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Chapter 85 : Enteroviruses and Parechoviruses

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Abstract:

Human enteroviruses (HEVs) and human parechoviruses (HPeVs) are spread mainly by the fecal-oral or oral-oral routes, respiratory droplets, and fomites. Two major patterns of circulating enteroviruses have been observed: epidemic (e.g., E9, E13, E30, and CVB5) and endemic (e.g., CVA9, CVB2, CVB4, and EV71). The five most commonly reported serotypes (E9, E11, E30, E6, and CVB5) accounted for 48.1% of cases. Myocarditis was once an often fatal disease associated with EV. Coxsackievirus B (CVB) are responsible for one-third to one-half of all cases of acute myocarditis and pericarditis, with CVB2 and CVB5 being the most predominant serotypes identified in clinical studies. Specimen selection is important for making a diagnosis of EV infection, as asymptomatic shedding, especially in stool, is common. The development of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) (RT-PCR or nucleic acid sequence-based amplification [NASBA]) has provided sensitive, specific, rapid, versatile, and clinically useful methods for the detection of EVs. A combination of human and primate cell lines is typically used for EV and HPeV isolation, since no single cell line supports the growth of all types. A pyrosequencing method was developed for "molecular serotyping" and used in typing the isolates that could not be neutralized by traditional LBM pools and therefore classified as "nontypeable" EVs and in identifying multiple new EV serotypes and novel HPeVs. An understanding of the sites where asymptomatic shedding and disease-induced replication occur is critical to the interpretation of EV test results.

Citation: Stellrecht K, Lamson D, Romero J. 2011. Enteroviruses and Parechoviruses, p 1388-1399. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch85

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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Genome organization of PV type 1. The PV genome is a single-stranded positivesense RNA of approximately 7,500 nucleotides. Nucleotides 743 to 7370 encode in a single ORF the capsid proteins (white boxes in coding regions P1) and functional proteins (gray boxes in coding regions P2 and P3). The 5′ and 3′ NTRs are shown as lines. The internal ribosome entry site (IRES) is shown schematically with two-dimensional structure. The virus protein VPg is covalently linked to the terminal uracil of the 5′ NTR. Reprinted from reference with permission of the publisher.

Citation: Stellrecht K, Lamson D, Romero J. 2011. Enteroviruses and Parechoviruses, p 1388-1399. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch85
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Schematic representation of the three-dimensional structure of a PV particle and the four neutralizing antigenetic (N-Ag) sites. The icosahedral capsid structure typical of EVs is composed of 60 protomers, each consisting of the capsid proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3 (black areas). Each of the 12 fivefold symmetry axes is surrounded by five protomers, forming a pentamer (surrounded by a bold black line). The attachment site for the virus-specific receptor is a depression around the fivefold symmetry axis, also called the canyon (dark gray circles). Each of the three surface-exposed capsid proteins contains immunodominant antigenic sites at which neutralizing antibodies bind. Four N-Ag sites (white ellipses) have been mapped to surface loop extensions. Reprinted from reference with permission of the publisher.

Citation: Stellrecht K, Lamson D, Romero J. 2011. Enteroviruses and Parechoviruses, p 1388-1399. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch85
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

WPV cases worldwide, 2008. Data were reported for 2008 to the World Health Organization as of 3 March 2009 (= 1,655). This excludes polioviruses detected by environmental surveillance and VDPV. Reprinted from reference .

Citation: Stellrecht K, Lamson D, Romero J. 2011. Enteroviruses and Parechoviruses, p 1388-1399. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch85
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Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Cytopathic effects observed 3 days after infection of HT-29 cells with an EV or HPeV1 isolate after passage on this cell line. Reprinted from reference .

Citation: Stellrecht K, Lamson D, Romero J. 2011. Enteroviruses and Parechoviruses, p 1388-1399. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch85
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

HEVs and HPeVs

Classification adapted from the Picornavirus Study Group of the International Committee for the Taxonomy of Viruses (http://www.picornastudygroup.com) ( ).

As of February 2010 (http://www.picornaviridae.com/enterovirus/hrv-c/hrv-c_seqs.htm).

Citation: Stellrecht K, Lamson D, Romero J. 2011. Enteroviruses and Parechoviruses, p 1388-1399. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch85
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Clinical syndromes associated with EV and HPeV infection

Citation: Stellrecht K, Lamson D, Romero J. 2011. Enteroviruses and Parechoviruses, p 1388-1399. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch85
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

EV and HPeV diseases and specimen selection

+, specimen is appropriate for testing; ±, specimen may be appropriate for testing.

AHC, acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis.

Citation: Stellrecht K, Lamson D, Romero J. 2011. Enteroviruses and Parechoviruses, p 1388-1399. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch85
Generic image for table
TABLE 4

NAATs for EV and HPeV detection

IVD, in vitro diagnostic (FDA-approved test).

NASBA, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification.

RUO, research use only reagent.

Citation: Stellrecht K, Lamson D, Romero J. 2011. Enteroviruses and Parechoviruses, p 1388-1399. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch85
Generic image for table
TABLE 5

Susceptibilities of cell lines commonly used for isolation of EV and HPeV

Relative susceptibilities: +, minimally susceptible; + + + +, maximally susceptible; -, nonsusceptible; unk, unknown (no published reports). Some EVs are difficult to isolate even on minimally susceptible cell lines.

Some type A coxsackieviruses (A1, A19, and A20) are not readily isolated.

Improved yields after passage.

Many types of type A coxsackie virus grow only in RD cells.

BGMK-hDAF, BGMK cells expressing human decay-accelerating factor; CaCo, human colon adenocarcinoma cells.

Citation: Stellrecht K, Lamson D, Romero J. 2011. Enteroviruses and Parechoviruses, p 1388-1399. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch85

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