Chapter 82 : Parainfluenza and Mumps Viruses

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The human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) and mumps virus are members of the family. HPIV-1, -2, and -3 are associated with upper respiratory tract infections in infants, children, and adults. Only respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes more lower respiratory tract infections in neonates and young infants than HPIV-3. The indirect fluorescent-antibody (IFA) staining test is appropriate for the same types of samples as for the direct fluorescent-antibody (DFA) staining kit, with the same smear preparation and fixation guidelines. Confirmatory testing is routinely completed by immuno-fluorescence techniques involving the use of HPIV MAbs in DFA or IFA assays, as described for HPIV antigen detection in clinical samples. An overview of the recommended protocol from the manufacturer of R-Mix is shown in "Parainfluenza Viruses" under "Isolation and Identification." As mumps virus infections in previously vaccinated individuals result in decreased levels of virus shedding into the buccal cavity, virus isolation may be difficult. Given the potential lack of serologic test specificity, virus isolation and RNA detection in clinical samples remain the most effective ways to confirm infection in unvaccinated individuals.

Citation: Leland D. 2011. Parainfluenza and Mumps Viruses, p 1347-1356. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch82

Key Concept Ranking

Influenza B virus
Respiratory syncytial virus
Mumps virus
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Image of FIGURE 1

Immunofluorescence staining of HPIV-infected R-Mix Too and mumps virus-infected R-Mix cell cultures. R-Mix Too cells were infected with HPIV-1 (A), HPIV-2 (B), or HPIV-3 (C). (D) R-Mix cells infected with mumps virus. Magnification, ×200 (all). (A to C) Courtesy of Indiana Pathology Images; (D) courtesy of Diagnostic Hybrids, Inc., Athens, OH.

Citation: Leland D. 2011. Parainfluenza and Mumps Viruses, p 1347-1356. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch82
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Generic image for table

Diagnostic methods for parainfluenza and mumps virus detection

IF, immunofluorescence.

Citation: Leland D. 2011. Parainfluenza and Mumps Viruses, p 1347-1356. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch82

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