Chapter 70 : Phenotypic Methods for Detecting Antibacterial Resistance

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Phenotypic Methods for Detecting Antibacterial Resistance, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap70-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap70-2.gif


This chapter on special phenotypic methods for detecting antibacterial resistance describes details of tests for detection of high-level aminoglycoside resistance and acquired vancomycin resistance in enterococci; tests for detection of inducible clindamycin resistance in streptococci; tests for detection of penicillin, oxacillin, vancomycin, induc-ible clindamycin, and high-level mupirocin resistance in staphylococci; tests for detection of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL) and carbapenemase production in ; and tests for detection of β-lactamases in multiple organisms. Other special phenotypic tests described in the chapter are those for determining the bactericidal activity or combined activities of antimicrobial agents; they are different from the tests that screen for a specific resistance mechanism. As some of the phenotypic tests described here for are not recommended for coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), for detection of oxacillin resistance, the two groups are discussed separately as and and CoNS except . In the clinical laboratory, β-lactamase tests can be used for two purposes. The first is to detect an underlying mechanism of resistance that may not be detected using routine susceptibility testing methods, and the second is to detect a mechanism of resistance that is an infection control concern and epidemiologically important.

Citation: Swneson J, Patel J, Jorgensen J. 2011. Phenotypic Methods for Detecting Antibacterial Resistance, p 1155-1179. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch70

Key Concept Ranking

Antibacterial Agents
Human immunodeficiency virus 1
beta-Lactamase Inhibitors
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. Abele-Horn, M.,, L. Hommers,, R. Trabold,, and M. Frosch. 2006. Validation of VITEK 2 version 4.01 software for detection, identification, and classification of glycopeptide-resistant enterococci. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:7176.
2. Ajantha, G.,, R. Kulkarni,, J. Shetty,, S. Shubhada,, and P. Jain. 2009. Phenotypic detection of inducible clindamycin resistance among Staphylococcus aureus isolates by using the lower limit of recommended inter-disk distance. Indian J. Pathol. Microbiol. 51:376378.
3. Aldridge, K. E.,, D. Ashcraft,, K. Cambre,, C. L. Pierson,, S. G. Jenkins,, and J. E. Rosenblatt. 2001. Multicenter survey of the changing in vitro antimicrobial susceptibilities of clinical isolates of Bacteroides fragilis group, Prevotella, Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas, and Peptostreptococcus species. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:12381243.
4. Aligholi, M.,, M. Emaneini,, F. Jabalameli,, S. Shahsavan,, H. Dabiri,, and H. Sedaght. 2008. Emergence of high-level vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran. Med. Princ. Pract. 17:432434.
5. Anderson, K. F.,, D. R. Lonsway,, J. K. Rasheed,, J. Biddle,, B. Jensen,, L. K. McDougal,, R. B. Carey,, A. Thompson,, S. Stocker,, B. Limbago,, and J. B. Patel. 2007. Evaluation of methods to identify the Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase in Enterobacteriaceae. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45:27232725.
6. Andes, D.,, and W. A. Craig. 2005. Treatment of infections with ESBL-producing organisms: pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic considerations. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 11 (Suppl. 6):1017.
7. Archer, G. L.,, and M. W. Climo. 1994. Antimicrobial susceptibility of coagulase-negative staphylococci. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 38:22312237.
8. Arias, C. A.,, and B. E. Murray. 2008. Emergence and management of drug-resistant enterococcal infections. Expert Rev. Anti-Infect. Ther. 6:637655.
9. Aubert, G.,, S. Passot,, F. Lucht,, and G. Dorche. 1990. Selection of vancomycin- and teicoplanin-resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus during teicoplanin treatment of S. epidermidis infection. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 25:491493.
10. Bayer, A. S.,, and J. O. Morrison. 1984. Disparity between timed-kill and checkerboard methods for determination of in vitro bactericidal interactions of vancomycin plus rifampin versus methicillin-susceptible and resistant Staphylococcusaureus. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 26:220223.
11. Bennett, K.,, and S. E. Sharp. 2008. Rapid differentiation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and methicillinsusceptible Staphylococcus aureus from blood cultures by use of a direct cefoxitin disk diffusion test. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46:38363838.
12. Biedenbach, D. J.,, J. M. Bell,, H. S. Sader,, J. D. Turnidge,, and R. N. Jones. 2009. Activities of dalbavancin against a worldwide collection of 81,673 gram-positive bacterial isolates. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53:12601263.
13. Bischof, L. J.,, L. Lapsley,, K. Fontecchio,, D. Jacosalem,, C. Young,, R. Hankerd,, and D. W. Newton. 2009. Comparison of chromogenic media and BD GeneOhm MRSA PCR for the detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus from nasal swabs. J. Clin. Microbiol. 47:22812283.
14. Black, J. A.,, K. S. Thomson,, J. D. Buynak,, and J. D. Pitout. 2005. Evaluation of ?-lactamase inhibitors in disk tests for detection of plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases in well-characterized clinical strains of Klebsiella spp. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:41684171.
15. Black, J. A.,, K. S. Thomson,, and J. D. D. Pitout. 2004. Use of β-lactamase inhibitors in disk tests to detect plasmid-mediated AmpC b -lactamases. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:22032206.
16. Blondeau, J. M.,, D. Vaughan,, R. Laskowski,, and S. Borsos. 2001. Susceptibility of Canadian isolates of Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae to oral antimicrobial agents. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 17:457464.
17. Boyd, D. A.,, B. M. Willey,, D. Fawcett,, N. Gillani,, and M. R. Mulvey. 2008. Molecular characterization of Enterococcus faecalis N06-0364 with low-level vancomycin resistance harbouring a novel D-Ala-D-Ser gene cluster, vanL. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52:26672672.
18. Bradford, P. A.,, C. Urban,, N. Mariano,, S. J. Projan,, J. J. Rahal,, and K. Bush. 1997. Imipenem resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae is associated with the combination of ACT-1, a plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase, and the loss of an outer membrane protein. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41:563569.
19. Bratu, S.,, M. Mooty,, S. Nichani,, D. Landman,, C. Gullans,, B. Pettinato,, U. Karumudi,, P. Tolaney,, and J. Quale. 2005. Emergence of KPC-possessing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Brooklyn, New York: epidemiology and recommendations for detection. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 49:30183020.
20. Brown, D. F.,, and E. Walpole. 2001. Evaluation of the Mastalex latex agglutination test for methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus grown on different screening media. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 47:187189.
21. Bush, K. 2001. New β-lactamases in gram-negative bacteria: diversity and impact on the selection of antimicrobial therapy. Clin. Infect. Dis. 32:10851089.
22. Cappelletty, D. M.,, and M. J. Rybak. 1996. Comparison of methodologies for synergism testing of drug combinations against resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 40:677683.
22a.. Carey, R. B.,, J. B. Patel,, S. McAllister,, A. Thompson,, P. Raney,, F. C. Tenover,, C. Ginocchio,, D. Bopp,, N. Dumas,, and D. Kohlerschmidt. 2004. Abstr. 44th Intersci. Conf. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., abstr. D-66.
23. Cartwright, C. P.,, F. Stock,, G. A. Fahle,, and V. J. Gill. 1995. Comparison of pigment production and motility tests with PCR for reliable identification of intrinsically vancomycin- resistant enterococci. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:19311933.
24. Catlin, B. W. 1975. Iodometric detection of Haemophilus influenzae β-lactamase: rapid presumptive test for ampicillin resistance. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 7:265270.
25. Cauwelier, B.,, B. Gordts,, P. Descheemaecker,, and H. Van Landuyt. 2004. Evaluation of a disk diffusion method with cefoxitin (30 mg) for detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 23:389392.
26. Cavassini, M.,, A. Wenger,, K. Jaton,, D. S. Blanc,, and J. Bille. 1999. Evaluation of MRSA-Screen, a simple anti-PBP 2a slide latex agglutination kit, for rapid detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:15911594.
27.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1999. Four pediatric deaths from community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Minnesota and North Dakota, 1997-1999. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 48:707710.
28.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2002. Outbreak of multidrug-resistant Salmonella Newport—United States, January-April 2002. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 51:545548.
29. Chambers, H. F. 1997. Methicillin resistance in staphylococci: molecular and biochemical basis and clinical implications. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 10:781791.
30. Chambers, H. F.,, G. Archer,, and M. Matsuhashi. 1989. Low-level methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33:424428.
31. Chambers, H. F.,, and C. J. Hackbarth,. 1992. Methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus: genetics and mechanisms of resistance, p. 2135. In M. T. Cafferkey (ed.), Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Clinical Management and Laboratory Aspects. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, NY.
32. Chen, Y.,, S. A. Marshall,, P. Winokur,, S. Coffman,, W. Wilke,, P. Murray,, C. Spiegel,, M. A. Pfaller,, G. V. Doern,, and R. N. Jones. 1998. Use of molecular and reference susceptibility testing methods in a multicenter evaluation of MicroScan dried overnight gram-positive MIC panels for detection of vancomycin and high-level aminoglycoside resistances in enterococci. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:29963001.
33. Chow, J. W.,, M. J. Zervos,, S. A. Lerner,, L. A. Thal,, S. Donabedian,, D. Jaworski,, S. Tsai,, K. Shaw,, and D. B. Clewell. 1997. A novel gentamicin resistance gene in Enterococcus. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41:511514.
34.Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. 2007. Methods for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Anaerobic Bacteria; Approved Standard—Sixth Edition. CLSI document M11-A7. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, PA.
35.Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute/NCCLS. 1999. Methodology for the Serum Bactericidal Test. NCCLS document M21-A. NCCLS, Wayne, PA.
36.Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute/NCCLS. 1999. Methods for Determining Bactericidal Activity of Antimicrobial Agents. NCCLS document M26-A. NCCLS, Wayne, PA.
37.Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute/NCCLS. 1993. Methods for Dilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria That Grow Aerobically. Approved standard M7-A3. NCCLS, Villanova, PA.
38.Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute/NCCLS. 2009. Methods for Dilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria That Grow Aerobically; Approved Standard—Eighth Edition. CLSI document M07-A8. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, PA.
39.Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute/NCCLS. 2009. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Tests; Approved Standard—Tenth Edition. CLSI document M02-A10. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, PA.
40.Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute/NCCLS. 2010. Performance Standards for AntimicrobialSusceptibility Testing: Twentieth Informational Supplement. CLSI document M100-S20. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, PA.
41.Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute/NCCLS. 2009. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; Nineteenth Informational Supplement. CLSI document M100-S19. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, PA.
42.Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute/NCCLS. 1999. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; Ninth Informational Supplement. NCCLS document M100-S9. NCCLS, Wayne, PA.
43.Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute/NCCLS. 2007. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; Seventeenth Informational Supplement. CLSI document M100-S17. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, PA.
44. Cookson, B. D. 1998. The emergence of mupirocin resistance: a challenge to infection control and antibiotic prescribing practice. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 41:1118.
45. Cornaglia, G.,, and G. M. Rossolini. 2009. Forthcoming therapeutic perspectives for infections due to multidrugresistant Gram-positive pathogens. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 15:218223.
46. Coudron, P. E. 2005. Inhibitor-based methods for detection of plasmid mediated AmpC β-lactamases in Klebsiella spp., Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:41634167.
47. Coudron, P. E.,, E. S. Moland,, and K. S. Thomson. 2000. Occurrence and detection of AmpC β-lactamases among Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis isolates at a veterans medical center. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:17911796.
48. Creagh, S.,, and B. Lucey. 2007. Interpretive guidelines for mupirocin susceptibility testing of Staphylococcus spp. Using CLSI guidelines. Br. J. Biomed. Sci. 64:15.
49. DeGirolami, P. C.,, and G. Eliopoulos. 1987. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests and their role in therapeutic drug monitoring. Clin. Lab. Med. 7:499513.
50. De Lencastre, H.,, S. A. Figueiredo,, C. Urban,, J. Rahal,, and A. Tomasz. 1991. Multiple mechanisms of methicillin resistance and improved methods for detection in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 35:632639.
51. Denny, A. E.,, L. R. Peterson,, D. N. Gerding,, and W. H. Hall. 1979. Serious staphylococcal infections with strains tolerant to bactericidal antibiotics. Ann. Intern. Med. 139:10261031.
52. de Oliveira, N.,, A. Cardozo,, E. de Andrade Marques,, K. dos Santos,, and M. Giambiagi-deMarval. 2007. Interpretive criteria to differentiate low- and high-level mupirocin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. J. Med. Microbiol. 56:937939.
53. Desjardins, M.,, K. L. Delgaty,, K. Ramotar,, C. Seetaram,, and B. Toye. 2004. Prevalence and mechanisms of erythromycin resistance in group A and group B Streptococcus: implications for reporting susceptibility results. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:56205623.
54. Diab, M.,, M. El-Damarawy,, and M. Shemis. 2008. Rapid identification of methicillin-resistant staphylococci bacteremia among intensive care unit patients. Medscape J. Med. 10:126.
55. Dixon, J. M.,, A. E. Lipinski,, and M. E. Graham. 1977. Detection and prevalence of pneumococci with increased resistance to penicillin. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 117:11591161.
56. Doern, G. V.,, A. Brueggemann,, and G. Pierce. 1997. Assessment of the oxacillin disk screening test for determining penicillin resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 16:311314.
57. Doern, G. V.,, A. B. Brueggemann,, G. Pierce,, H. P. Holley, Jr.,, and A. Rauch. 1997. Antibiotic resistance among clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae in the United States in 1994 and 1995 and detection of β-lactamase-positive strains resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanate: results of a national multicenter surveillance study. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41:292297.
58. Doi, Y.,, and D. L. Paterson. 2007. Detection of plasmid-mediated class C β-lactamases. Int. J. Infect. Dis. 11:191197.
59. Doi, Y.,, B. A. Potoski,, J. M. Adams-Haduch,, H. E. Sidjabat,, A. W. Pasculle,, and D. L. Paterson. 2008. Simple disk-based method for detection of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-type β-lactamase by use of a boronic acid compound. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46:40834086.
60. Dunne, W. M., Jr.,, H. Quershi,, H. Pervez,, and D. A. Nafziger. 2001. Staphylococcus epidermidis with intermediate resistance to vancomycin: elusive phenotype or laboratory artifact? Clin. Infect. Dis. 33:135137.
61. Dyke, J. W., 1979. β-lactamases of Staphylococcus aureus, p. 291310. In J. M. Hamilton-Miller (ed.), β-lactamases. Academic Press, Ltd., London, United Kingdom.
62. Eisner, A.,, G. Gorkiewicz,, G. Feierl,, E. Leitner,, J. Kofer,, H. H. Kessler,, and E. Marth. 2005. Identification of glycopeptide-resistant enterococci by VITEK 2 system and conventional and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 53:1721.
63. Eltringham, I. 1997. Mupirocin resistance and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). J. Hosp. Infect. 35:18.
64. Emery, C. L.,, and L. A. Weymouth. 1997. Detection and clinical significance of extended-spectrum β-lactamases in a tertiary-care medical center. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:20612067.
65. Endtz, H. P.,, N. Van Den Braak,, A. Van Belkum,, W. H. Groessens,, D. Kreft,, A. B. Stroebel,, and H. A. Verbrugh. 1998. Comparison of eight methods to detect vancomycin resistance in enterococci. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:592594.
66. Entenza, J. M.,, and P. Moreillon. 2009. Tigecycline in combination with other antimicrobials: a review of in vitro, animal and case report studies. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 34:8.e18.e9.
67. Escamilla, J. 1976. Susceptibility of Haemophilus influenzae to ampicillin as determined by use of a modified, one-minute β-lactamase test. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 9:196198.
68. Fahr, A.,, U. Eigner,, M. Armbrust,, A. Caganic,, G. Dettori,, C. Chezzi,, L. Bertoncini,, M. Benecchi,, and M. G. Menozzi. 2003. Two-center collaborative evaluation of the performance of the BD Phoenix automated microbiology system for identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Enterococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:11351142.
69. Feibelkorn, K. R.,, S. A. Crawford,, M. L. McElmeel,, and J. H. Jorgensen. 2003. Practical disk diffusion method for detection of inducible clindamycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:47404744.
70. Felmingham, D.,, and R. N. Gruneberg. 2000. The Alexander Project 1996-1997: latest susceptibility data from this international study of bacterial pathogens from community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 45:191203.
71. Felten, A.,, B. Grandry,, P. H. Lagrange,, and I. Casin. 2002. Evaluation of three techniques for detection of low-level methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA): a disk diffusion method with cefoxitin and moxalactam, the Vitek 2 system, and the MRSA-Screen latex agglutination test. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:27662771.
72. Fernandes, C. J.,, L. A. Fernandes,, and P. Collignon, on behalf of the Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance. 2005. Cefoxitin resistance as a surrogate marker for the detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 55:506510.
73. Ferreira, R. B. R.,, N. L. P. Iorio,, K. L. Malvar,, A. P. F. Nunes,, L. S. Fonseca,, C. C. R. Bastos,, and K. R. N. Santos. 2003. Coagulase-negative staphylococci: comparison of phenotypic and genotypic oxacillin susceptibility tests and evaluation of the agar screening test by using different concentrations of oxacillin. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:36093614.
74. Fines, M.,, B. Perichon,, P. Reynolds,, D. F. Sahm,, and P. Courvalin. 1999. VanE, a new type of acquired glycopeptide resistance in Enterococcus faecalis BM4405. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43:21612164.
75. Finks, J.,, E. Wells,, T. L. Dyke,, N. Husain,, L. Plizga,, R. Heddurshetti,, M. Wilkins,, J. Rudrik,, J. Hageman,, J. Patel,, and C. Miller. 2009. Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Michigan, USA, 2007. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 15:943945.
76. Finlay, J. E.,, L. A. Miller,, and J. A. Poupard. 1997. Interpretive criteria for testing susceptibility of staphylococci to mupirocin. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41:11371139.
77. Frank, K. L.,, J. L. Del Pozo,, and R. Patel. 2008. From clinical microbiology to infection pathogenesis: how daring to be different works for Staphylococcus lugdunensis. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 21:111133.
78. Free, L.,, and D. Sahm. 1995. Investigation of the reformulated Remel Synergy Quad plate for detection of high-level aminoglycoside and vancomycin resistance in enterococci. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:16431645.
79. Freeman, C.,, A. Robinson,, B. Cooper,, M. Mazens-Sullivan,, R. Quintiliani, Jr.,, and C. Nightingale. 1995. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of glycopeptide-resistant enterococci. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 21:4750.
80. Fuchs, P. C.,, R. N. Jones,, and A. L. Barry. 1990. Interpretive criteria for disk diffusion susceptibility testing of mupirocin, a topical antibiotic. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28:608609.
81. Garcia-Garrote, F.,, E. Cercenado,, and E. Bouza. 2000. Evaluation of a new system, VITEK 2, for identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of enterococci. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:21082111.
82. Giakkoupi, P.,, L. S. Tzouvelekis,, G. L. Daikos,, V. Miriagou,, G. Petrikkos,, N. J. Legakis,, and A. C. Vatopoulos. 2005. Discrepancies and interpretation problems in susceptibility testing of VIM-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:494496.
83. Gill, V. J.,, C. B. Manning,, and C. M. Ingalls. 1981. Correlation of penicillin minimum inhibitory concentrations and penicillin zone edge appearance with staphylococcal betalactamase production. J. Clin. Microbiol. 14:437440.
84. Gradelski, E.,, L. Valera,, L. Aleksunes,, D. Bonner,, and J. Fung-Tomc. 2001. Correlation between genotype and phenotype categorization of staphylococci based on methicillin susceptibility and resistance. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:29612963.
85. Hackbarth, C. J.,, and H. F. Chambers. 1989. Methicillinresistant staphylococci: genetics and mechanisms of resistance. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33:991994.
86. Handwerger, S.,, and A. Tomasz. 1985. Antibiotic tolerance among clinical isolates of bacteria. Rev. Infect. Dis. 7:368386.
87. Hartman, B. J.,, and A. Tomasz. 1986. Expression of methicillin resistance in heterogeneous strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 29:8592.
88. Hindler, J., 1997. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests, p. 105154. In H. D. Isenberg (ed.), Essential Procedures in Clinical Microbiology. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
89. Hindler, J. A.,, and C. B. Inderlied. 1985. Effect of source of Mueller-Hinton agar and resistance frequency on the detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 21:205210.
90. Hindler, J. A.,, and D. F. Sahm. 1992. Controversies and confusion regarding antimicrobial susceptibility testing of enterococci. Antimicrob. Newsl. 8:6574.
91. Hindler, J. A.,, and N. L. Warner. 1984. Effect of source of Mueller-Hinton agar on detection of oxacillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus using a screening methodology. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25:734735.
91a.. Hindler, J. F.,, and D. A. Bruckner. 2005. Abstr. 105th Am. Soc. Microbiol. Gen. Meet., abstr. C-325.
92. Hiramatsu, K.,, N. Aritaka,, H. Hanaki,, S. kawasaki,, Y. Hosoda,, S. Hori,, Y. Fukuchi,, and I. Kobayashi. 1997. Dissemination in Japanese hospital of strains of Staphylococcus aureus heterogeneously resistant to vancomycin. Lancet 350:16701673.
93. Hirano, L.,, and A. S. Bayer. 1991. β-Lactam-β-lactamaseinhibitor combinations are active in experimental endocarditis caused by β-lactamase-producing oxacillin-resistant staphylococci. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 35:685690.
94. Horstkotte, M. A.,, J. K.-M. Knobloch,, H. Rohde,, and D. Mack. 2001. Rapid detection of methicillin resistance in coagulase-negative staphylococci by a penicillin-binding protein 2a-specific latex agglutination test. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:37003702.
95. Hussain, Z.,, L. Stoakes,, S. Garrow,, S. Longo,, V. Fitzgerald,, and R. Lannigan. 2000. Rapid detection of mecA-positive and mecA-negative coagulase-negative staphylococci by an anti-penicillin binding protein 2a slide latex agglutination test. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:20512054.
96. Hussain, Z.,, L. Stoakes,, V. Massey,, D. Diagre,, V. Fitzgerald,, S. El Sayed,, and R. Lannigan. 2000. Correlation of oxacillin MIC with mecA gene carriage in coagulase-negative staphylococci. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:752754.
97. Iwen, P. C.,, D. M. Kelley,, J. Linder,, and S. H. Hinrichs. 1996. Revised approach for identification and detection of ampicillin and vancomycin resistance in Enterococcus species by using MicroScan panels. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:17791783.
98. Jacobs, M. R.,, H. J. Koornhof,, R. M. Robins-Browne,, C. M. Stevenson,, Z. A. Vermaak,, I. Freiman,, G. B. Miller,, M. A. Witcomb,, M. Isaacson,, J. I. Ward,, and R. Austrian. 1978. Emergence of multiply resistant pneumococci. N. Engl. J. Med. 299:735740.
99. Jacobs, M. R.,, S. K. Spangler,, and P. C. Appelbaum. 1992. β-Lactamase production and susceptibility of US and European anaerobic gram-negative bacilli to β-lactams and other agents. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 11:10811093.
100. Jacoby, G. A.,, and P. Han. 1996. Detection of extendedspectrum β-lactamases in clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:908911.
101. Jacoby, G. A.,, and A. A. Medeiros. 1991. More extendedspectrum β-lactamases. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 35: 16971704.
102. Jarlier, V.,, M. H. Nicolas,, G. Fournier,, and A. Philippon. 1988. Extended broad-spectrum β-lactamases conferring transferable resistance to newer β-lactam agents in Enterobacteriaceae: hospital prevalence and susceptibility patterns. Rev. Infect. Dis. 10:867878.
103. Jett, B.,, L. Free,, and D. F. Sahm. 1996. Factors influencing the Vitek gram-positive susceptibility system’s detection of vanB-encoded vancomycin resistance among enterococci. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:701706.
104. Jones, R. N.,, D. C. Edson, and CAP Microbiology Resource Committee of the College of American Pathologists. 1991. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing trends and accuracy in the United States. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.. 115:429436.
105. Jorgensen, J. H.,, S. A. Crawford,, M. L. McElmeel,, and K. R. Feibelkorn. 2004. Detection of inducible clindamycin resistance of staphylococci in correlation with performance of automated broth susceptibility testing. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:18001802.
106. Kaase, M.,, S. Lenga,, S. Friedrich,, F. Szabados,, T. Sakinc,, B. Kleine,, and S. G. Gatermann. 2008. Comparison of phenotypic methods for penicillinase detection in Staphylococcus aureus. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 14:614616.
107. Kao, S. J.,, I. You,, D. B. Clewell,, S. M. Donabedian,, M. J. Zervos,, J. Petrin,, K. J. Shaw,, and J. W. Chow. 2000. Detection of the high-level aminoglycoside resistance gene aph(0)-Ib in Enterococcus faecium. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother . 44:28762879.
108. Katsanis, G. P.,, J. Spargo,, M. J. Ferraro,, L. Sutton,, and G. A. Jacoby. 1994. Detection of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli strains producing extended-spectrum blactamases. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32:691696.
109. Kim, K. S.,, and B. F. Anthony. 1981. Importance of bacterial growth phase in determining minimum bactericidal concentrations of penicillin and methicillin. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 19:10751077.
110. Kim, S. Y.,, S. G. Hong,, E. S. Moland,, and K. S. Thomson. 2007. Convenient test using a combination of chelating agents for detection of metallo-β-lactamases in the clinical laboratory. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45:27982801.
111. Knapp, C.,, and J. A. Moody,. 1992. Tests to assess bactericidal activity, p. In H. D. Isenberg (ed.), Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
112. Knapp, C. C.,, M. D. Ludwig,, J. A. Washington,, and H. F. Chambers. 1996. Evaluation of Vitek GPS-SA card for testing of oxacillin against borderline-susceptible staphylococci that lack mec. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:16031605.
113. Knausz, M.,, A. Ghidan,, A. Grossato,, and F. Rozgonyi. 2005. Rapid detection of methicillin resistance in teicoplaninresistant coagulase-negative staphylococci by a penicillinbinding protein 29 latex agglutination method. J. Microbiol. Methods 60:413416.
114. Kosowska-Shick, K.,, L. M. Ednie,, P. McGhee,, K. Smith,, C. D. Todd,, A. Wehler,, ands P. C. Appelbaum. 2008. Incidence and characteristics of vancomycin nonsusceptible strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus at Hershey Medical Center. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52:45104513.
115. Krcmery, V., Jr.,, J. Trupl,, L. Drgona,, J. Lacka,, E. Kukuckova,, and E. Oravcova. 1996. Nosocomial bacteremia due to vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis in four patients with cancer, neutropenia, and previous treatment with vancomycin. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 15:259261.
116. Leclercq, R. 2002. Mechanisms of resistance to macrolides and lincosamides: nature of the resistance elements and their clinical implications. Clin. Infect. Dis. 34:482492.
117. Leclercq, R.,, and P. Courvalin. 1997. Resistance to glycopeptides in enterococci. Clin. Infect. Dis. 24:545556.
118. Leclercq, R.,, S. Dutka-Malen,, J. Duval,, and P. Courvalin. 1992. Vancomycin resistance gene vanC is specific to Enterococcus gallinarum. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 36:20052008.
119. Lee, K.,, Y. Chong,, H. B. Shin,, Y. A. Kim,, D. Yong,, and J. H. Yum. 2001. Modified Hodge and EDTA-disk synergy tests to screen metallo-beta-lactamase-producing strains of Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter species. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 7:8891.
120. Leggett, J. E.,, S. A. Wolz,, and W. A. Craig. 1989. Use of serum ultrafiltrate in the serum dilution test. J. Infect. Dis. 160:616623.
121. Leitch, C.,, and S. Boonlayangoor,. 1992. β-lactamase tests, p. In H. D. Isenberg (ed.), Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
122. Lemmen, S. W.,, S. Zolldann,, S. Klik,, R. Lutticken,, K. Kummerer,, and H. Haffner. 2004. Serum bactericidal activity of piperacillin-tazobactam against Staphylococcus aureus, piperacillin-susceptible and piperacillin-resistant Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Chemotherapy 50:2730.
123. Leonard, S. N.,, K. L. Rossi,, K. L. Newton,, and M. J. Rybak. 2009. Evaluation of the Etest GRD for the detection of Staphylococcus aureus with reduced susceptibility to glycopeptides. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 63:489492.
124. Lewis, J. S., II,, and J. H. Jorgensen. 2005. Inducible clindamycin resistance in staphylococci: should clinicians and microbiologists be concerned? Clin. Infect. Dis. 40:280285.
125. Livermore, D. M. 1995. β-lactamases in laboratory and clinical resistance. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 8:557584.
126. Livermore, D. M.,, and M. Yuan. 1996. Antibiotic resistance and production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases amongst Klebsiella spp. from intensive care units in Europe. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 38:409424.
127. Lodise, T. P.,, N. Patel,, A. Renaud-Mutart,, E. Gorodecky,, T. R. Fritsche,, and R. N. Jones. 2008. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of ceftobiprole. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 61:96102.
128. Louie, L.,, A. Majury,, J. Goodfellow,, M. Louie,, and A. E. Simor. 2001. Evaluation of a latex agglutination test (MRSA-Screen) for detection of oxacillin resistance in coagulasenegative staphylococci. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:41494151.
128a.. Madhavan, T.,, D. Sievery,, J. Rudrik,, J. Torresan,, and D. Schulman. 2005. Abstr. 43rd IDSA Annu. Meet., abstr. 1073.
129. Magnotti, L. J.,, T. J. Schroeppel,, L. P. Clement,, J. M. Swanson,, T. K. Bee,, G. O. Maish III,, G. Minard,, B. L. Zarzaur,, P. E. Fischer,, T. C. Fabian,, and M. A. Croce. 2009. Efficacy of monotherapy in the treatment of Pseudomonas ventilator-associated pneumonia in patients with trauma. J. Trauma 66:10521058; discussion, 1058-1059.
130. Marlowe, E. M.,, A. Linscott,, J. M., Kanatani,, and D. A. Bruckner. 2002. Practical therapeutic applications of the Oxoid PBP29 latex agglutination test for the rapid identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in blood cultures. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 118:287291.
131. Martineau, F.,, F. J. Picard,, N. Lansac,, C. Ménard,, R. H. Roy,, M. Ouellette,, and M. G. Bergeron. 2000. Correlation between the resistance genotype determined by multiplex PCR assays and the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44:231238.
132. Massanari, R. M.,, M. A. Pfaller,, D. S. Wakesfield,, G. T. Hammons,, L. A. McNut,, R. F. Woolson,, and C. M. Helms. 1988. Implications of acquired oxacillin resistance in management and control of Staphylococcus aureus infections. J. Infect. Dis. 158:701709.
133. Mateo, M.,, J. R. Maestre,, L. Aguilar,, F. Cafini,, P. Puente,, P. Sanchez,, L. Alou,, M. J. Gimenez,, and J. Prieto. 2005. Genotypic versus phenotypic characterization, with respect to susceptibility and identification, of 17 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus lugdunensis. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 56:287291.
134. McKessar, S. J.,, A. M. Berry,, J. M. Bell,, J. D. Turnidge,, and J. C. Paton. 2001. Genetic characterization of vanG, a novel vancomycin resistance locus of Enterococcus faecalis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44:32243228.
135. Meyer, K. S.,, C. Urban,, J. A. Eagan,, B. J. Berger,, and J. J. Rahal. 1993. Nosocomial outbreak of Klebsiella infection resistant to late-generation cephalosporins. Ann. Intern. Med. 119:353358.
136. Migliavacca, R.,, J.-D. Docquier,, C. Mugnaioli,, G. Amicosante,, R. Daturi,, K. Lee,, G. M. Rossolini,, and L. Pagani. 2002. Simple microdilution test for detection of metallob- lactamase production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:43884390.
137. Mimica, M. J.,, E. N. Berezin,, R. L. Carvalho,, I. M. Mimica,, L. M. J. Mimica,, M. A. Safadi,, E. Schneider,, and H. H. Caiaffa-Filho. 2007. Detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from pediatric patients: is the cefoxitin disk diffusion test accurate enough? Braz. J. Infect. Dis. 11:415417.
138. Moellering, R. C., Jr.,, O. M. Koraeniowski,, M. A. Sande,, and C. B. Wennersten. 1979. Species-specific resistance to antimicrobial synergism in Streptococcus faecium and Streptococcus faecalis. J. Infect. Dis. 140:203208.
139. Mohanasoundaram, K. M.,, and M. K. Lalitha. 2008. Comparison of phenotypic versus genotypic methods in the detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Indian J. Med. Res. 127:7884.
140. Moland, E. S.,, C. C. Sanders,, and K. S. Thomson. 1998. Can results obtained with commercially available MicroScan microdilution panels serve as an indicator of β-lactamase production among Escherichia coli and Klebsiella isolates with hidden resistance to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins and aztreonam? J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:25752579.
141. Mondino, P. J.,, K. R. Dos Santos,, C. de Freire Bastos Mdo,, and M. Giambiagi-deMarval. 2003. Improvement of mupirocin E-test for susceptibility testing of Staphylococcus aureus. J. Med. Microbiol. 52:385387.
142. Montanari, M. P.,, O. Massidda,, M. Mingoia,, and P. E. Varalco. 1996. Borderline susceptibility to methicillin in Staphylococcus aureus: a new mechanism of resistance? Microb. Drug Resist. 2:257260.
143. Montanari, M. P.,, M. Mingoia,, I. Cochetti,, and P. E. Varaldo. 2003. Phenotypes and genotypes of erythromycin-resistant pneumococci in Italy. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:428431.
144. Mougeot, C.,, J. Guillaumat-Taillet,, and J. M. Libert. 2001. Staphylococcus aureus: nouvelle détection de la resistance intrinseque par la methode de diffusion. Pathol. Biol. 49:199204.
145. Murray, B. E. 1990. The life and times of the enterococcus. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 3:4665.
146. M’Zali, F. H.,, J. Heritage,, D. M. Gascoyne-Binzi,, M. Denton,, N. J. Todd,, and P. M. Hawkey. 1997. Transcontinental importation into the UK of Escherichia coli expressing a plasmid-mediated AmpC-type β-lactamase exposed during an outbreak of SHV-5 extended-spectrum β-lactamase in a Leeds hospital. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 40:823831.
147. Nadjar, D.,, M. Rouveau,, C. Verdet,, J. L. Donay,, J. L. Herrmann,, P. H. Lagrange,, A. Philippon,, and G. Arlet. 2000. Outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing transferable AmpC-type β-lactamase (ACC-1) originating from Hafnia alvei. FEMS Microb. Lett. 187:3540.
148. Nahimana, I.,, P. Francioli,, and D. S. Blanc. 2006. Evaluation of three chromogenic media (MRSA-ID, MRSA-Select and CHROMagar MRSA) and ORSAB for surveillance cultures of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 12:11681174.
149. Nakasone, I.,, T. Kinjo,, N. Yamane,, K. Kisanuki,, and C. M. Shiohira. 2007. Laboratory-based evaluation of the colorimetric VITEK-2 Compact system for species identification and of the Advanced Expert System for detection of antimicrobial resistances: VITEK-2 Compact system identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 58:191198.
150. Nasim, K.,, S. Elsayed,, J. D. D. Pitout,, J. Conly,, D. L. Church,, and D. B. Gregson. 2004. New method for laboratory detection of AmpC β-lactamases in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:47994802.
151. Neumann, M. A.,, D. F. Sahm,, C. Thornsberry,, and J. E. McGowan, Jr. 1991. Cumitech 6A, New Developments in Antimicrobial Agent Susceptibility Testing: a Practical Guide. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
152. Neves, F. P.,, R. L. Ribeiro,, R. S. Duarte,, L. M. Teixeira,, and V. L. Merquior. 2009. Emergence of the vanA genotype among Enterococcus gallinarum isolates colonising the intestinal tract of patients in a university hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 33:211215.
153. Nunes, A. P.,, L. M. Teixeira,, N. L. Iorio,, C. C. Bastos,, L. de Sousa Fonseca,, T. Souto-Padron,, and K. R. dos Santos. 2006. Heterogeneous resistance to vancomycin in Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus warneri clinical strains: characterisation of glycopeptide susceptibility profiles and cell wall thickening. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 27:307315.
154. O’Callaghan, C. H.,, A. Morris,, S. M. Kirby,, and A. H. Shingler. 1972. Novel method for detection of β-lactamases by using a chromogenic cephalosporin substrate. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 1:283288.
155. Okabe, T.,, K. Oana,, Y. Kawakami,, M. Yamaguchi,, Y. Takahashi,, Y. Okimura,, T. Honda,, and T. Katsuyama. 2000. Limitations of Vitek GPS-418 cards in exact detection of vancomycin-resistant enterococci with the vanB genotype. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:24092411.
156. Ostrowsky, B.,, N. C. Clark,, C. Thauvin-Eliopoulos,, L. Venkataraman,, M. Samore,, F. C. Tenover,, G. M. Eliopoulos,, R. C. Moellering, Jr.,, and H. S. Gold. 1999. A cluster of VanD vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium: molecular characterization and epidemiology. J. Infect. Dis. 180:11771185.
157. Palavecino, E. 2004. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections. Clin. Lab. Med. 24:403418.
158. Palazzo, I. C. V.,, and A. L. C. Darini. 2006. Evaluation of methods for detecting oxacillin resistance in coagulasenegative staphylococci including cefoxitin disc diffusion. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 257:299305.
159. Palepou, M. F.,, A. P. Johnson,, B. D. Cookson,, H. Beattie,, A. Charlett,, and N. Woodford. 1998. Evaluation of disc diffusion and Etest for determining the susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus to mupirocin. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 42:577583.
160. Pasteran, F.,, T. Mendez,, L. Guerriero,, M. Rapoport,, and A. Corso. 2009. Sensitive screening tests for suspected class A carbapenemase production in species of Enterobacteriaceae. J. Clin. Microbiol. 47:16311639.
161. Paterson, D. L.,, and R. A. Bonomo. 2005. Extendedspectrum beta-lactamases: a clinical update. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 18:657686.
162. Patterson, J. E. 2000. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases. Semin. Respir. Infect. 15:299307.
163. Paul, M.,, and L. Leibovici. 2009. Combination antimicrobial treatment versus monotherapy: the contribution of meta-analyses. Infect. Dis. Clin. N. Am. 23:277293.
164. Paule, S. M.,, D. M. Hacek,, B. Kufner,, K. Truchon,, R. B. Thomson, Jr.,, K. L. Kaul,, A. Robicsek,, and L. R. Peterson. 2007. Performance of the BD GeneOhm methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus test before and during high-volume clinical use. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45:29932998.
165. Paule, S. M.,, M. Mehta,, D. M. Hacek,, T. M. Gonzalzles,, A. Robicsek,, and L. R. Peterson. 2009. Chromogenic media vs real-time PCR for nasal surveillance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: impact on detection of MRSA-positive persons. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 131:532539.
166. Pefanis, A.,, C. Thauvin-Eliopoulos,, G. Eliopoulos,, and R. C. Moellering, Jr. 1993. Activity of ampicillin-sulbactam and oxacillin in experimental endocarditis caused by blactamase-hyperproducing Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 37:507511.
167. Perazzi, B.,, M. R. Fermepin,, A. Malimovka,, S. D. Garcia,, M. Orgambide,, C. A. Vay,, R. de Torres,, and A. M. R. Famiglietti. 2006. Accuracy of cefoxitin disk testing for characterization of oxacillin resistance mediated by penicillinbinding protein 2a in coagulase-negative staphylococci. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:36343639.
168. Perez, L.,, A. Antunes,, A. Barth,, and P. d’Azevedo. 2007. Variations of agar screen tests for detection of methicillin resistance in staphylococci: focus on cefoxitin. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 26:267270.
169. Perichon, B.,, P. Reynolds,, and P. Courvalin. 1997. VanDtype glycopeptide-resistant Enterococcus faecium BM4339. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41:20162018.
170. Philippon, A.,, G. Arlet,, and G. A. Jacoby. 2002. Plasmiddetermined AmpC-type β-lactamases. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46:111.
171. Prakash, V.,, J. S. Lewis II,, and J. H. Jorgensen. 2008. Vancomycin MICs for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates differ based upon the susceptibility test method used. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52:4528.
172. Pupin, H.,, H. Renaudin,, O. Join-Lambert,, C. Bebear,, F. Megraud,, and P. Lehours. 2007. Evaluation of moxalactam with the BD Phoenix system for detection of methicillin resistance in coagulase-negative staphylococci. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45:20052008.
173. Queenan, A. M.,, and K. Bush. 2007. Carbapenemases: the versatile β-lactamases. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 20:440458.
174. Ramotar, K.,, W. Woods,, L. Larocque,, and B. Toye. 2000. Comparison of phenotype methods to identify enterococci intrinsically resistant to vancomycin (vanC VRE). Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 36:119124.
175. Ramotar, K.,, W. Woods,, and B. Toye. 2001. Oxacillin susceptibility testing of Staphylococcus saprophyticus using disk diffusion, agar dilution, broth microdilution, and the Vitek GPS-105 card. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 40:203205.
176. Raney, P. M.,, F. C. Tenover,, R. B. Carey,, J. E. McGowan, Jr.,, and J. B. Patel. 2006. Investigation of inducible clindamycin and telithromycin resistance in isolates of b-hemolytic streptococci. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 55:213218.
177. Reller, L. B. 1986. The serum bactericidal test. Rev. Infect. Dis. 8:803808.
178. Resende, C. A.,, and A. M. Figueiredo. 1997. Discrimination of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from borderlineresistant and susceptible isolates by different methods. J. Med. Microbiol. 46:145149.
179. Robberts, F. J.,, P. C. Kohner,, and R. Patel. 2009. Unreliable extended-spectrum β-lactamase detection in the presence of plasmid-mediated AmpC in Escherichia coli clinical isolates. J. Clin. Microbiol. 47:358361.
180. Roghmann, M. 2000. Predicting methicillin resistance and the effect of inadequate empiric therapy on survival in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Ann. Intern. Med. 160:10011004.
181. Rybak, M. J.,, S. N. Leonard,, K. L. Rossi,, C. M. Cheung,, H. S. Sader,, and R. N. Jones. 2008. Characterization of vancomycin-heteroresistant Staphylococcus aureus from the metropolitan area of Detroit, Michigan, over a 22-year period (1986 to 2007). J. Clin. Microbiol. 46:29502954.
182. Sabath, L. 1977. Chemical and physical factors influencing methicillin resistance of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 3:4751.
183. Saha, B.,, A. K. Singh,, A. Ghosh,, and M. Bal. 2008. Identification and characterization of a vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from Kolkata (South Asia). J. Med. Microbiol. 57:7279.
184. Sahm, D. F.,, S. Boonlayangoor,, P. C. Iwen,, J. L. Baade,, and G. L. Woods. 1991. Factors influencing determination of high-level aminoglycoside resistance in Enterococcus faecalis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29:19341939.
185. Sahm, D. F.,, S. Boonlayangoor,, and J. E. Schulz. 1991. Detection of high-level aminoglycoside resistance in enterococci other than Enterococcus faecalis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29:25952598.
186. Sahm, D. F.,, J. Kissinger,, M. S. Gilmore,, P. R. Murray,, R. Mulder,, J. Solliday,, and B. Clarke. 1989. In vitro susceptibility studies of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33:15881591.
187. Sahm, D. F.,, and L. Olsen. 1990. In vitro detection of enterococcal vancomycin resistance. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 34:18461848.
188. Sahm, D. F.,, and C. Torres. 1988. Effects of medium and inoculum variations on screening for high-level aminoglycoside resistance in Enterococcus faecalis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26:250256.
189. Sahm, D. F.,, and C. Torres. 1988. High-content aminoglycoside disks for determining aminoglycoside-penicillin synergy against Enterococcus faecalis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26:257260.
190. Saiman, L. 2007. Clinical utility of synergy testing for multidrugresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from patients with cystic fibrosis: ‘the motion for.’ Paediatr. Respir. Rev. 8:249255.
191. Sakoulas, G.,, P. DeGirolami,, and H. S. Gold. 2001. Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus: believe it, or not. Ann. Intern. Med. 161:12371238.
192. Sakoulas, G.,, H. S. Gold,, L. Venkataraman,, P. DeGirolami,, G. M. Eliopoulos,, and Q. Qian. 2001. Methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus: comparison of susceptibility testing methods and analysis of mecA-positive susceptible strains. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:39463951.
193. Sanyal, D.,, A. P. Johnson,, R. C. George,, B. D. Cookson,, and A. J. Williams. 1991. Peritonitis due to vancomycinresistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. Lancet 337:54.
194. Schlichter, J. G.,, H. MacLean,, and A. Milzer. 1949. Effective penicillin therapy in subacute bacterial endocarditis and other chronic infections. Am. J. Med. Sci. 217:600608.
195. Schwalbe, R. S.,, J. T. Stapleton,, and P. H. Gilligan. 1987. Emergence of vancomycin resistance in coagulase-negative staphylococci. N. Engl. J. Med. 316:927931.
196. Sculier, J. P.,, and J. Klastersky. 1984. Significance of serum bactericidal activity in gram-negative bacillary bacteremia in patients with and without granulocytopenia. Am. J. Med. 76:429435.
197. Secchi, C.,, A. L. Antunes,, L. R. Perez,, V. V. Cantarelli,, and P. A. d’Azevedo. 2008. Identification and detection of methicillin resistance in non-epidermidis coagulase-negative staphylococci. Braz. J. Infect. Dis. 12:316320.
198. Shehabi, A. A.,, A. Mahafzah,, I. Baadran,, F. A. Qadar,, and N. Dajani. 2000. High incidence of Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates to extended-spectrum β-lactam drugs in intensive care units. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 36:5356.
199. Sievert, D. M.,, J. T. Rudrik,, J. B. Patel,, L. C. McDonald,, M. J. Wilkins,, and J. C. Hageman. 2008. Vancomycinresistant Staphylococcus aureus in the United States, 2002-2006. Clin. Infect. Dis. 46:668674.
200. Silva-Carvalho, M. C.,, L. A. Teixeira,, F. A. Ferreira,, A. Ribeiro,, B. T. Ferreira-Carvalho,, and A. M. Figueiredo. 2009. Comparison of different methods for detecting methicillin resistance in MRSA isolates belonging to international lineages commonly isolated in the American continent. Microbiol. Immunol. 53:117122.
201. Simor, A. E.,, E. Phillips,, A. McGeer,, A. Konvalinka,, M. Loeb,, H. R. Devlin,, and A. Kiss. 2007. Randomized controlled trial of chlorhexidine gluconate for washing, intranasal mupirocin, and rifampin and doxycycline versus no treatment for the eradication of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization. Clin. Infect. Dis. 44:178185.
202. Simor, A. E.,, T. L. Stuart,, L. Louie,, C. Watt,, M. Ofner-Agostini,, D. Gravel,, M. Mulvey,, M. Loeb,, A. McGeer,, E. Bryce,, and A. Matlow. 2007. Mupirocin-resistant, methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains in Canadian hospitals. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51:38803886.
203. Skov, R. L.,, L. V. Palleson,, R. L. Poulsen,, and F. Espersen. 1999. Evaluation of a new 3-h hybridization method for detecting the mecA gene in Staphylococcus aureus and comparison with existing genotypic and phenotypic susceptibility testing methods. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 43:467475.
204. Slocombe, B.,, and C. Perry. 1991. The antimicrobial activity of mupirocin an update on resistance. J. Hosp. Infect. 19(Suppl. B):1925.
205. Souli, M.,, P. D. Rekatsina,, Z. Chryssouli,, I. Galani,, H. Giamarellou,, and K. Kanellakopoulou. 2009. Does the activity of the combination of imipenem and colistin in vitro exceed the problem of resistance in metallo-β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates? Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53:21332135.
206. Srinivasan, A.,, J. D. Dick,, and T. M. Perl. 2002. Vancomycin resistance in staphylococci. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 15:430438.
207. Standiford, H. D.,, J. B. deMaine,, and W. M. Kirby. 1970. Antibiotic synergism of enterococci. Arch. Intern. Med. 126:255259.
208. Stapleton, P. D.,, K. P. Shannon,, and G. L. French. 1999. Carbapenem resistance in Escherichia coli associated with plasmid-determined CMY-4 β-lactamase production and loss of an outer membrane protein. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother . 43:12061210.
209. Stefaniuk, E.,, A. Baraniak,, M. Gniadkowski,, and K. Hryniewicz. 2003. Evaluation of the BD Phoenix automated identification and susceptibility testing system in clinical microbiology laboratory practice. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis . 22:479485.
210. Stepanovic, S.,, T. Hauschild,, I. Dakic,, Z. Al-Doori,, M. Svabic-Vlahovic,, L. Ranin,, and D. Morrison. 2006. Evaluation of phenotypic and molecular methods for detection of oxacillin resistance in members of the Staphylococcus sciuri group. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:934937.
211. Steward, C. D.,, P. M. Raney,, A. K. Morrell,, P. P. Williams,, L. K. McDougal,, L. Jevitt,, J. E. McGowan, Jr.,, and F. C. Tenover. 2005. Testing for inducible clindamycin resistance in erythromycin-resistant isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:17161721.
212. Swenson, J. M.,, K. F. Anderson,, D. R. Lonsway,, A. Thompson,, S. K. McAllister,, B. M. Limbago,, R. B. Carey,, F. C. Tenover,, and J. B. Patel. 2009. Accuracy of commercial and reference susceptibility testing methods for detecting vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus J. Clin. Microbiol. 47:20132017.
213. Swenson, J. M.,, W. B. Brasso,, M. J. Ferraro,, D. J. Hardy,, C. C. Knapp,, D. Lonsway,, S. McAllister,, L. B. Reller,, H. S. Sader,, D. Shortridge,, R. Skov,, M. P. Weinstein,, B. L. Zimmer,, and J. B. Patel. 2009. Correlation of cefoxitin MICs with the presence of mecA in Staphylococcus spp. J. Clin. Microbiol. 47:19021905.
214. Swenson, J. M.,, W. B. Brasso,, M. J. Ferraro,, D. J. Hardy,, C. C. Knapp,, L. K. McDougal,, L. B. Reller,, H. S. Sader,, D. Shortridge,, R. Skov,, M. P. Weinstein,, B. L. Zimmer,, and J. B. Patel. 2007. Detection of inducible clindamycin resistance in staphylococci by broth microdilution using erythromycin-clindamycin combination wells. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45:39543957.
215. Swenson, J. M.,, N. Clark,, M. J. Ferraro,, D. F. Sahm,, G. Doern,, M. A. Pfaller,, L. B. Reller,, M. P. Weinstein,, R. J. Zabransky,, and F. C. Tenover. 1994. Development of a standardized screening method for detection of vancomycinresistant enterococci. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32:17001704.
216. Swenson, J. M.,, N. C. Clark,, D. F. Sahm,, M. J. Ferraro,, G. Doern,, J. Hindler,, J. H. Jorgensen,, M. A. Pfaller,, L. B. Reller,, M. P. Weinstein,, R. J. Zabransky,, and F. C. Tenover. 1995. Molecular characterization and multilaboratory evaluation of Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 51299 and quality control of screening tests for vancomycin and high-level aminoglycoside resistance in enterococci. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:30193021.
217. Swenson, J. M.,, M. J. Ferraro,, D. Sahm,, N. C. Clark,, D. Culver,, F. C. Tenover, and The National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards Study Group on Enterococci. 1995. Multilaboratory evaluation of screening methods for detection of high-level aminoglycoside resistance in enterococci. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:30083018.
218. Swenson, J. M.,, B. C. Hill,, and C. Thornsberry. 1989. Problems with the disk diffusion test for detection of vancomycin resistance in enterococci. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27:21402142. (Erratum, 28:403, 1990.).
219. Swenson, J. M.,, B. C. Hill,, and C. Thornsberry. 1986. Screening pneumococci for penicillin resistance. J. Clin. Microbiol. 24:749752.
220. Swenson, J. M.,, D. Lonsway,, S. McAllister,, A. Thompson,, L. Jevitt,, W. Zhu,, and J. B. Patel. 2007. Detection of mecAmediated resistance using reference and commercial testing methods in a collection of Staphylococcus aureus expressing borderline oxacillin MICs. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 58:3339.
221. Swenson, J. M.,, R. Skov,, and J. B. Patel. 2007. The cefoxitin disk test—what a clinical microbiologist needs to know. Clin. Microbiol. Newsl. 29:3340.
222. Swenson, J. M.,, J. Spargo,, F. C. Tenover,, and M. J. Ferraro. 2001. Optimal inoculation methods and quality control for the NCCLS oxacillin agar screen test for detection of oxacillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:37813784.
223. Swenson, J. M.,, F. C. Tenover, and the Cefoxitin Disk Study Group. 2005. Results of disk diffusion testing with cefoxitin correlate with presence of mecA in Staphylococcus spp. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:38183823.
224. Swenson, J. M.,, P. P. Williams,, G. Killgore,, C. M. O’Hara,, and F. C. Tenover. 2001. Performance of eight methods, including two new rapid methods, for detection of oxacillin resistance in a challenge set of Staphylococcus aureus organisms. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:37853788.
225. Swenson, J. M.,, B. Wong,, A. E. Simor,, R. B. Thomson,, M. J. Ferraro,, D. J. Hardy,, J. Hindler,, J. Jorgensen,, L. B. Reller,, M. Traczewski,, L. K. McDougal,, and J. B. Patel. 5 May 2010. A multicenter study to determine disk diffusion and broth microdilution criteria for prediction of high- and low-level mupirocin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. J. Clin. Microbiol. doi:10.1128/JCM.00340-10.
226. Tan, T. Y.,, L. S. Y. Ng,, J. He,, T. H. Koh,, and L. Y. Hsu. 2009. Evaluation of screening methods to detect plasmidmediated AmpC in Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53:146149.
227. Taylor, P. C.,, F. D. Schoenknecht,, J. C. Sherris,, and E. C. Linner. 1983. Determination of minimum bactericidal concentrations of oxacillin for Staphylococcus aureus: influence and significance of technical factors. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother . 23:142150.
228. Tee, W. S.,, S. Y. Soh,, R. Lin,, and L. H. Loo. 2003. Staphylococcus lugdunensis carrying the mecA gene causes catheterassociated bloodstream infection in premature neonate. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:519520.
229. Tenover, F. C.,, S. L. Emery,, C. A. Spiegel,, P. A. Bradford,, S. Eells,, A. Endimiani,, R. A. Bonomo,, and J. E. McGowan, Jr. 2009. Identification of plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases in Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., and Proteus species can potentially improve reporting of cephalosporin susceptibility testing results. J. Clin. Microbiol. 47:294299.
230. Tenover, F. C.,, R. N. Jones,, J. M. Swenson,, B. Zimmer,, S. McAllister,, and J. H. Jorgensen for the NCCLS Staphylococcus Working Group. 1999. Methods for improved detection of oxacillin resistance in coagulase-negative staphylococci: results of a multicenter study. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:40514058.
231. Tenover, F. C.,, M. V. Lancaster,, B. C. Hill,, C. D. Steward,, S. A. Stocker,, G. A. Hancock,, C. M. O’Hara,, N. C. Clark,, and K. Hiramatsu. 1998. Characterization of staphylococci with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin and other glycopeptides. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:10201027.
232. Tenover, F. C.,, and R. C. Moellering, Jr. 2007. The rationale for revising the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute vancomycin minimal inhibitory concentration interpretive criteria for Staphylococcus aureus. Clin. Infect. Dis. 44:12081215.
233. Tenover, F. C.,, J. M. Swenson,, C. M. O’Hara,, and S. A. Stocker. 1995. Ability of commercial and reference antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods to detect vancomycin resistance in enterococci. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:15241527.
234. Thauvin-Eliopoulos, E.,, L. B. Rice,, G. M. Eliopoulos,, and R. C. Moellering, Jr. 1990. Efficacy of oxacillin and ampicillin-sulbactam combination in experimental endocarditis caused by β-lactamase-hyperproducing Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 34:728732.
235. Tomasz, A.,, H. B. Drugeon,, H. M. de Lencastre,, D. Jabes,, L. McDougal,, and J. Bille. 1989. New mechanism for methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus: clinical isolates that lack the PBP 2a gene and contain modified penicillinbinding proteins with modified penicillin-binding capacity. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33:18691874.
236. Tomasz, A.,, S. Nachman,, and H. Leaf. 1991. Stable classes of phenotypic expression in methicillin-resistant clinical isolates of staphylococci. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 35:124129.
237. Tonin, E.,, and A. Tomasz. 1986. β-lactam-specific resistant mutants of Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 30:577583.
241. Tsai, S.,, M. J. Zervos,, D. B. Clewell,, S. Donabedian,, D. F. Sahm,, and J. W. Chow. 1998. A new high-level gentamicin resistance gene, aph(20)-Id, in Enterococcus spp. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 42:12291232.
238. Tuomanen, E.,, D. T. Durack,, and A. Tomasz. 1986. Antibiotic tolerance among clinical isolates of bacteria. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 30:521527.
239. Uh, Y.,, D. H. Shin,, I. H. Jang,, G. Y. Hwang,, M. K. Lee,, K. J. Yoon,, and H. Y. Kim. 2004. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and macrolide resistance genes of viridans group streptococci from blood cultures in Korea. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 53:10951097.
240. van den Braak, N.,, W. Goessens,, A. van Belkum,, H. Verbrugh,, and H. Endtz. 2001. Accuracy of the VITEK 2 system to detect glycopeptide resistance in enterococci. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:351353.
241. Van Horn, K. G.,, C. A. Gedris,, K. M. Rodney,, and J. B. Mitchell. 1996. Evaluation of commercial vancomycin agar screen plates for detection of vancomycin-resistant enterococci. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:20422044.
242. Veach, L. A.,, M. A. Pfaller,, M. Barrett,, F. P. Koontz,, and R. P. Wenzel. 1990. Vancomycin resistance in Staphylococcus haemolyticus causing colonization and bloodstream infection. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28:20642068.
243. Velasco, D.,, M. del Mar Tomas,, M. Cartelle,, A. Becceiro,, A. Perez,, F. Molina,, R. Moure,, R. Villanueva,, and G. Bou. 2005. Evaluation of different methods for detecting methicillin (oxacillin) resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 55:379382.
244. Vidaillac, C.,, S. N. Leonard,, H. S. Sader,, R. N. Jones,, and M. J. Rybak. 2009. In vitro activity of ceftaroline alone and in combination against clinical isolates of resistant gram-negative pathogens, including β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53:23602366.
245. Villegas, M. V.,, K. Lolans,, A. Correa,, J. N. Kattan,, J. A. Lopez,, and J. P. Quinn. 2007. First identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates producing a KPC-type carbapenem- hydrolyzing β-lactamase. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51:15531555.
246. Walsh, T.,, A. Bolmstrom,, A. Qwarnstrom,, P. Ho,, M. Wootton,, R. Howe,, A. MacGowan,, and D. Diekema. 2001. Evaluation of current methods for detection of staphylococci with reduced susceptibility to glycopeptides. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:24392444.
247. Weinstein, M. P.,, C. W. Stratton,, A. Ackley,, H. B. Hawley,, P. A. Robinson,, B. D. Fisher,, D. V. Alcid,, D. S. Stevens,, and L. B. Reller. 1985. Multicenter collaborative evaluation of a standardized bactericidal test as a prognostic indicator in infective endocarditis. Am. J. Med. 78:262269.
248. Weinstein, M. P.,, C. W. Stratton,, H. B. Hawley,, A. Ackley,, and L. B. Reller. 1987. Multicenter collaborative evaluation of a standardized serum bactericidal test as a predictor of therapeutic efficacy in acute and chronic osteomyelitis. Am. J. Med. 83:218222.
249. Wiener, J.,, J. P. Quinn,, P. A. Bradford,, R. V. Goering,, C. Nathan,, K. Bush,, and R. A. Weinstein. 1999. Multiple antibiotic-resistant Klebsiella and Escherichia coli in nursing homes. JAMA 281:517523.
250. Willey, B. M.,, B. N. Kreiswirth,, A. E. Simor,, G. Williams,, S. R. Scriver,, A. Phillips,, and D. E. Low. 1992. Detection of vancomycin resistance in Enterococcus species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:16211624.
251. Winokur, P. L.,, R. Canton,, J. M. Casellas,, and N. Legakis. 2001. Variations in the prevalence of strains expressing an extended spectrum β-lactamase phenotype and characterization of isolates from Europe, the Americas, and the Western Pacific region. Clin. Infect. Dis. 32:94103.