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Citation: Forman M, Valsamakis A. .

Key Concept Ranking

Human immunodeficiency virus 1
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
Lower Respiratory Tract Infections
Hepatitis C virus
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Methods used for detection of viruses

Refer to specific chapters for individual viruses; only major viral pathogens, not including rare causes of disease. LCMV, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus; JCV, JC virus; HHV-6, human herpesvirus 6; HBV, hepatitis B virus; HTLV-1, human T-cell lymphotropic virus 1.

Most common detection methods used. NA assays include hybrid capture, NA sequence-based assays, and PCR. IA, immunoassay (includes immunofluorescentantibody assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and immunochromatographic tests. EM, electron microscopy; EA, enzyme (neuraminidase) assay.

Hemorrhagic fever viruses and smallpox virus processing in BSL 4 facilities.

PML, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.

Includes posttransplant lymphomas, immunoblastic B-cell lymphomas, and adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma.

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Specimens for viral diagnostic tests

Includes direct virus detection tests such as culture, Ag detection, and NA detection. Serology is considered separately (see Table 3 ).

Includes throat and nasal swabs and nasal wash, nasopharyngeal aspirate, and BAL specimens.

Includes conjunctiva, cornea, and aqueous and vitreous fluids.

Similar specimen types for distantly related GBV virus C (also referred to as hepatitis G virus).

Neonatal infections.

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Serology as a primary diagnostic tool: timing of serum collection and antibody testing for relevant viruses

HAV, hepatitis A virus; HTLV, human T-cell lymphotropic virus; LCMV, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus.

Convalescent-phase antibody; includes IgG and total antibody (IgG and IgM).

CSF IgM also useful.

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Plasma processing and storage conditions for selected NA tests

RUO, research use only; CE IVD, Conformité Européenne mark for in vitro diagnostics.

Test also verified for serum. Storage conditions apply to HighPure and AmpliPrep extraction.

Long-term storage of serum has not been evaluated.

Not available in the United States.

Once thawed, specimen may be stored at 2–8°C for ≤6 h.

ACD, acid-citrate-dextrose.

If viral pellets are prepared within 30 min of plasma separation.

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Commercial sources and formulations of VTM

Product available as swab-VTM tube combination.

Basal constituents: Hanks balanced salt solution, bovine serum albumin, l-glutamic acid, sucrose, HEPES buffer (pH 7.3), phenol red, and amphotericin B.


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