. Comparison of cefuroxime axetil and doxycycline in the treatment of early Lyme disease. Ann. Intern. Med. 117:273280.
247. Najjar, A.,, and B. E. Murray. 1987. Failure to demonstrate a consistent in vitro bactericidal effect of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole against enterococci. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 31:808810.
248. Namour, F.,, D. H. Wessels,, M. H. Pascual,, D. Reynolds,, E. Sultan,, and B. Lenfant. 2001. Pharmacokinetics of the new ketolide telithromycin (HMR 3647) administered in ascending single and multiple doses. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:170175.
249. Neu, H. C. 1985. Carbapenems: special properties contributing to their activity. Am. J. Med. 78(Suppl. 6A):3340.
250. Neu, H. C. 1991. The development of macrolides: clarithromycin in perspective. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 27(Suppl. A):19.
251. Neu, H. C. 1982. The new beta-lactamase-stable cephalosporins. Ann. Intern. Med. 97:408419.
252. Neu, H. C. 1976. Tobramycin: an overview. J. Infect. Dis. 134(Suppl.):S3S19.
253. Neu, H. C.,, and K. P. Fu. 1978. Clavulanic acid, a novel inhibitor of beta-lactamases. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 14:650655.
254. Neu, H. C.,, and K. P. Fu. 1980. In vitro activity of chloramphenicol and thiamphenicol analogs. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 18:311316.
255. Nicolau, D. P.,, H. K. Sun,, E. Seltzer,, M. Buckwalter,, and J. A. Dowell. 2007. Pharmacokinetics of dalbavancin in plasma and skin blister fluid. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 60:681684.
256. Nilsson, A. I.,, O. G. Berg,, O. Aspevall,, G. Kahlmeter,, and D. I. Andersson. 2003. Biological costs and mechanisms of fosfomycin resistance in Escherichia coli. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47:28502858.
257. Nix, D. E.,, A. K. Majumdar,, and M. J. DiNubile. 2004. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ertapenem: an overview for clinicians. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 53(Suppl. 2):ii23ii28.
258. Norrby, S. F.,, K. L. Faulkner,, and P. A. Newell. 1997. Differentiating meropenem and imipenem/cilastatin. Infect. Dis. Clin. Pract. 6:291303.
259. O’Brien, R. J.,, M. A. Lyle,, and D. E. Snider, Jr. 1987. Rifabutin (ansamycin LM 427): a new rifamycin-S derivative for the treatment of mycobacterial diseases. Rev. Infect. Dis. 9:519530.
260. Olson, M. W.,, A. Ruzin,, E. Feyfant,, T. S. Rush III,, J. O’Connell,, and P. A. Bradford. 2006. Functional, biophysical, and structural bases for antibacterial activity of tigecycline. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 50:21562166.
261. Pace, J. L.,, and G. Yang. 2006. Glycopeptides: update on an old successful antibiotic class. Biochem. Pharmacol. 71:968980.
262. Pang, L. W.,, N. Limsomwong,, E. F. Boudreau,, and P. Singharaj. 1987. Doxycycline prophylaxis for falciparum malaria. Lancet i:11611164.
263. Pankuch, G. A.,, T. A. Davies,, M. R. Jacobs,, and P. C. Appelbaum. 2002. Antipneumococcal activity of ertapenem (MK-0826) compared to those of other agents. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46:4246.
264. Patel, R. B.,, and P. G. Welling. 1980. Clinical pharmacokinetics of co-trimoxazole (trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole). Clin. Pharmacokinet. 5:405423.
265. Patel, S. S.,, J. A. Balfour,, and H. M. Bryson. 1997. Fosfomycin tromethamine: a review of its antibacterial activity, pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic efficacy as a single-dose oral treatment for acute uncomplicated lower urinary tract infections. Drugs 53:637656.
266. Pechere, J. C. 1999. Current and future management of infections due to methicillin-resistant staphylococci infections: the role of quinupristin/dalfopristin. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 44(Suppl. A):1118.
267. Pechere, J. C. 1996. Streptogramins: a unique class of antibiotics. Drugs 51(Suppl. 1):1319.
268. Peleg, A. Y.,, J. Adams,, and D. L. Paterson. 2007. Tigecycline efflux as a mechanism for nonsusceptibility in Acinetobacter baumannii. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51:20652069.
269. Peppard, W. J.,, and C. D. Schuenke. 2008. Iclaprim, a diaminopyrimidine dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor for the potential treatment of antibiotic-resistant staphylococcal infections. Curr. Opin. Investig. Drugs 9:210225.
270. Perlroth, J.,, M. Kuo,, J. Tan,, A. S. Bayer,, and L. G. Miller. 2008. Adjunctive use of rifampin for the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections: a systematic review of the literature. Arch. Intern. Med. 168:805819.
271. Perry, C. M.,, and T. Ibbotson. 2002. Biapenem. Drugs 62:22212234.
272. Perry, C. M.,, and B. Jarvis. 2001. Linezolid: a review of its use in the management of serious gram-positive infections. Drugs 61:525551.
273. Peters, D. H.,, H. A. Friedel,, and D. McTavish. 1992. Azithromycin: a review of its antimicrobial activity, pharmacokinetic properties and clinical efficacy. Drugs 44:750799.
274. Pfaller, M. A.,, A. L. Barry,, and P. C. Fuchs. 1993. Evaluation of disk susceptibility testing of fosfomycin tromethamine. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 17:6770.
275. Pillar, C. M.,, M. K. Torres,, N. P. Brown,, D. Shah,, and D. F. Sahm. 2008. In vitro activity of doripenem, a carbapenem for the treatment of challenging infections caused by gram-negative bacteria, against recent clinical isolates from the United States. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52:43884399.
276. Plouffe, J. F. 2000. Emerging therapies for serious gram-positive bacterial infections: a focus on linezolid. Clin. Infect. Dis. 31(Suppl. 4):S144S149.
277. Polk, R. E. 1989. Drug-drug interactions with ciprofloxacin and other fluoroquinolones. Am. J. Med. 87(Suppl. 5A):76S81S.
278. Polk, R. E.,, D. P. Healy,, L. B. Schwartz,, D. T. Rock,, M. L. Garson,, and K. Roller. 1988. Vancomycin and the red-man syndrome: pharmacodynamics of histamine release. J. Infect. Dis. 157:502507.
279. Pope, S. D.,, and A. M. Roecker. 2006. Dalbavancin: a novel lipoglycopeptide antibacterial. Pharmacotherapy 26:908918.