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Citation: Landry M, Caliendo A, Ginocchio C, Tang Y, Valsamakis A. .

Key Concept Ranking

Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
Herpes simplex virus 2
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus
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Methods for detection and identification of viruses

Virus isolation includes conventional cell culture with detection of viral growth by cytopathic effects or hemadsorption, and shell vial centrifugation culture with detection of viral antigens by immunostaining. Viral antigens can be detected by a variety of immunoassays, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, agglutination assays, immunofluorescence or immunoperoxidase techniques, and immunochromatography. Viral nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) can be detected and quantified by direct hybridization or by the performance of amplification methods such as PCR. Electron microscopy involves the visualization of viral particles by negative staining or immunoelectron microscopy, or by thin-section techniques. Antibody detection involves measurement of total or class-specific immunoglobulins directed at specific viral antigens. Abbreviations: IFA, immunofluorescence assay; NAAT, nucleic acid amplification test; BSL, biosafety level; EM, electron microscopy; SARS, severe acute respiratory syndrome; CoV, coronavirus; CNS, central nervous system; LCM, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus; IHC, immunohistochemistry; ISH, in situ hybridization; IgM, immunoglobulin M; HSV-2, herpes simplex virus type 2; MAb, monoclonal antibody; KS, Kaposi's sarcoma; HTLV, human T-cell lymphotropic virus; CSF, cerebrospinal fluid; PML, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy; PVAN, polyomavirus-associated nephropathy; RIG, rabies immune globulin; CRS, congenital rubella syndrome; PrP, prion protein.

A, test is generally useful for the indicated diagnosis; B, test is useful under certain circumstances or for the diagnosis of specific forms of infection, as delineated in the right-hand column and in the text of the individual chapters; C, test is seldom useful for general diagnostic purposes but may be useful for epidemiological studies or for the diagnosis of unusual conditions; D, test is not available or not used for laboratory diagnosis of infection.


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