1887

Chapter 80 : Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Types 1 and 2

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Types 1 and 2, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap80-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap80-2.gif

Abstract:

Human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2, respectively) are part of the family and members of the genus. However, high-risk populations, such as intravenous drug users (IDUs), in which HTLV-2 infection predominates over HTLV-1 infection, are reported to have a seroprevalence of up to 20%. IDU and sex with IDUs are the most important risk factors for HTLV-2 transmission. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are appropriate specimens for nucleic acid detection and virus isolation since HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 are cell-associated viruses. Two qualitative PCR procedures, utilizing primers in the or gene region, have been used to confirm and differentiate between HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 infections. The first uses HTLV consensus primers that allow amplification of both viruses; typing is achieved either by hybridizing the product to an HTLV-1-specific or HTLV-2-specific probe or by specific restriction digestion pattern analysis. The second approach employs type-specific primers and probes in separate amplifications. Testing for antibodies to HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 should be performed for all blood donors and any patients presenting with relevant clinical signs and symptoms. A typical algorithm for HTLV testing for diagnostic purposes is outlined in this chapter. If the initial screening immunoassay (EIA or ChLIA) is reactive, a repeat assay of the same specimen is performed in duplicate.

Citation: Owen S, Gessain A, Dezzutti C, Cowan E, Lal R. 2011. Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Types 1 and 2, p 1323-1332. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch80

Key Concept Ranking

Human immunodeficiency virus 1
0.4924877
Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy
0.41680694
0.4924877
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Organization of the HTLV-1 (9,046 bp) and -2 (8,952 bp) proviral genomes. MA, matrix; CA, capsid; NC, nucleocapsid; SU, surface; TM, transmembrane; RT, reverse transcriptase; PR, protease. The gag and env proteins are most immunogenic, and antibodies to these proteins are commonly detected by serological tests (EIA and WB). PCRs are designed to detect regions within the LTR region and the , , , and/or gene.

Citation: Owen S, Gessain A, Dezzutti C, Cowan E, Lal R. 2011. Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Types 1 and 2, p 1323-1332. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch80
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Unrooted phylogenetic tree generated by the neighbor-joining method using a fragment of the LTR region (622 bp) of representative sequences of the different subtypes of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 strains. Bootstrap support (1,000 replicates) is noted on the branches of the tree. The branch lengths are drawn to scale, with the bar indicating 0.1 nucleotide replacement per site. The four main HTLV-1 subtypes (a, b, c, and d), as well as the three main subtypes of HTLV-2 (a, b, and d), are represented. HTLV-1e and HTLV-1f represent the two other rare HTLV-1 subtypes, which have so far been found in a few inhabitants of Central Africa.

Citation: Owen S, Gessain A, Dezzutti C, Cowan E, Lal R. 2011. Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Types 1 and 2, p 1323-1332. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch80
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Serologic testing algorithm for the detection and confirmation of HTLV-1 and -2 infection. If the initial screening immunoassay (EIA or ChLIA) is reactive, a repeat assay with the same specimen is performed in duplicate. If one or both of the repeat tests are reactive, the specimen is classified as repeatedly reactive and supplemental testing is done for the purpose of confirmation. WB criteria shown are those used by the manufacturer and not the PHS working group. In some cases, further follow-up is done using PCR.

Citation: Owen S, Gessain A, Dezzutti C, Cowan E, Lal R. 2011. Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Types 1 and 2, p 1323-1332. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch80
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Western blot analysis of representative plasma or serum specimens from persons infected with HTLV-1 (A), HTLV-2 (B), and untypeable HTLV-1/2 (C). Representative seroreactivity patterns are shown for WBs from MP Biomedicals (previously Genelabs Diagnostics; HTLV-2.4 version), which contain HTLV-1 antigens spiked with r21e (common to HTLV-1 and HTLV-2) and two external recombinant envelope proteins specific for HTLV-1 (rgp46) and HTLV-2 (rgp46). (A) Typical patterns for HTLV-1 reactivity (lanes 1 to 5), atypical reactivity lacking a p24 response (lane 6), and specimens with high antibody titers showing reactivity to both rgp46 proteins (lanes 7 and 8) (titration of sera results in reactivity only to rgp46). (B) Typical patterns for HTLV-2 reactivity (lanes 1 to 6) (note that the p24 band is stronger than p19 reactivity, which is usually absent from HTLV-2-infected sera). (C) HTLV-1/2-positive but untypeable specimens, with reactivity to gag (p24, with or without p19) and r21e but not gp46 or gp46. Lanes 1 and 2, characteristic patterns of specimens that are usually found to contain HTLV-1 after additional testing; lanes 3 to 5, characteristic patterns of specimens that are usually found to contain HTLV-2 after additional testing. (D) Typical patterns from HTLV-indeterminate specimens. Shown are typical HTLV gag-indeterminate profiles frequently found in plasma or sera from individuals originating from tropical regions (Central Africa and Papua New Guinea, etc.) (lanes 1 to 4) and those from low-risk populations (lanes 5 to 7). In the great majority of the cases, neither HTLV-1 nor HTLV-2 infection could be demonstrated in samples with such seroreactivity.

Citation: Owen S, Gessain A, Dezzutti C, Cowan E, Lal R. 2011. Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Types 1 and 2, p 1323-1332. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch80
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555816728.chap80
1. Albrecht, B.,, N. D. Collins,, G. C. Newbound,, L. Ratner,, and M. D. Lairmore. 1998. Quantification of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 proviral load by quantitative competitive polymerase chain reaction. J. Virol. Methods 75: 123 140.
2. Andersson, S.,, R. Thorstensson,, K. G. Ramirez,, A. Krook,, M. von Sydow,, F. Dias,, and G. Biberfeld. 1999. Comparative evaluation of 14 immunoassays for detection of antibodies to the human T-lymphotropic virus types I and II using panels of sera from Sweden and West Africa. Transfusion 39: 845 851.
3. Andersson, S.,, A. Gessain,, and G. P. Taylor. 2001. Pooling of samples for seroepidemiological surveillance of human Tcell lymphotropic virus types I and II. Virus Res. 78: 101 106.
4. Araujo, A.,, and W. W. Hall. 2004. Human T-lymphotropic virus type II and neurological disease. Ann. Neurol. 56: 10 19.
5. Araujo, A.,, and M. T. Silva. 2006. The HTLV-1 neurological complex. Lancet Neurol. 5: 1068 1076.
6. Azran, I.,, Y. Schavinsky-Khrapunsky,, E. Priel,, M. Huleihel,, and M. Aboud. 2004. Implications of the evolution pattern of human T-cell leukemia retroviruses on their pathogenic virulence. Int. J. Mol. Med. 14: 909 915.
7. Bazarbachi, A.,, D. Ghez,, Y. Lepelletier,, R. Nasr,, H. de The,, M. E. El-Sabban,, and O. Hermine. 2004. New therapeutic approaches for adult T-cell leukaemia. Lancet Oncol. 5: 664 672.
8. Beilke, M. A.,, K. P. Theall,, M. O’Brien,, J. L. Clayton,, S. M. Benjamin,, E. L. Winsor,, and P. J. Kissinger. 2004. Clinical outcomes and disease progression among patients coinfected with HIV and human T lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2. Clin. Infect. Dis. 39: 256 263.
9. Beilke, M. A.,, V. L. Traina-Dorge,, M. Sirois,, A. Bhuiyan,, E. L. Murphy,, J. M. Walls,, R. Fagan,, E. L. Winsor,, and P. J. Kissinger. 2007. Relationship between human T lymphotropic virus (HTLV) type 1/2 viral burden and clinical and treatment parameters among patients with HIV type 1 and HTLV-1/2 coinfection. Clin. Infect. Dis. 44: 1229 1234.
10. Busch, M. P.,, W. M. Switzer,, E. L. Murphy,, R. Thomson,, and W. Heneine. 2000. Absence of evidence of infection with divergent primate T-lymphotropic viruses in United States blood donors who have seroindeterminate HTLV test results. Transfusion 40: 443 449.
11. Calattini, S.,, S. A. Chevalier,, R. Duprez,, S. Bassot,, A. Froment,, R. Mahieux,, and A. Gessain. 2005. Discovery of a new human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-3) in Central Africa. Retrovirology 2: 30.
12. Castro, N. M.,, W. Rodrigues,, D. M. Freitas,, A. Muniz,, P. Oliveira,, and E. M. Carvalho. 2007. Urinary symptoms associated with human T-cell lymphotropic virus I infection: evidence of urinary manifestations in large group of HTLV-I carriers. Urology 69: 813 818.
13. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the U.S. Public Health Service Working Group. 1993. Guidelines for counseling persons infected with human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) and type II (HTLV-II). Ann. Intern. Med. 118: 448454.
14. Cesaire, R.,, O. Bera,, H. Maier,, A. Lezin,, J. Martial,, M. Ouka,, B. Kerob-Bauchet,, A. K. Ould Amar,, and J. C. Vernant. 1999. Seroindeterminate patterns and seroconversions to human T-lymphotropic virus type I positivity in blood donors from Martinique, French West Indies. Transfusion 39: 1145 1149.
15. Courouce, A. M.,, J. Pillonel,, and C. Saura. 1999. Screening of blood donations for HTLV-I/II. Transfus. Med. Rev. 13: 267 274.
16. Derse, D.,, G. Heidecker,, M. Mitchell,, S. Hill,, P. Lloyd,, and G. Princler. 2004. Infectious transmission and replication of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1. Front. Biosci. 9: 2495 2499.
17. Dodd, R. Y.,, E. P. Notari,, and S. L. Stramer. 2002. Current prevalence and incidence of infectious disease markers and estimated window-period risk in the American Red Cross blood donor population. Transfusion 42: 975 979.
18. Ferreira, O. C., Jr.,, V. Planelles,, and J. D. Rosenblatt. 1997. Human T-cell leukemia viruses: epidemiology, biology, and pathogenesis. Blood Rev. 11: 91 104.
19. Food and Drug Administration. 1997. Guidance for Industry: Donor Screening for Antibodies to HTLV-II. U.S. FDA, Washington, DC. [Online.] http://www.fda.gov/Biologics-BloodVaccines/GuidanceComplianceRegulatoryInformation/Guidances/Blood/ucm170786.htm..
20. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research. 2007. Guidance for Industry: Eligibility Determination for Donors of Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and Tissue-Based Products (HCT/Ps). U.S. FDA, Washington, DC. [Online.] http://www.fda.gov/BiologicsBloodVaccines/GuidanceComplianceRegulatoryInformation/Guidances/CellularandGeneTherapy/ucm072929.htm..
21. Gallo, D.,, L. M. Penning,, and C. V. Hanson. 1991. Detection and differentiation of antibodies to human T-cell lymphotropic virus types I and II by the immunofluorescence method. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29: 2345 2347.
22. Ghez, D.,, Y. Lepelletier,, S. Lambert,, J. M. Fourneau,, V. Blot,, S. Janvier,, B. Arnulf,, P. M. van Endert,, N. Heveker,, C. Pique,, and O. Hermine. 2006. Neuropilin-1 is involved in human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 entry. J. Virol. 80: 6844 6854.
23. Glynn, S. A.,, S. H. Kleinman,, G. B. Schreiber,, M. P. Busch,, D. J. Wright,, J. W. Smith,, C. C. Nass,, A. E. Williams, and the Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study (REDS). 2000. Trends in incidence and prevalence of major transfusion-transmissible viral infections in US blood donors, 1991 to 1996. JAMA 284: 229 235.
24. Heneine, W.,, R. F. Khabbaz,, R. B. Lal,, and J. E. Kaplan. 1992. Sensitive and specific polymerase chain reaction assays for diagnosis of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) and HTLV-II infections in HTLV-I/II-seropositive individuals. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30: 1605 1607.
25. Kamihira, S.,, N. Dateki,, K. Sugahara,, Y. Yamada,, M. Tomonaga,, T. Maeda,, and M. Tahara. 2000. Real-time polymerase chain reaction for quantification of HTLV-1 proviral load: application for analyzing aberrant integration of the proviral DNA in adult T-cell leukemia. Int. J. Hematol. 72: 79 84.
26. Kinet, S.,, L. Swainson,, M. Lavanya,, C. Mongellaz,, A. Montel- Hagen,, M. Craveiro,, N. Manel,, J. L. Battini,, M. Sitbon,, and N. Taylor. 2007. Isolated receptor binding domains of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 envelopes bind Glut-1 on activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Retrovirology 4: 31.
27. Lal, R. B.,, D. L. Rudolph,, J. E. Coligan,, S. K. Brodine,, and C. R. Roberts. 1992. Failure to detect evidence of human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) type I and type II in blood donors with isolated gag antibodies to HTLV-I/II. Blood 80: 544 550.
28. Lal, R. B. 1996. Delineation of immunodominant epitopes of human T-lymphotropic virus types I and II and their usefulness in developing serologic assays for detection of antibodies to HTLV-I and HTLV-II. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol. 13( Suppl. 1): S170 S178.
29. Lee, T. H.,, D. M. Chafets,, M. P. Busch,, and E. L. Murphy. 2004. Quantitation of HTLV-I and II proviral load using realtime quantitative PCR with SYBR Green chemistry. J. Clin. Virol. 31: 275 282.
30. Li, H. C.,, R. J. Biggar,, W. J. Miley,, E. M. Maloney,, B. Cranston,, B. Hanchard,, and M. Hisada. 2004. Provirus load in breast milk and risk of mother-to-child transmission of human T lymphotropic virus type I. J. Infect. Dis. 190: 1275 1278.
31. Liu, H.,, M. Shah,, S. L. Stramer,, W. Chen,, B. J. Weiblen,, and E. L. Murphy. 1999. Sensitivity and specificity of human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) types I and II polymerase chain reaction and several serologic assays in screening a population with a high prevalence of HTLV-II. Transfusion 39: 1185 1193.
32. Mahieux, R.,, and A. Gessain. 2003. HTLV-1 and associated adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. Rev. Clin. Exp. Hematol. 7: 336 361.
33. Mahieux, R.,, P. Horal,, P. Mauclere,, O. Mercereau- Puijalon,, M. Guillotte,, L. Meertens,, E. Murphey,, and A. Gessain. 2000. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I gag indeterminate Western blot patterns in Central Africa: relationship to Plasmodium falciparum infection. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 4049 4057.
34. Manel, N.,, F. J. Kim,, S. Kinet,, N. Taylor,, M. Sitbon,, and J. L. Battini. 2003. The ubiquitous glucose transporter GLUT-1 is a receptor for HTLV. Cell 115: 449 459.
35. Manns, A.,, E. L. Murphy,, R. Wilks,, G. Haynes,, J. P. Figueroa,, B. Hanchard,, M. Barnett,, J. Drummond,, D. Waters,, and M. Cerney. 1991. Detection of early human Tcell lymphotropic virus type I antibody patterns during seroconversion among transfusion recipients. Blood 77: 896 905.
36. Manns, A.,, M. Hisada,, and L. La Grenade. 1999. Human Tlymphotropic virus type I infection. Lancet 353: 1951 1958.
37. Matsuoka, M.,, and K. T. Jeang. 2007. Human T-cell leukaemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infectivity and cellular transformation. Nat. Rev. Cancer 7: 270 280.
38. Mauclere, P.,, J. Y. Le Hesran,, R. Mahieux,, R. Salla,, J. Mfoupouendoun,, E. T. Abada,, J. Millan,, G. de The,, and A. Gessain. 1997. Demographic, ethnic, and geographic differences between human T cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) type I-seropositive carriers and persons with HTLV-I gagindeterminate Western blots in Central Africa. J. Infect. Dis. 176: 505 509.
39. Medrano, F. J.,, V. Soriano,, E. J. Calderon,, C. Rey,, M. Gutierrez,, R. Bravo,, M. Leal,, J. Gonzalez-Lahoz,, and E. Lissen. 1997. Significance of indeterminate reactivity to human T-cell lymphotropic virus in Western blot analysis of individuals at risk. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 16: 249 252.
40. Miley, W. J.,, K. Suryanarayana,, A. Manns,, R. Kubota,, S. Jacobson,, J. D. Lifson,, and D. Waters. 2000. Real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for cell-associated HTLV type I DNA viral load. AIDS Res. Hum. Retrovir. 16: 665 675.
41. Murphy, E. L.,, T. H. Lee,, D. Chafets,, C. C. Nass,, B. Wang,, K. Loughlin,, D. Smith, and the HTLV Outcomes Study Investigators. 2004. Higher human T lymphotropic virus (HTLV) provirus load is associated with HTLV-I versus HTLV-II, with HTLV-II subtype A versus B, and with male sex and a history of blood transfusion. J. Infect. Dis. 190: 504 510.
42. Oh, U.,, Y. Yamano,, C. A. Mora,, J. Ohayon,, F. Bagnato,, J. A. Butman,, J. Dambrosia,, T. P. Leist,, H. McFarland,, and S. Jacobson. 2005. Interferon-beta1a therapy in human T-lymphotropic virus type I-associated neurologic disease. Ann. Neurol. 57: 526 534.
43. Oh, U.,, and S. Jacobson. 2008. Treatment of HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis: toward rational targeted therapy. Neurol. Clin. 26: 781 797.
44. Overbaugh, J.,, and C. R. Bangham. 2001. Selection forces and constraints on retroviral sequence variation. Science 292: 1106 1109.
45. Poiesz, B. J.,, S. Dube,, D. Choi,, E. Esteban,, J. Ferrer,, M. Leon- Ponte,, G. E. de Perez,, J. Glaser,, S. G. Devare,, A. S. Vallari,, and G. Schochetman. 2000. Comparative performances of an HTLV-I/II EIA and other serologic and PCR assays on samples from persons at risk for HTLV-II infection. Transfusion 40: 924 930.
46. Proietti, F. A.,, A. B. Carneiro-Proietti,, B. C. Catalan-Soares,, and E. L. Murphy. 2005. Global epidemiology of HTLV-I infection and associated diseases. Oncogene 24: 6058 6068.
47. Qiu, X.,, S. Hodges,, T. Lukaszewska,, S. Hino,, H. Ara,, J. Yamaguchi,, P. Swanson,, G. Schochetman,, and S. Devare. 2008. Evaluation of a new fully automated immunoassay for the detection of HTLV-I and HTLV-II antibodies. J. Med. Virol. 80: 484 493.
48. Ratner, L. 2004. Adult T cell leukemia lymphoma. Front. Biosci. 9: 2852 2859.
49. Roucoux, D. F.,, and E. L. Murphy. 2004. The epidemiology and disease outcomes of human T-lymphotropic virus type II. AIDS Rev. 6: 144 154.
50. Roucoux, D. F.,, B. Wang,, D. Smith,, C. C. Nass,, J. Smith,, S. T. Hutching,, B. Newman,, T. H. Lee,, D. M. Chafets,, E. L. Murphy, and the HTLV Outcomes Study Investigators. 2005. A prospective study of sexual transmission of human T lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-I and HTLV-II. J. Infect. Dis. 191: 1490 1497.
51. Rouet, F.,, L. Meertens,, G. Courouble,, C. Herrmann- Storck,, R. Pabingui,, B. Chancerel,, A. Abid,, M. Strobel,, P. Mauclere,, and A. Gessain. 2001. Serological, epidemiological, and molecular differences between human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-seropositive healthy carriers and persons with HTLV-I gag indeterminate Western blot patterns from the Caribbean. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39: 1247 1253.
52. Sabino, E. C.,, M. Zrein,, C. P. Taborda,, M. M. Otani,, G. Ribeiro-Dos-Santos,, and A. Saez-Alquezar. 1999. Evaluation of the INNO-LIA HTLV I/II assay for confirmation of human T-cell leukemia virus-reactive sera in blood bank donations. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 1324 1328.
53. Saito, M.,, M. Nakagawa,, S. Kaseda,, T. Matsuzaki,, M. Jonosono,, N. Eiraku,, R. Kubota, N. Takenouchi,, M. Nagai,, Y. Furukawa,, K. Usuku,, S. Izumo,, and M. Osame. 2004. Decreased human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) provirus load and alteration in T cell phenotype after interferonalpha therapy for HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. J. Infect. Dis. 189: 29 40.
54. Salemi, M.,, M. Lewis,, J. F. Egan,, W. W. Hall,, J. Desmyter,, and A. M. Vandamme. 1999. Different population dynamics of human T cell lymphotropic virus type II in intravenous drug users compared with endemically infected tribes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96: 13253 13258.
55. Schreiber, G. B.,, M. P. Busch,, S. H. Kleinman,, J. J. Korelitz, and the Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study Group. 1996. The risk of transfusion-transmitted viral infections. N. Engl. J. Med. 334: 1685 1690.
56. Slattery, J. P.,, G. Franchini,, and A. Gessain. 1999. Genomic evolution, patterns of global dissemination, and interspecies transmission of human and simian T-cell leukemia/ lymphotropic viruses. Genome Res. 9: 525 540.
57. Soldan, S. S.,, M. D. Graf,, A. Waziri,, A. N. Flerlage,, S. M. Robinson,, T. Kawanishi,, T. P. Leist,, T. J. Lehky,, M. C. Levin,, and S. Jacobson. 1999. HTLV-I/II seroindeterminate Western blot reactivity in a cohort of patients with neurological disease. J. Infect. Dis. 180: 685 694.
58. Stramer, S. L.,, J. P. Brodsky,, J. Trenbeath,, L. Taylor,, B. Peoples,, and R. Y. Dodd. 1999. Resolution testing of HTLV-I/II screening test repeatedly reactive donor samples by the use of a dual EIA algorithm. Transfusion 39: 106S.
59. Stramer S. L.,, G. A. Foster,, and R. Y. Dodd. 2006. Effectiveness of human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) recipient tracing (lookback) and the current HTLV-I and II confirmatory algorithm, 1999 to 2004. Transfusion 46: 703 707.
60. Takenouchi, N.,, K. Yao,, and S. Jacobson. 2004. Immunopathogenesis of HTLV-I associated neurologic disease: molecular, histopathologic, and immunologic approaches. Front. Biosci. 9: 2527 2539.
61. Takenouchi, N.,, K. S. Jones,, I. Lisinski,, K. Fugo,, K. Yao,, S. W. Cushman,, F. W. Ruscetti,, and S. Jacobson. 2007 GLUT1 is not the primary binding receptor but is associated with cell-to-cell transmission of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1. J. Virol. 8: 1506 1510.
62. Taylor, G. P. 1996. The epidemiology of HTLV-I in Europe. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol. 13( Suppl. 1): S8 S14.
63. Taylor, G. P.,, S. E. Hall,, S. Navarrete,, C. A. Michie,, R. Davis,, A. D. Witkover,, M. Rossor,, M. A. Nowak,, P. Rudge,, E. Matutes,, C. R. Bangham,, and J. N. Weber. 1999. Effect of lamivudine on human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) DNA copy number, T-cell phenotype, and anti-tax cytotoxic T-cell frequency in patients with HTLV-1- associated myelopathy. J. Virol. 73: 10289 10295.
64. Taylor, G. P.,, M. Bodeus,, F. Courtois,, G. Pauli,, A. Del Mistro,, A. Machuca,, E. Padua,, S. Andersson,, P. Goubau,, L. Chieco-Bianchi,, V. Soriano,, J. Coste,, A. E. Ades,, and J. N. Weber. 2005. The seroepidemiology of human Tlymphotropic viruses: types I and II in Europe: a prospective study of pregnant women. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 38: 104 109.
65. Thorstensson, R.,, J. Albert,, and S. Andersson. 2002. Strategies for diagnosis of HTLV-I and -II. Transfusion 42: 780 791.
66. Tosswill, J. H.,, G. P. Taylor,, J. P. Clewley,, and J. N. Weber. 1998. Quantification of proviral DNA load in human T-cell leukaemia virus type I infections. J. Virol. Methods 75: 21 26.
67. Tseliou, P. M.,, A. Spiliotakara,, C. Politis,, N. Spanakis,, N. J. Legakis,, and A. Tsakris. 2004. Prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus-I/II-indeterminate reactivities in a Greek blood bank population. Transfus. Med. 14: 253 254.
68. Vallinoto, A. C.,, M. O. Ishak,, V. N. Azevedo,, A. C. Vicente,, K. Otsuki,, W. W. Hall,, and R. Ishak. 2002. Molecular epidemiology of human T-lymphotropic virus type II infection in Amerindian and urban populations of the Amazon region of Brazil. Hum. Biol. 74: 633 644.
69. Vandamme, A. M.,, K. Van Laethem,, H. F. Liu,, M. Van Brussel,, E. Delaporte,, C. M. de Castro Costa,, C. Fleischer,, G. Taylor,, U. Bertazzoni,, J. Desmyter,, and P. Goubau. 1997. Use of a generic polymerase chain reaction assay detecting human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) types I, II and divergent simian strains in the evaluation of individuals with indeterminate HTLV serology. J. Med. Virol. 52: 1 7.
70. Van Dooren, S.,, O. G. Pybus,, M. Salemi,, H. F. Liu,, P. Goubau,, C. Remondegui,, A. Talarmin,, E. Gotuzzo,, L. C. Alcantara,, B. Galvao-Castro,, and A. M. Vandamme. 2004. The low evolutionary rate of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 confirmed by analysis of vertical transmission chains. Mol. Biol. Evol. 21: 603 611.
71. Varma, M.,, D. L. Rudolph,, M. Knuchel,, W. M. Switzer,, K. G. Hadlock,, M. Velligan,, L. Chan,, S. K. Foung,, and R. B. Lal. 1995. Enhanced specificity of truncated transmembrane protein for serologic confirmation of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and HTLV-2 infections by Western blot (immunoblot) assay containing recombinant envelope glycoproteins. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 3239 3244.
72. Verdonck, K.,, E. González,, S. Van Dooren,, A. M. Vandamme,, G. Vanham,, and E. Gotuzzo. 2007. Human T-lymphotropic virus 1: recent knowledge about an ancient infection. Lancet Infect. Dis. 7: 266 281.
73. Wattel, E.,, M. Cavrois,, A. Gessain,, and S. Wain-Hobson. 1996. Clonal expansion of infected cells: a way of life for HTLV-I. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol. 13: S92 S99.
74. Waziri, A.,, S. S. Soldan,, M. D. Graf,, J. Nagle,, and S. Jacobson. 2000. Characterization and sequencing of prototypic human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) from an HTLV-1/2 seroindeterminate patient. J. Virol. 74: 2178 2185.
75. Wodarz, D.,, and C. R. Bangham. 2000. Evolutionary dynamics of HTLV-I. J. Mol. Evol. 50: 448.
76. Wolfe, N. D.,, W. Heneine,, J. K. Carr,, D. Albert,, G. Herardo,, V. Shanmugam,, U. Tamoufe,, J. N. Torimiro,, A. T. Prosser,, M. LeBreton,, E. Mpoudi-Ngole,, F. E. McCutchan,, D. L. Birx,, T. M. Folks,, D. S. Burke,, and W. M. Switzer. 2005. Emergence of unique primate T-lymphotropic viruses among central African bushmeat hunters. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102: 7994 7999.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Summary of serologic and supplemental confirmatory tests for HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 infections

FDA licensed, may be used for blood donor screening and as an aid in clinical diagnosis of HTLV-1 or HTLV-2 infection and related diseases. CE, Conformité Européenne.

Citation: Owen S, Gessain A, Dezzutti C, Cowan E, Lal R. 2011. Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Types 1 and 2, p 1323-1332. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch80

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error