1887

Chapter 81 : Influenza Viruses

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Influenza Viruses, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap81-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap81-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter discusses about Influenza viruses that cause annual epidemics in areas with temperate climates, while in tropical climates seasonality is less apparent and influenza viruses can be isolated throughout the year. Influenza viruses are transmitted from person to person primarily via droplets generated by sneezing, coughing, and speaking. Direct or indirect (fomite) contact with contaminated secretions and small-particle aerosols are other potential routes of transmission that have been noted. The relative importance of different routes has not been determined for influenza viruses. Influenza viruses infect the respiratory epithelium and can be found in respiratory secretions of all types. A number of transport media are suitable for influenza viruses, including veal infusion broth, Hanks balanced salt solution, tryptose phosphate broth, sucrose phosphate buffer, and commercially available cell culture medium. Molecular methods are increasingly being used for both the detection and the characterization of influenza viruses. The most commonly used molecular method is reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The initial step is to identify the isolate as an influenza virus and to distinguish it from other respiratory viruses that have the ability to agglutinate or adsorb red blood cells. Cell culture assays do not reliably identify antiviral susceptibility to the NA inhibitors (NAIs) zanamivir and oseltamivir. Influenza viruses isolated in national and global surveillance systems are characterized antigenically and genetically to identify variants.

Citation: Atmar R, Lindstrom S. 2011. Influenza Viruses, p 1333-1346. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch81

Key Concept Ranking

Influenza C virus
0.5547674
Influenza B virus
0.5382604
Respiratory syncytial virus
0.51871085
0.5547674
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Influenza virus-infected MDCK cells. (A) Cytopathic changes. (B) Hemadsorption with guinea pig red blood cells. Red blood cells adsorb to both infected cells (black arrows) and the plastic surface, previously occupied by infected cells (white arrowheads).

Citation: Atmar R, Lindstrom S. 2011. Influenza Viruses, p 1333-1346. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch81
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555816728.chap81
1. Abed, Y.,, M. Baz,, and G. Boivin. 2006. Impact of neuraminidase mutations conferring influenza resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors in the N1 and N2 genetic backgrounds. Antivir. Ther. 11: 971 976.
2. Atmar, R. L.,, and B. D. Baxter. 1996. Typing and subtyping clinical isolates of influenza virus using reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction. Clin. Diagn. Virol. 7: 77 84.
3. Baxter, B. D.,, R. B. Couch,, S. B. Greenberg,, and J. A. Kasel. 1977. Maintenance of viability and comparison of identification methods for influenza and other respiratory viruses of humans. J. Clin. Microbiol. 6: 19 22.
4. Beigel, J. H.,, J. Farrar,, A. M. Han,, F. G. Hayden,, R. Hyer,, M. D. de Jong,, S. Lochindarat,, T. K. Nguyen,, T. H. Nguyen,, T. H. Tran,, A. Nicoll,, S. Touch,, and K. Y. Yuen. 2005. Avian influenza A (H5N1) infection in humans. N. Engl. J. Med. 353: 1374 1385.
5. Belshe, R. B.,, M. H. Smith,, C. B. Hall,, R. Betts,, and A. J. Hay. 1988. Genetic basis of resistance to rimantadine emerging during treatment of influenza virus infection. J. Virol. 62: 1508 1512.
6. Bolotin, S.,, A. V. Robertson,, A. Eshaghi,, C. De Lima,, E. Lombos,, E. Chong-King,, L. Burton,, T. Mazzulli,, and S. J. Drews. 2009. Development of a novel real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR method for the detection of H275Y positive influenza A H1N1 isolates. J. Virol. Methods 158: 190 194.
7. Boom, R.,, C. J. Sol,, M. M. Salimans,, C. L. Jansen,, P. M. Wertheim-van Dillen,, and J. van der Noordaa. 1990. Rapid and simple method for purification of nucleic acids. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28: 495 503.
8. Bridges, C. B.,, M. J. Kuehnert,, and C. B. Hall. 2003. Transmission of influenza: implications for control in health care settings. Clin. Infect. Dis. 37: 1094 1101.
9. Bright, R. A.,, D. K. Shay,, B. Shu,, N. J. Cox,, and A. I. Klimov. 2006. Adamantane resistance among influenza A viruses isolated early during the 2005-2006 influenza season in the United States. JAMA 295: 891 894.
10. Burlington, D. B.,, M. L. Clements,, G. Meiklejohn,, M. Phelan,, and B. R. Murphy. 1983. Hemagglutinin-specific antibody responses in immunoglobulin G, A, and M isotypes as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay after primary or secondary infection of humans with influenza A virus. Infect. Immun. 41: 540 545.
11. Cazacu, A. C.,, G. J. Demmler,, M. A. Neuman,, B. A. Forbes,, S. Chung,, J. Greer,, A. E. Alvarez,, R. Williams,, and N. Y. Bartholoma. 2004. Comparison of a new lateral-flow chromatographic membrane immunoassay to viral culture for rapid detection and differentiation of influenza A and B viruses in respiratory specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42: 3661 3664.
12. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2004. Outbreaks of avian influenza A (H5N1) in Asia and interim recommendations for evaluation and reporting of suspected cases—United States, 2004. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 53: 97100.
13. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2006. New laboratory assay for diagnostic testing of avian influenza A/H5 (Asian lineage). MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 55: 127.
14., Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2009. Serum cross-reactive antibody response to a novel influenza A (H1N1) virus after vaccination with seasonal influenza vaccine. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 58: 521524.
15. Chan, K. H.,, N. Maldeis,, W. Pope,, A. Yup,, A. Ozinskas,, J. Gill,, W. H. Seto,, K. F. Shortridge,, and J. S. Peiris. 2002. Evaluation of the Directigen FluA+B test for rapid diagnosis of influenza virus type A and B infections. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40: 1675 1680.
16. Couch, R. B.,, J. A. Kasel,, W. P. Glezen,, T. R. Cate,, H. R. Six,, L. H. Taber,, A. L. Frank,, S. B. Greenberg,, J. M. Zahradnik,, and W. A. Keitel. 1986. Influenza: its control in persons and populations. J. Infect. Dis. 153: 431 440.
17. Covalciuc, K. A.,, K. H. Webb,, and C. A. Carlson. 1999. Comparison of four clinical specimen types for detection of influenza A and B viruses by optical immunoassay (FLU OIA test) and cell culture methods. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 3971 3974.
18. Cruz, A. T.,, A. C. Cazacu,, J. M. Greer,, and G. J. Demmler. 2008. Rapid assays for the diagnosis of influenza A and B viruses in patients evaluated at a large tertiary care children’s hospital during two consecutive winter seasons. J. Clin. Virol. 41: 143 147.
19. Dale, S. E.,, C. Mayer,, M. C. Mayer,, and M. A. Menegus. 2008. Analytical and clinical sensitivity of the 3M rapid detection influenza A+B assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46: 3804 3807.
20. Dawood, F. S.,, S. Jain,, L. Finelli,, M. W. Shaw,, S. Lindstrom,, R. J. Garten,, L. V. Gubareva,, X. Xu,, C. B. Bridges,, and T. M. Uyeki. 2009. Emergence of a novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus in humans. N. Engl. J. Med. 360: 2605 2615.
21. de Jong, M. D.,, V. C. Bach,, T. Q. Phan,, M. H. Vo,, T. T. Tran,, B. H. Nguyen,, M. Beld,, T. P. Le,, H. K. Truong,, V. V. Nguyen,, T. H. Tran,, Q. H. Do,, and J. Farrar. 2005. Fatal avian influenza A (H5N1) in a child presenting with diarrhea followed by coma. N. Engl. J. Med. 352: 686 691.
22. Deyde, V. M.,, T. Nguyen,, R. A. Bright,, A. Balish,, B. Shu,, S. Lindstrom,, A. I. Klimov,, and L. V. Gubareva. 2009. Detection of molecular markers of antiviral resistance in influenza A (H5N1) viruses using a pyrosequencing method. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53: 1039 1047.
23. Dharan, N. J.,, L. V. Gubareva,, J. J. Meyer,, M. Okomo- Adhiambo,, R. C. McClinton,, S. A. Marshall,, K. St George,, S. Epperson,, L. Brammer,, A. I. Klimov,, J. S. Bresee,, and A. M. Fry. 2009. Infections with oseltamivir-resistant influenza A (H1N1) virus in the United States. JAMA 301: 1034 1041.
24. Dominguez, E. A.,, L. H. Taber,, and R. B. Couch. 1993. Comparison of rapid diagnostic techniques for respiratory syncytial and influenza A virus respiratory infections in young children. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31: 2286 2290.
25. Donofrio, J. C.,, J. D. Coonrod,, and T. M. Chambers. 1994. Diagnosis of equine influenza by the polymerase chain reaction. J. Vet. Diagn. Investig. 6: 39 43.
26. Dowdle, W. R.,, A. P. Kendal,, and G. R. Noble,. 1979. Influenza viruses, p. 585 609. In E. H. Lennette, and N. J. Schmidt (ed.), Diagnostic Procedures for Viral, Rickettsial, and Chlamydial Infections. American Public Health Association, Washington, DC.
27. Espy, M. J.,, T. F. Smith,, M. W. Harmon,, and A. P. Kendal. 1986. Rapid detection of influenza virus by shell vial assay with monoclonal antibodies. J. Clin. Microbiol. 24: 677 679.
28. Espy, M. J.,, J. R. Uhl,, L. M. Sloan,, S. P. Buckwalter,, M. F. Jones,, E. A. Vetter,, J. D. Yao,, N. L. Wengenack,, J. E. Rosenblatt,, F. R. Cockerill III,, and T. F. Smith. 2006. Realtime PCR in clinical microbiology: applications for routine laboratory testing. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 19: 165 256.
29. Fiore, A. E.,, D. K. Shay,, K. Broder,, J. K. Iskander,, T. M. Uyeki,, G. Mootrey,, J. S. Bresee,, and N. S. Cox. 2008. Prevention and control of influenza: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2008. MMWR Recomm. Rep. 57: 1 60.
30. Fong, C. K.,, M. K. Lee,, and B. P. Griffith. 2000. Evaluation of R-Mix FreshCells in shell vials for detection of respiratory viruses. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 4660 4662.
31. Fouchier, R. A.,, V. Munster,, A. Wallensten,, T. M. Bestebroer,, S. Herfst,, D. Smith,, G. F. Rimmelzwaan,, B. Olsen,, and A. D. Osterhaus. 2005. Characterization of a novel influenza A virus hemagglutinin subtype (H16) obtained from black-headed gulls. J. Virol. 79: 2814 2822.
32. Fouchier, R. A.,, P. M. Schneeberger,, F. W. Rozendaal,, J. M. Broekman,, S. A. Kemink,, V. Munster,, T. Kuiken,, G. F. Rimmelzwaan,, M. Schutten,, G. J. Van Doornum,, G. Koch,, A. Bosman,, M. Koopmans,, and A. D. Osterhaus. 2004. Avian influenza A virus (H7N7) associated with human conjunctivitis and a fatal case of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101: 1356 1361.
33. Frank, A. L.,, R. B. Couch,, C. A. Griffis,, and B. D. Baxter. 1979. Comparison of different tissue cultures for isolation and quantitation of influenza and parainfluenza viruses. J. Clin. Microbiol. 10: 32 36.
34. Garten, R. J.,, C. T. Davis,, C. A. Russell,, B. Shu,, S. Lindstrom,, A. Balish,, W. M. Sessions,, X. Xu,, E. Skepner,, V. Deyde,, M. Okomo-Adhiambo,, L. Gubareva,, J. Barnes,, C. B. Smith,, S. L. Emery,, M. J. Hillman,, P. Rivailler,, J. Smagala,, M. de Graaf,, D. F. Burke,, R. A. Fouchier,, C. Pappas,, C. M. Alpuche-Aranda,, H. Lopez-Gatell,, H. Olivera,, I. Lopez,, C. A. Myers,, D. Faix,, P. J. Blair,, C. Yu,, K. M. Keene,, P. D. Dotson, Jr.,, D. Boxrud,, A. R. Sambol,, S. H. Abid,, K. St George,, T. Bannerman,, A. L. Moore,, D. J. Stringer,, P. Blevins,, G. J. Demmler-Harrison,, M. Ginsberg,, P. Kriner,, S. Waterman,, S. Smole,, H. F. Guevara,, E. A. Belongia,, P. A. Clark,, S. T. Beatrice,, R. Donis,, J. Katz,, L. Finelli,, C. B. Bridges,, M. Shaw,, D. B. Jernigan,, T. M. Uyeki,, D. J. Smith,, A. I. Klimov,, and N. J. Cox. 2009. Antigenic and genetic characteristics of swine-origin 2009 A (H1N1) influenza viruses circulating in humans. Science 325: 197 201.
35. Ginocchio, C. C.,, F. Zhang,, R. Manji,, S. Arora,, M. Bornfreund,, L. Falk,, M. Lotlikar,, M. Kowerska,, G. Becker,, D. Korologos,, M. de Geronimo,, and J. M. Crawford. 2009. Evaluation of multiple test methods for the detection of the novel 2009 influenza A (H1N1) during the New York City outbreak. J. Clin. Virol. 45: 191 195.
36. Harper, S. A.,, J. S. Bradley,, J. A. Englund,, T. M. File,, S. Gravenstein,, F. G. Hayden,, A. J. McGeer,, K. M. Neuzil,, A. T. Pavia,, M. L. Tapper,, T. M. Uyeki,, and R. K. Zimmerman. 2009. Seasonal influenza in adults and children— diagnosis, treatment, chemoprophylaxis, and institutional outbreak management: clinical practice guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin. Infect. Dis. 48: 1003 1032.
37. Hayden, F. G. 2006. Antiviral resistance in influenza viruses— implications for management and pandemic response. N. Engl. J. Med. 354: 785 788.
38. Hayden, F. G.,, K. M. Cote,, and R. G. Douglas, Jr. 1980. Plaque inhibition assay for drug susceptibility testing of influenza viruses. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 17: 865 870.
39. Hayden, F. G.,, and P. Palese,. 2009. Influenza virus, p. 943 976. In D. D. Richman,, R. J. Whitley,, and F. G. Hayden (ed.), Clinical Virology. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
40. Hirst, G. K. 1942. The quantitative determination of influenza virus and antibodies by means of red cell agglutination. J. Exp. Med. 75: 47 64.
41. Huang, Y.,, H. Tang,, S. Duffy,, Y. Hong,, S. Norman,, M. Ghosh,, J. He,, M. Bose,, K. J. Henrickson,, J. Fan,, A. J. Kraft,, W. G. Weisburg,, and E. L. Mather. 2009. Multiplex assay for simultaneously typing and subtyping influenza viruses by use of an electronic microarray. J. Clin. Microbiol. 47: 390 396.
42. Hurt, A. C.,, R. Alexander,, J. Hibbert,, N. Deed,, and I. G. Barr. 2007. Performance of six influenza rapid tests in detecting human influenza in clinical specimens. J. Clin. Virol. 39: 132 135.
43. Kaiser, L.,, M. S. Briones,, and F. G. Hayden. 1999. Performance of virus isolation and Directigen Flu A to detect influenza A virus in experimental human infection. J. Clin. Virol. 14: 191 197.
44. Katz, J. M.,, W. Lim,, C. B. Bridges,, T. Rowe,, J. Hu- Primmer,, X. Lu,, R. A. Abernathy,, M. Clarke,, L. Conn,, H. Kwong,, M. Lee,, G. Au,, Y. Y. Ho,, K. H. Mak,, N. J. Cox,, and K. Fukuda. 1999. Antibody response in individuals infected with avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses and detection of anti-H5 antibody among household and social contacts. J. Infect. Dis. 180: 1763 1770.
45. Kim, S. R.,, C. S. Ki,, and N. Y. Lee. 2009. Rapid detection and identification of 12 respiratory viruses using a dual priming oligonucleotide system-based multiplex PCR assay. J. Virol. Methods 156: 111 116.
46. Klimov, A. I.,, E. Rocha,, F. G. Hayden,, P. A. Shult,, L. F. Roumillat,, and N. J. Cox. 1995. Prolonged shedding of amantadine-resistant influenzae A viruses by immunodeficient patients: detection by polymerase chain reactionrestriction analysis. J. Infect. Dis. 172: 1352 1355.
47. Kostka, V.,, and F. H. Carpenter. 1964. Inhibition of chymostrypsin activity in crystalline trypsin preparations. J. Biol. Chem. 239: 1799 1803.
48. Landry, M. L.,, S. Cohen,, and D. Ferguson. 2000. Impact of sample type on rapid detection of influenza virus A by cytospin-enhanced immunofluorescence and membrane enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 429 430.
49. Landry, M. L.,, S. Cohen,, and D. Ferguson. 2004. Comparison of Binax NOW and Directigen for rapid detection of influenza A and B. J. Clin. Virol. 31: 113 115.
50. Landry, M. L.,, S. Cohen,, and D. Ferguson. 2008. Real-time PCR compared to Binax NOW and cytospin-immunofluorescence for detection of influenza in hospitalized patients. J. Clin. Virol. 43: 148 151.
51. Lazarowitz, S. G.,, and P. W. Choppin. 1975. Enhancement of the infectivity of influenza A and B viruses by proteolytic cleavage of the hemagglutinin polypeptide. Virology 68: 440 454.
52. Legoff, J.,, R. Kara,, F. Moulin,, A. Si-Mohamed,, A. Krivine,, L. Belec,, and P. Lebon. 2008. Evaluation of the one-step multiplex real-time reverse transcription-PCR ProFlu-1 assay for detection of influenza A and influenza B viruses and respiratory syncytial viruses in children. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46: 789 791.
53. Li, H.,, M. A. McCormac,, R. W. Estes,, S. E. Sefers,, R. K. Dare,, J. D. Chappell,, D. D. Erdman,, P. F. Wright,, and Y. W. Tang. 2007. Simultaneous detection and high-throughput identification of a panel of RNA viruses causing respiratory tract infections. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45: 2105 2109.
54. Mahony, J.,, S. Chong,, F. Merante,, S. Yaghoubian,, T. Sinha,, C. Lisle,, and R. Janeczko. 2007. Development of a respiratory virus panel test for detection of twenty human respiratory viruses by use of multiplex PCR and a fluid microbead-based assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45: 2965 2970.
55. Marcante, R.,, F. Chiumento,, G. Palu,, and G. Cavedon. 1996. Rapid diagnosis of influenza type A infection: comparison of shell-vial culture, Directigen flu-A and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. New Microbiol. 19: 141 147.
56. Maricich, S. M.,, J. L. Neul,, T. E. Lotze,, A. C. Cazacu,, T. M. Uyeki,, G. J. Demmler,, and G. D. Clark. 2004. Neurologic complications associated with influenza A in children during the 2003-2004 influenza season in Houston, Texas. Pediatrics 114: e626 e633.
57. McGeer, A. J. 2009. Diagnostic testing or empirical therapy for patients hospitalized with suspected influenza: what to do? Clin. Infect. Dis. 48( Suppl. 1): S14 S19.
58. McKimm-Breschkin, J.,, T. Trivedi,, A. Hampson,, A. Hay,, A. Klimov,, M. Tashiro,, F. Hayden,, and M. Zambon. 2003. Neuraminidase sequence analysis and susceptibilities of influenza virus clinical isolates to zanamivir and oseltamivir. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47: 2264 2272.
59. Mehlmann, M.,, A. B. Bonner,, J. V. Williams,, D. M. Dankbar,, C. L. Moore,, R. D. Kuchta,, A. B. Podsiad,, J. D. Tamerius,, E. D. Dawson,, and K. L. Rowlen. 2007. Comparison of the MChip to viral culture, reverse transcription-PCR, and the QuickVue influenza A+B test for rapid diagnosis of influenza. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45: 1234 1237.
60. Miller, H. R.,, P. H. Phipps,, and E. Rossier. 1986. Reduction of nonspecific fluorescence in respiratory specimens by pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine. J. Clin. Microbiol. 24: 470 471.
61. Mills, R. D.,, K. J. Cain,, and G. L. Woods. 1989. Detection of influenza virus by centrifugal inoculation of MDCK cells and staining with monoclonal antibodies. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27: 2505 2508.
62. Monto, A. S.,, S. Gravenstein,, M. Elliott,, M. Colopy,, and J. Schweinle. 2000. Clinical signs and symptoms predicting influenza infection. Arch. Intern. Med. 160: 3243 3247.
63. Moore, C.,, S. Hibbitts,, N. Owen,, S. A. Corden,, G. Harrison,, J. Fox,, C. Gelder,, and D. Westmoreland. 2004. Development and evaluation of a real-time nucleic acid sequence based amplification assay for rapid detection of influenza A. J. Med. Virol. 74: 619 628.
64. Moser, M. R.,, T. R. Bender,, H. S. Margolis,, G. R. Noble,, A. P. Kendal,, and D. G. Ritter. 1979. An outbreak of influenza aboard a commercial airliner. Am. J. Epidemiol. 110: 1 6.
65. Nolte, F. S.,, D. J. Marshall,, C. Rasberry,, S. Schievelbein,, G. G. Banks,, G. A. Storch,, M. Q. Arens,, R. S. Buller,, and J. R. Prudent. 2007. MultiCode-PLx system for multiplexed detection of seventeen respiratory viruses. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45: 2779 2786.
66. Obenauer, J. C.,, J. Denson,, P. K. Mehta,, X. Su,, S. Mukatira,, D. B. Finkelstein,, X. Xu,, J. Wang,, J. Ma,, Y. Fan,, K. M. Rakestraw,, R. G. Webster,, E. Hoffmann,, S. Krauss,, J. Zheng,, Z. Zhang,, and C. W. Naeve. 2006. Large-scale sequence analysis of avian influenza isolates. Science 311: 1576 1580.
67. O’Donnell, F. T.,, F. M. Munoz,, R. L. Atmar,, L. Y. Hwang,, G. J. Demmler,, and W. P. Glezen. 2003. Epidemiology and molecular characterization of co-circulating influenza A/ H3N2 virus variants in children: Houston, Texas, 1997-8. Epidemiol. Infect. 130: 521 531.
68. Pabbaraju, K.,, K. L. Tokaryk,, S. Wong,, and J. D. Fox. 2008. Comparison of the Luminex xTAG respiratory viral panel with in-house nucleic acid amplification tests for diagnosis of respiratory virus infections. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46: 3056 3062.
69. Poehling, K. A.,, Y. Zhu,, Y. W. Tang,, and K. Edwards. 2006. Accuracy and impact of a point-of-care rapid influenza test in young children with respiratory illnesses. Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. 160: 713 718.
70. Pregliasco, F.,, S. Puzelli,, C. Mensi,, G. Anselmi,, R. Marinello,, M. L. Tanzi,, C. Affinito,, M. C. Zambon,, and I. Donatelli. 2004. Influenza virological surveillance in children: the use of the QuickVue rapid diagnostic test. J. Med. Virol. 73: 269 273.
71. Ptakova, M.,, and B. Tumova. 1985. Detection of type A and B influenza viruses in clinical materials by immunoelectronmicroscopy. Acta Virol. 29: 19 24.
72. Pyhala, R.,, L. Pyhala,, M. Valle,, and K. Aho. 1987. Egg-grown and tissue-culture-grown variants of influenza A (H3N2) virus with special attention to their use as antigens in seroepidemiology. Epidemiol. Infect. 99: 745 753.
73. Rahman, M.,, B. A. Kieke,, M. F. Vandermause,, P. D. Mitchell,, R. T. Greenlee,, and E. A. Belongia. 2007. Performance of Directigen flu A1B enzyme immunoassay and direct fluorescent assay for detection of influenza infection during the 2004-2005 season. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 58: 413 418.
74. Raymond, F.,, J. Carbonneau,, N. Boucher,, L. Robitaille,, S. Boisvert,, W. K. Wu,, G. De Serres,, G. Boivin,, and J. Corbeil. 2009. Comparison of automated microarray detection with real-time PCR assays for detection of respiratory viruses in specimens obtained from children. J. Clin. Microbiol. 47: 743 750.
75. Reina, J.,, V. Fernandez-Baca,, I. Blanco,, and M. Munar. 1997. Comparison of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCK) with a green monkey continuous cell line (Vero) and human lung embryonated cells (MRC-5) in the isolation of influenza A virus from nasopharyngeal aspirates by shell vial culture. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 1900 1901.
76. Rodriguez, W. J.,, R. H. Schwartz,, and M. M. Thorne. 2002. Evaluation of diagnostic tests for influenza in a pediatric practice. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 21: 193 196.
77. Rothbarth, P. H.,, J. Groen,, A. M. Bohnen,, R. de Groot,, and A. D. Osterhaus. 1999. Influenza virus serology—a comparative study. J. Virol. Methods 78: 163 169.
78. Rowe, T.,, R. A. Abernathy,, J. Hu-Primmer,, W. W. Thompson,, X. Lu,, W. Lim,, K. Fukuda,, N. J. Cox,, and J. M. Katz. 1999. Detection of antibody to avian influenza A (H5N1) virus in human serum by using a combination of serologic assays. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 937 943.
79. Ruest, A.,, S. Michaud,, S. Deslandes,, and E. H. Frost. 2003. Comparison of the Directigen flu A+B test, the QuickVue influenza test, and clinical case definition to viral culture and reverse transcription-PCR for rapid diagnosis of influenza virus infection. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41: 3487 3493.
80. Russell, C. J.,, and R. G. Webster. 2005. The genesis of a pandemic influenza virus. Cell 123: 368 371.
81. Sheu, T. G.,, V. M. Deyde,, M. Okomo-Adhiambo,, R. J. Garten,, X. Xu,, R. A. Bright,, E. N. Butler,, T. R. Wallis,, A. I. Klimov,, and L. V. Gubareva. 2008. Surveillance for neuraminidase inhibitor resistance among human influenza A and B viruses circulating worldwide from 2004 to 2008. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52: 3284 3292.
82. Smith, G. J.,, D. Vijaykrishna,, J. Bahl,, S. J. Lycett,, M. Worobey,, O. G. Pybus,, S. K. Ma,, C. L. Cheung,, J. Raghwani,, S. Bhatt,, J. S. Peiris,, Y. Guan,, and A. Rambaut. 2009. Origins and evolutionary genomics of the 2009 swineorigin H1N1 influenza A epidemic. Nature 459: 1122 1125.
83. Stephenson, I.,, J. M. Wood,, K. G. Nicholson,, and M. C. Zambon. 2003. Sialic acid receptor specificity on erythrocytes affects detection of antibody to avian influenza haemagglutinin. J. Med. Virol. 70: 391 398.
84. Townsend, M. B.,, E. D. Dawson,, M. Mehlmann,, J. A. Smagala,, D. M. Dankbar,, C. L. Moore,, C. B. Smith,, N. J. Cox,, R. D. Kuchta,, and K. L. Rowlen. 2006. Experimental evaluation of the FluChip diagnostic microarray for influenza virus surveillance. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44: 2863 2871.
85. Treanor, J. J., 2005. Influenza virus, p. 2060 2078. In G. L. Mandell,, J. E. Bennett,, and R. Dolin (ed.), Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. Churchill Livingstone, Inc., New York, NY.
86. Ukkonen, P.,, and I. Julkunen. 1987. Preparation of nasopharyngeal secretions for immunofluorescence by onestep centrifugation through Percoll. J. Virol. Methods 15: 291 301.
87. Uyeki, T. M. 2003. Influenza diagnosis and treatment in children: a review of studies on clinically useful tests and antiviral treatment for influenza. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 22: 164 177.
88. Uyeki, T. M. 2009. Human infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus: review of clinical issues. Clin. Infect. Dis. 49: 279 290.
89. Uyeki, T. M.,, R. Prasad,, C. Vukotich,, S. Stebbins,, C. R. Rinaldo,, Y. H. Ferng,, S. S. Morse,, E. L. Larson,, A. E. Aiello,, B. Davis,, and A. S. Monto. 2009. Low sensitivity of rapid diagnostic test for influenza. Clin. Infect. Dis. 48: e89 e92.
90. van Elden, L. J.,, M. Nijhuis,, P. Schipper,, R. Schuurman,, and A. M. van Loon. 2001. Simultaneous detection of influenza viruses A and B using real-time quantitative PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39: 196 200.
91. Waner, J. L.,, S. J. Todd,, H. Shalaby,, P. Murphy,, and L. V. Wall. 1991. Comparison of Directigen FLU-A with viral isolation and direct immunofluorescence for the rapid detection and identification of influenza A virus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29: 479 482.
92. Webster, R.,, N. Cox,, and K. Stohr. 2004. WHO Manual on Animal Influenza Diagnosis and Surveillance. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. http://www.who.int/vaccine_research/diseases/influenza/WHO_manual_on_animal-diagnosis_and_surveillance_2002_5.pd..
93. Weinberg, A.,, C. J. Mettenbrink,, D. Ye,, and C. F. Yang. 2005. Sensitivity of diagnostic tests for influenza varies with the circulating strains. J. Clin. Virol. 33: 172 175.
94. Weinberg, A.,, and M. L. Walker. 2005. Evaluation of three immunoassay kits for rapid detection of influenza virus A and B. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 12: 367 370.
95. Welch, D. F.,, and C. C. Ginocchio. 2010. Role of rapid immunochromatographic antigen testing in diagnosis of influenza A virus 2009 H1N1 infection. J. Clin. Microbiol. 48: 22 25.
96. WHO/OIE/FAO H5N1 Evolution Working Group. 2008. Toward a unified nomenclature system for highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1). Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14: e1.
97. World Health Organization. 1980. A revision of the system of nomenclature for influenza viruses: a W.H.O. memorandum. Bull. W. H. O. 58: 585591.
98. World Health Organization. 2003. Assays for neutralizing antibody to influenza viruses. Report of an informal scientific workshop, Dresden, 18-19 March 2003. Wkly. Epidemiol. Rec. 78: 290293.
99. World Health Organization. 2009. Human infection with new influenza A (H1N1) virus: clinical observations from a school-associated outbreak in Kobe, Japan, May 2009. Wkly. Epidemiol. Rec. 84: 237244.
100. Wright, K. E.,, G. A. Wilson,, D. Novosad,, C. Dimock,, D. Tan,, and J. M. Weber. 1995. Typing and subtyping of influenza viruses in clinical samples by PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 1180 1184.
101. Zambon, M., 1998. Laboratory diagnosis of influenza, p. 291 313. In K. G. Nicholson,, R. G. Webster,, and A. J. Hay (ed.), Textbook of Influenza. Blackwell Science, London, England.
102. Zambon, M.,, J. Hays,, A. Webster,, R. Newman,, and O. Keene. 2001. Diagnosis of influenza in the community: relationship of clinical diagnosis to confirmed virological, serologic, or molecular detection of influenza. Arch. Intern. Med. 161: 2116 2122.
103. Zhang, W. D.,, and D. H. Evans. 1991. Detection and identification of human influenza viruses by the polymerase chain reaction. J. Virol. Methods 33: 165 189.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Commercially available kits for detection of influenza A or B viruses by FA staining

Abbreviations: IFA, indirect fluorescent antibody; DFA, direct fluorescent antibody; NA, nasal aspirate; NPA, nasopharyngeal aspirate; NPS, nasopharyngeal swab; NW, nasal wash fluid; TS, throat swab; N/A, not applicable; RSV, respiratory syncytial virus; P1, P2, and P3, parainfluenza virus types 1, 2, and 3, respectively.

Citation: Atmar R, Lindstrom S. 2011. Influenza Viruses, p 1333-1346. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch81
Generic image for table
Table 2

Commercially available kits for rapid (≤30-min) detection of influenza A or B viruses

Abbreviations: EIA, enzyme immunoassay; BAL, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid; NA, nasal aspirate; NPS, nasopharyngeal swab; NS, nasal swab; NW, nasal wash fluid; TS, throat swab.

Test characteristics were compiled from published literature.

CLIA waived laboratory assays employ methodologies that are so simple and accurate as to render the likelihood of erroneous results negligible. CLIA moderate complexity assays require some knowledge, training, reagent preparation, processing, proficiency, ability to troubleshoot, or interpretation and judgment in the performance of the test.

Citation: Atmar R, Lindstrom S. 2011. Influenza Viruses, p 1333-1346. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch81
Generic image for table
Table 3

Commercially available and selected other molecular detection assays for influenza viruses

Not all available test kits may be listed here. Abbreviations: BAL, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid; BW, bronchial wash; NPA, nasopharyngeal aspirate; NPS, nasopharyngeal swab; NS, nasal swab; NW, nasal wash fluid; TA, tracheal aspirate; TS, throat swab; RSV, respiratory syncytial virus; P1, P2, P3, and P4, parainfluenza virus types 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively; hMPV, human metapneumovirus; HRV, human rhinovirus; Ent, enterovirus; Ad, adenovirus; Boca, bocavirus; OC43, 229E, NL63, and HKU1, human coronavirus variants.

Availability limited to U.S. public health laboratories.

Additional virus strains identified in the RV15 panel.

Citation: Atmar R, Lindstrom S. 2011. Influenza Viruses, p 1333-1346. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch81
Generic image for table
Table 4

Methods to identify and characterize influenza virus isolates

Citation: Atmar R, Lindstrom S. 2011. Influenza Viruses, p 1333-1346. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch81

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error