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Chapter 78 : Algorithms for Detection and Identification of Viruses

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Algorithms for Detection and Identification of Viruses, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

This chapter analyses methods focused on conventional cell cultures, classical serologic techniques, and light and electron microscopy. Novel detection methods have permitted the diagnosis of multiple respiratory viruses in a single multiplex PCR test. Quantitative monitoring of viral load in blood has become more widely applied due to implementation of real-time PCR techniques. As tests become more sensitive, low levels of clinically irrelevant or nonviable viruses may be detected and can be misleading to clinicians. Similarly, interpreting the clinical relevance of multiple viral pathogens in the same sample when relative quantification is not available is problematic. Laboratories need to choose which tests to offer. Selecting the appropriate test will depend on the viruses sought, sample site, clinical presentation, clinical purpose, patient characteristics, and disease prevalence. Laboratories must recognize the uses and also the limitations of each test in order to guide clinicians in interpreting the results. Due to the speed of methodological change and the continuing discovery of new viruses and new therapies, keeping abreast of the most recent literature is strongly recommended.

Citation: Landry M, Caliendo A, Ginocchio C, Tang Y, Valsamakis A. 2011. Algorithms for Detection and Identification of Viruses, p 1297-1301. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch78

Key Concept Ranking

Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques
0.5149816
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
0.5069413
Herpes simplex virus 2
0.48084235
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus
0.41015625
0.5149816
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Tables

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TABLE 1

Methods for detection and identification of viruses

Virus isolation includes conventional cell culture with detection of viral growth by cytopathic effects or hemadsorption, and shell vial centrifugation culture with detection of viral antigens by immunostaining. Viral antigens can be detected by a variety of immunoassays, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, agglutination assays, immunofluorescence or immunoperoxidase techniques, and immunochromatography. Viral nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) can be detected and quantified by direct hybridization or by the performance of amplification methods such as PCR. Electron microscopy involves the visualization of viral particles by negative staining or immunoelectron microscopy, or by thin-section techniques. Antibody detection involves measurement of total or class-specific immunoglobulins directed at specific viral antigens. Abbreviations: IFA, immunofluorescence assay; NAAT, nucleic acid amplification test; BSL, biosafety level; EM, electron microscopy; SARS, severe acute respiratory syndrome; CoV, coronavirus; CNS, central nervous system; LCM, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus; IHC, immunohistochemistry; ISH, in situ hybridization; IgM, immunoglobulin M; HSV-2, herpes simplex virus type 2; MAb, monoclonal antibody; KS, Kaposi's sarcoma; HTLV, human T-cell lymphotropic virus; CSF, cerebrospinal fluid; PML, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy; PVAN, polyomavirus-associated nephropathy; RIG, rabies immune globulin; CRS, congenital rubella syndrome; PrP, prion protein.

A, test is generally useful for the indicated diagnosis; B, test is useful under certain circumstances or for the diagnosis of specific forms of infection, as delineated in the right-hand column and in the text of the individual chapters; C, test is seldom useful for general diagnostic purposes but may be useful for epidemiological studies or for the diagnosis of unusual conditions; D, test is not available or not used for laboratory diagnosis of infection.

Citation: Landry M, Caliendo A, Ginocchio C, Tang Y, Valsamakis A. 2011. Algorithms for Detection and Identification of Viruses, p 1297-1301. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch78

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