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Chapter 70 : Phenotypic Methods for Detecting Antibacterial Resistance

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Abstract:

This chapter on special phenotypic methods for detecting antibacterial resistance describes details of tests for detection of high-level aminoglycoside resistance and acquired vancomycin resistance in enterococci; tests for detection of inducible clindamycin resistance in streptococci; tests for detection of penicillin, oxacillin, vancomycin, induc-ible clindamycin, and high-level mupirocin resistance in staphylococci; tests for detection of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL) and carbapenemase production in ; and tests for detection of β-lactamases in multiple organisms. Other special phenotypic tests described in the chapter are those for determining the bactericidal activity or combined activities of antimicrobial agents; they are different from the tests that screen for a specific resistance mechanism. As some of the phenotypic tests described here for are not recommended for coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), for detection of oxacillin resistance, the two groups are discussed separately as and and CoNS except . In the clinical laboratory, β-lactamase tests can be used for two purposes. The first is to detect an underlying mechanism of resistance that may not be detected using routine susceptibility testing methods, and the second is to detect a mechanism of resistance that is an infection control concern and epidemiologically important.

Citation: Swneson J, Patel J, Jorgensen J. 2011. Phenotypic Methods for Detecting Antibacterial Resistance, p 1155-1179. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch70

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