1887

Chapter 85 : Enteroviruses and Parechoviruses

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Enteroviruses and Parechoviruses, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap85-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap85-2.gif

Abstract:

Human enteroviruses (HEVs) and human parechoviruses (HPeVs) are spread mainly by the fecal-oral or oral-oral routes, respiratory droplets, and fomites. Two major patterns of circulating enteroviruses have been observed: epidemic (e.g., E9, E13, E30, and CVB5) and endemic (e.g., CVA9, CVB2, CVB4, and EV71). The five most commonly reported serotypes (E9, E11, E30, E6, and CVB5) accounted for 48.1% of cases. Myocarditis was once an often fatal disease associated with EV. Coxsackievirus B (CVB) are responsible for one-third to one-half of all cases of acute myocarditis and pericarditis, with CVB2 and CVB5 being the most predominant serotypes identified in clinical studies. Specimen selection is important for making a diagnosis of EV infection, as asymptomatic shedding, especially in stool, is common. The development of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) (RT-PCR or nucleic acid sequence-based amplification [NASBA]) has provided sensitive, specific, rapid, versatile, and clinically useful methods for the detection of EVs. A combination of human and primate cell lines is typically used for EV and HPeV isolation, since no single cell line supports the growth of all types. A pyrosequencing method was developed for "molecular serotyping" and used in typing the isolates that could not be neutralized by traditional LBM pools and therefore classified as "nontypeable" EVs and in identifying multiple new EV serotypes and novel HPeVs. An understanding of the sites where asymptomatic shedding and disease-induced replication occur is critical to the interpretation of EV test results.

Citation: Stellrecht K, Lamson D, Romero J. 2011. Enteroviruses and Parechoviruses, p 1388-1399. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch85

Key Concept Ranking

Upper Respiratory Tract Infections
0.45794252
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
0.429143
0.45794252
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Genome organization of PV type 1. The PV genome is a single-stranded positivesense RNA of approximately 7,500 nucleotides. Nucleotides 743 to 7370 encode in a single ORF the capsid proteins (white boxes in coding regions P1) and functional proteins (gray boxes in coding regions P2 and P3). The 5′ and 3′ NTRs are shown as lines. The internal ribosome entry site (IRES) is shown schematically with two-dimensional structure. The virus protein VPg is covalently linked to the terminal uracil of the 5′ NTR. Reprinted from reference with permission of the publisher.

Citation: Stellrecht K, Lamson D, Romero J. 2011. Enteroviruses and Parechoviruses, p 1388-1399. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch85
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Schematic representation of the three-dimensional structure of a PV particle and the four neutralizing antigenetic (N-Ag) sites. The icosahedral capsid structure typical of EVs is composed of 60 protomers, each consisting of the capsid proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3 (black areas). Each of the 12 fivefold symmetry axes is surrounded by five protomers, forming a pentamer (surrounded by a bold black line). The attachment site for the virus-specific receptor is a depression around the fivefold symmetry axis, also called the canyon (dark gray circles). Each of the three surface-exposed capsid proteins contains immunodominant antigenic sites at which neutralizing antibodies bind. Four N-Ag sites (white ellipses) have been mapped to surface loop extensions. Reprinted from reference with permission of the publisher.

Citation: Stellrecht K, Lamson D, Romero J. 2011. Enteroviruses and Parechoviruses, p 1388-1399. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch85
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

WPV cases worldwide, 2008. Data were reported for 2008 to the World Health Organization as of 3 March 2009 (= 1,655). This excludes polioviruses detected by environmental surveillance and VDPV. Reprinted from reference .

Citation: Stellrecht K, Lamson D, Romero J. 2011. Enteroviruses and Parechoviruses, p 1388-1399. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch85
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Cytopathic effects observed 3 days after infection of HT-29 cells with an EV or HPeV1 isolate after passage on this cell line. Reprinted from reference .

Citation: Stellrecht K, Lamson D, Romero J. 2011. Enteroviruses and Parechoviruses, p 1388-1399. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch85
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555816728.chap85
1. Abed, Y.,, and G. Boivin. 2005. Molecular characterization of a Canadian human parechovirus (HPeV)-3 isolate and its relationship to other HPeVs. J. Med. Virol. 77: 566 570.
2. Abed, Y.,, and G. Boivin. 2006. Human parechovirus types 1, 2 and 3 infections in Canada. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12: 969 975.
3. Abzug, M. J. 2008. The enteroviruses: an emerging infectious disease? The real, the speculative and the really speculative. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 609: 1 15. doi:10.1007/978-0-387- 73960-1_1.
4. Abzug, M. J.,, H. L. Keyserling,, M. L. Lee,, M. J. Levin,, and H. A. Rotbart. 1995. Neonatal enterovirus infection: virology, serology, and effects of intravenous immune globulin. Clin. Infect. Dis. 20: 1201 1206.
5. Akhtar, N.,, J. Ni,, D. Stromberg,, G. L. Rosenthal,, N. E. Bowles,, and J. A. Towbin. 1999. Tracheal aspirate as a substrate for polymerase chain reaction detection of viral genome in childhood pneumonia and myocarditis. Circulation 99: 2011 2018.
6. Archimbaud, C.,, M. Chambon,, J. L. Bailly,, I. Petit,, C. Henquell,, A. Mirand,, B. Aublet-Cuvelier,, S. Ughetto,, J. Beytout,, P. Clavelou,, A. Labbe,, P. Philippe,, J. Schmidt,, C. Regagnon,, O. Traore,, and H. Peigue-Lafeuille. 2009. Impact of rapid enterovirus molecular diagnosis on the management of infants, children, and adults with aseptic meningitis. J. Med. Virol. 81: 42 48.
7. Baboonian, C.,, and T. Treasure. 1997. Meta-analysis of the association of enteroviruses with human heart disease. Heart 78: 539 543.
8. Balanant, J.,, S. Guillot,, A. Candrea,, F. Delpeyroux,, and R. Crainic. 1991. The natural genomic variability of poliovirus analyzed by a restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Virology 184: 645 654.
9. Baumgarte, S.,, L. K. de Souza Luna,, K. Gyrwna,, M. Panning,, J. F. Drexler,, C. Karsten,, H. I. Huppertz,, and C. Drosten. 2008. Prevalence, types, and RNA concentrations of human parechoviruses, including a sixth parechovirus type, in stool samples from patients with acute enteritis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46: 242 248.
10. Bell, E. J.,, R. A. McCartney,, D. Basquill,, and A. K. Chaudhuri. 1986. Mu-antibody capture ELISA for the rapid diagnosis of enterovirus infections in patients with aseptic meningitis. J. Med. Virol. 19: 213 217.
11. Bendig, J. W.,, and P. Molyneaux. 1996. Sensitivity and specificity of mu-capture ELISA for detection of enterovirus IgM. J. Virol. Methods 59: 23 32.
12. Benschop, K.,, X. Thomas,, C. Serpenti,, R. Molenkamp,, and K. Wolthers. 2008. High prevalence of human parechovirus (HPeV) genotypes in the Amsterdam region and identification of specific HPeV variants by direct genotyping of stool samples. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46: 3965 3970.
13. Benschop, K. S.,, J. Schinkel,, R. P. Minnaar,, D. Pajkrt,, L. Spanjerberg,, H. C. Kraakman,, B. Berkhout,, H. L. Zaaijer,, M. G. Beld,, and K. C. Wolthers. 2006. Human parechovirus infections in Dutch children and the association between serotype and disease severity. Clin. Infect. Dis. 42: 204 210.
14. Bradrick, S. S.,, E. A. Lieben,, B. M. Carden,, and J. R. Romero. 2001. A predicted secondary structural domain within the internal ribosome entry site of echovirus 12 mediates a celltype- specific block to viral replication. J. Virol. 75: 6472 6481.
15. Brown, B. A.,, K. Maher,, M. R. Flemister,, P. Naraghi- Arani,, M. Uddin,, M. S. Oberste,, and M. A. Pallansch. 2009. Resolving ambiguities in genetic typing of human enterovirus species C clinical isolates and identification of enterovirus 96, 99 and 102. J. Gen. Virol. 90: 1713 1723. doi:10.1099/vir.0.008540-0.
16. Buck, G. E.,, M. Wiesemann,, and L. Stewart. 2002. Comparison of mixed cell culture containing genetically engineered BGMK and CaCo-2 cells (Super E-Mix) with RT-PCR and conventional cell culture for the diagnosis of enterovirus meningitis. J. Clin. Virol. 25( Suppl. 1): S13 S18.
17. Capaul, S. E.,, and M. Gorgievski-Hrisoho. 2005. Detection of enterovirus RNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using NucliSens EasyQ enterovirus assay. J. Clin. Virol. 32: 236 240.
18. Casas, I.,, G. F. Palacios,, G. Trallero,, D. Cisterna,, M. C. Freire,, and A. Tenorio. 2001. Molecular characterization of human enteroviruses in clinical samples: comparison between VP2, VP1, and RNA polymerase regions using RT nested PCR assays and direct sequencing of products. J. Med. Virol. 65: 138 148.
19. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2000. Enterovirus surveillance—United States, 1997-1999. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 49: 913916.
20. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2006. Resurgence of wild poliovirus type 1 transmission and consequences of importation—21 countries, 2002-2005. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 55: 145150.
21. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2008. Increased detections and severe neonatal disease associated with coxsackievirus B1 infection—United States, 2007. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 57: 553556.
22. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2009. Progress toward interruption of wild poliovirus transmission— worldwide, 2008. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 58: 308312.
23. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2009. Wild poliovirus type 1 and type 3 importations—15 countries, Africa, 2008-2009. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 58: 357362.
24. Chan, L. G.,, U. D. Parashar,, M. S. Lye,, F. G. Ong,, S. R. Zaki,, J. P. Alexander,, K. K. Ho,, L. L. Han,, M. A. Pallansch,, A. B. Suleiman,, M. Jegathesan, and L. J. Anderson for the Outbreak Study Group. 2000. Deaths of children during an outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease in Sarawak, Malaysia: clinical and pathological characteristics of the disease. Clin. Infect. Dis. 31: 678 683.
25. Chapman, N. M.,, S. Tracy,, C. J. Gauntt,, and U. Fortmueller. 1990. Molecular detection and identification of enteroviruses using enzymatic amplification and nucleic acid hybridization. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28: 843 850.
26. Chen, T.-C.,, K.-F. Weng,, S.-C. Chang,, J.-Y. Lin,, P.-N. Huang,, and S.-R. Shih. 2008. Development of antiviral agents for enteroviruses. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 62: 1169 1173.
27. Chonmaitree, T.,, C. Ford,, C. Sanders,, and H. L. Lucia. 1988. Comparison of cell cultures for rapid isolation of enteroviruses. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26: 2576 2580.
28. Coller, B. A.,, N. M. Chapman,, M. A. Beck,, M. A. Pallansch,, C. J. Gauntt,, and S. M. Tracy. 1990. Echovirus 22 is an atypical enterovirus. J. Virol. 64: 2692 2701.
29. Committee on Infectious Diseases and American Academy of Pediatrics. 1999. Prevention of poliomyelitis: recommendations for use of only inactivated poliovirus vaccine for routine immunization. Pediatrics 104: 14041406.
30. Committee on Infectious Diseases and American Academy of Pediatrics. 2009. Enterovirus (nonpoliovirus) infections. In L. K. Pickering (ed.), Red Book: 2009 Report, 28th ed. American Academy of Pediatrics, Elk Grove Village, IL.
31. Craig, M. E.,, P. Robertson,, N. J. Howard,, M. Silink,, and W. D. Rawlinson. 2003. Diagnosis of enterovirus infection by genus-specific PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41: 841 844.
32. De, L.,, B. Nottay,, C. F. Yang,, B. P. Holloway,, M. Pallansch,, and O. Kew. 1995. Identification of vaccine-related polioviruses by hybridization with specific RNA probes. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 562 571.
33. Debiasi, R. L.,, and K. L. Tyler. 2004. Molecular methods for the diagnosis of viral enchephalitis. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 17: 903 925.
34. Doolan, A.,, N. Langlois,, and C. Semsarian. 2004. Causes of sudden cardiac death in young Australians. Med. J. Aust. 180: 110 112.
35. Elfaitouri, A.,, N. Mohamed,, J. Fohlman,, R. Aspholm,, G. Frisk,, G. Friman,, L. Magnius,, and J. Blomberg. 2005. Quantitative PCR-enhanced immunoassay for measurement of enteroviral immunoglobulin M antibody and diagnosis of aseptic meningitis. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 12: 235 241.
36. Fabre, A.,, and M. N. Sheppard. 2006. Sudden adult death syndrome and other non-ischaemic causes of sudden cardiac death. Heart 92: 316 320. doi:10.1136/hrt.2004.045518.
37. Faden, H.,, P. H. Patel,, and L. Campagna. 2006. Pitfalls in the diagnosis of enteroviral infection in young children. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 25: 687 690. doi:10.1097/01.inf.0000226842.23106.a2.
38. Fox, J. D.,, S. Han,, A. Samuelson,, Y. Zhang,, M. L. Neale,, and D. Westmoreland. 2002. Development and evaluation of nucleic acid sequence based amplification (NASBA) for diagnosis of enterovirus infections using the NucliSens basic kit. J. Clin. Virol. 24: 117 130.
39. Gutierrez, K.,, and M. J. Abzug. 1990. Vaccine-associated poliovirus meningitis in children with ventriculoperitoneal shunts. J. Pediatr. 117: 424 427.
40. Harvala, H.,, I. Robertson,, T. Chieochansin,, E. C. McWilliam Leitch,, K. Templeton,, and P. Simmonds. 2009. Specific association of human parechovirus type 3 with sepsis and fever in young infants, as identified by direct typing of cerebrospinal fluid samples. J. Infect. Dis. 199: 1753 1760. doi:10.1086/599094.
41. Harvala, H.,, and P. Simmonds. 2009. Human parechoviruses: biology, epidemiology and clinical significance. J. Clin. Virol. 45: 1 9. doi:10.1016/j.jcv.2009.03.009.
42. Heim, A.,, and J. Schumann. 2002. Development and evaluation of a nucleic acid sequence based amplification (NASBA) protocol for the detection of enterovirus RNA in cerebrospinal fluid samples. J. Virol. Methods 103: 101 107.
43. Ho, M.,, E.-R. Chen,, K.-H. Hsu,, S.-J. Twu,, K.-T. Chen,, S.-F. Tsai,, J.-R. Wang, and S.-R. Shih for the Taiwan Enterovirus Epidemic Working Group. 1999. An epidemic of enterovirus 71 infection in Taiwan. N. Engl. J. Med. 341: 929 935.
44. Huang, C. C.,, C. C. Liu,, Y. C. Chang,, C. Y. Chen,, S. T. Wang,, and T. F. Yeh. 1999. Neurologic complications in children with enterovirus 71 infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 341: 936 942.
45. Hyypia, T.,, C. Horsnell,, M. Maaronen,, M. Khan,, N. Kalkkinen,, P. Auvinen,, L. Kinnunen,, and G. Stanway. 1992. A distinct picornavirus group identified by sequence analysis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89: 8847 8851.
46. International Committee on Taxonomy. 2000. Family Picornaviridae, p. 657683. In M. H. V. van Regenmortel,, C. M. Fauquet,, D. H. L. Bishop,, E. B. Carstens,, M. K. Estes,, S. M. Lemon,, J. Maniloff,, M. A. Mayo,, D. J. McGeoch,, C. R. Pringle,, and R. B. Wickner (ed.), Virus Taxonomy: Classification and Nomenclature of Viruses. Seventh Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
47. Jokela, P.,, P. Joki-Korpela,, M. Maaronen,, V. Glumoff,, and T. Hyypia. 2005. Detection of human picornaviruses by multiplex reverse transcription-PCR and liquid hybridization. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43: 1239 1245.
48. Joki-Korpela, P.,, and T. Hyypia. 1998. Diagnosis and epidemiology of echovirus 22 infections. Clin. Infect. Dis. 27: 129 136.
49. Khetsuriani, N.,, A. Lamonte,, M. S. Oberste,, and M. Pallansch. 2006. Neonatal enterovirus infections reported to the national enterovirus surveillance system in the United States, 1983-2003. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 25: 889 893. doi:10.1097/01.inf.0000237798.07462.32.
50. Khetsuriani, N.,, A. Lamonte-Fowlkes,, S. Oberst,, and M. A. Pallansch. 2006. Enterovirus surveillance—United States, 1970-2005. MMWR Surveill. Summ. 55: 1 20.
51. Khetsuriani, N.,, E. S. Quiroz,, R. C. Holman,, and L. J. Anderson. 2003. Viral meningitis-associated hospitalizations in the United States, 1988-1999. Neuroepidemiology 22: 345 352.
52. Kilpatrick, D. R.,, K. Ching,, J. Iber,, R. Campagnoli,, C. J. Freeman,, N. Mishrik,, H. M. Liu,, M. A. Pallansch,, and O. M. Kew. 2004. Multiplex PCR method for identifying recombinant vaccine-related polioviruses. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42: 4313 4315.
53. Klespies, S. L.,, D. E. Cebula,, C. L. Kelley,, D. Galehouse,, and C. C. Maurer. 1996. Detection of enteroviruses from clinical specimens by spin amplification shell vial culture and monoclonal antibody assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34: 1465 1467.
54. Kost, C. B.,, B. Rogers,, M. S. Oberste,, C. Robinson,, B. L. Eaves,, K. Leos,, S. Danielson,, M. Satya,, F. Weir,, and F. S. Nolte. 2007. Multicenter beta trial of the GeneXpert enterovirus assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45: 1081 1086.
55. Lai, K. K.,, L. Cook,, S. Wendt,, L. Corey,, and K. R. Jerome. 2003. Evaluation of real-time PCR versus PCR with liquidphase hybridization for detection of enterovirus RNA in cerebrospinal fluid. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41: 3133 3141.
56. Landry, M. L.,, R. Garner,, and D. Ferguson. 2003. Comparison of the NucliSens Basic kit (nucleic acid sequence-based amplification) and the Argene Biosoft Enterovirus Consensus Reverse Transcription-PCR assays for rapid detection of enterovirus RNA in clinical specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41: 5006 5010.
57. Legay, V.,, J. J. Chomel,, and B. Lina. 2002. Specific RT-PCR procedure for the detection of human parechovirus type 1 genome in clinical samples. J. Virol. Methods 102: 157 160.
58. Lepow, M. L.,, N. Coyne,, L. B. Thompson,, D. H. Carver,, and F. C. Robbins. 1962. A clinical, epidemiologic and laboratory investigation of aseptic meningitis during the four-year period, 1955-1958. II. The clinical disease and its sequelae. N. Engl. J. Med. 266: 1188 1193.
59. Magnani, J. W.,, and G. W. Dec. 2006. Myocarditis: current trends in diagnosis and treatment. Circulation 113: 876 890.
60. Marlowe, E. M.,, S. M. Novak,, J. J. Dunn,, A. Smith,, J. Cumpio,, E. Makalintal,, D. Barnes,, and R. J. Burchette. 2008. Performance of the GeneXpert enterovirus assay for detection of enteroviral RNA in cerebrospinal fluid. J. Clin. Virol. 43: 110 113.
61. Melnick, J. L.,, R. O. Proctor,, A. R. Ocampo,, A. R. Diwan,, and E. Ben Porath. 1966. Free and bound virus in serum after administration of oral poliovirus vaccine. Am. J. Epidemiol. 84: 329 342.
62. Melnick, J. L.,, H. A. Wenner,, and C. A. Phillips,. 1979. Enteroviruses, p. 471 534. In E. H. Lennette, and N. J. Schmidt (ed.), Diagnostic Procedures for Viral, Rickettsial and Chlamydia Infections, 5th ed. American Public Health Association, Washington, DC.
63. Minor, P. D. 1996. Poliovirus biology. Structure 4: 775 778.
64. Modlin, J. F. 1996. Update on enterovirus infections in infants and children. Adv. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. 12: 155 180.
65. Modlin, J. F.,, R. Dagan,, L. E. Berlin,, D. M. Virshup,, R. H. Yolken,, and M. Menegus. 1991. Focal encephalitis with enterovirus infections. Pediatrics 88: 841 845.
66. Muir, P.,, A. Ras,, P. E. Klapper,, G. M. Cleator,, K. Korn,, C. Aepinus,, A. Fomsgaard,, P. Palmer,, A. Samuelsson,, A. Tenorio,, B. Weissbrich,, and A. M. van Loon. 1999. Multicenter quality assessment of PCR methods for detection of enteroviruses. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 1409 1414.
67. Mulford, W. S.,, R. S. Buller,, M. Q. Arens,, and G. A. Storch. 2004. Correlation of cerebrospinal flulid (CSF) cell counts and elevated CSF protein levels with enterovirus reverse transpription-PCR results in pediatric and adult patients. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42: 4199 4203.
68. Nejentsev, S.,, N. Walker,, D. Riches,, M. Egholm,, and J. A. Todd. 2009. Rare variants of IFIH1, a gene implicated in antiviral responses, protect against type 1 diabetes. Science 324: 387 389.
69. Niklasson, B.,, A. Samsioe,, N. Papadogiannakis,, A. Kawecki,, B. Hornfeldt,, G. R. Saade,, and W. Klitz. 2007. Association of zoonotic Ljungan virus with intrauterine fetal deaths. Birth Defects Res. A Clin. Mol. Teratol. 79: 488 493. doi:10.1002/ bdra.20359.
70. Nix, W. A.,, K. Maher,, E. S. Johansson,, B. Niklasson,, A. M. Lindberg,, M. A. Pallansch,, and M. S. Oberste. 2008. Detection of all known parechoviruses by real-time PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46: 2519 2524.
71. Nix, W. A.,, M. S. Oberste,, and M. A. Pallansch. 2006. Sensitive, seminested PCR amplification of VP1 sequences for direct identification of all enterovirus serotypes from original clinical specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44: 2698-2704. doi:10.1128/JCM.00542-06.
72. Noordhoek, G. T.,, J. F. L. Weel,, E. Poelstra,, M. Hooghiemstra,, and A. Brandenburge. 2008. Clinical validation of a new realtime PCR assay for detection of enteroviruses and parechoviruses, and implications for diagnostic procedures. J. Clin. Virol. 41: 75 80.
73. Oberste, M. S.,, K. Maher,, D. R. Kilpatrick,, and M. A. Pallansch. 1999. Molecular evolution of the human enteroviruses: correlation of serotype with VP1 sequence and application to picornavirus classification. J. Virol. 73: 1941 1948.
74. Oberste, M. S.,, K. Maher,, S. M. Michele,, G. Belliot,, M. Uddin,, and M. A. Pallansch. 2005. Enteroviruses 76, 89, 90 and 91 represent a novel group within the species human enterovirus A. J. Gen. Virol. 86: 445 451.
75. Oberste, M. S.,, K. Maher,, and M. A. Pallansch. 1999. Specific detection of echoviruses 22 and 23 in cell culture supernatants by RT-PCR. J. Med. Virol. 58: 178 181.
76. Oberste, M. S.,, W. A. Nix,, K. Maher,, and M. A. Pallansch. 2003. Improved molecular identification of enteroviruses by RTPCR and amplicon sequencing. J. Clin. Virol. 26: 375 377.
77. Olive, D. M.,, S. Al Mufti,, W. Al Mulla,, M. A. Khan,, A. Pasca,, G. Stanway,, and W. Al Nakib. 1990. Detection and differentiation of picornaviruses in clinical samples following genomic amplification. J. Gen. Virol. 71: 2141 2147.
78. Pallansch, M. A.,, and M. S. Oberste,. 2009. Enteroviruses and parechoviruses, p. 249 282. In S. Specter,, R. L. Hodinka,, S. A. Young,, and D. L. Wiedbrauk (ed.), Clinical Virology Manual, 4th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
79. Pozzetto, B.,, O. G. Gaudin,, M. Aouni,, and A. Ros. 1989. Comparative evaluation of immunoglobulin M neutralizing antibody response in acute-phase sera and virus isolation for the routine diagnosis of enterovirus infection. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27: 705 708.
80. Ramers, C.,, G. Billman,, M. Hartin,, S. Ho,, and M. H. Sawyer. 2000. Impact of a diagnostic cerebrospinal fluid enterovirus polymerase chain reaction test on patient management. JAMA 283: 2680 2685.
81. Redondo, M. J.,, J. Jeffrey,, P. R. Fain,, G. S. Eisenbarth,, and T. Orban. 2008. Concordance for islet autoimmunity among monozygotic twins. N. Engl. J. Med. 359: 2849 2850.
82. Rigonan, A. S.,, L. Mann,, and T. Chonmaitree. 1998. Use of monoclonal antibodies to identify serotypes of enterovirus isolates. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 1877 1881.
83. Robinson, C. C.,, M. Willis,, A. Meagher,, K. E. Gieseker,, H. Rotbart,, and M. P. Glode. 2002. Impact of rapid polymerase chain reaction results on management of pediatric patients with enteroviral meningitis. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 21: 283 286.
84.. Rogers, B. B.,, L. C. Alpert,, E. A. Hine,, and G. J. Buffone. 1990. Analysis of DNA in fresh and fixed tissue by the polymerase chain reaction. Am. J. Pathol. 136: 541 548.
85.. Romero, J. R. 1999. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction detection of the enteroviruses. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 123: 1161 1169.
86. Romero, J. R. 2001. Pleconaril: a novel antipicornaviral drug. Expert Opin. Investig. Drugs 10: 369 379.
87. Rotbart, H. A. 1990. Diagnosis of enteroviral meningitis with the polymerase chain reaction. J. Pediatr. 117: 85 89.
88. Rotbart, H. A. 1990. Enzymatic RNA amplification of the enteroviruses. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28: 438 442.
89. Rotbart, H. A.,, A. Ahmed,, S. Hickey,, R. Dagan,, G. H. McCracken, Jr.,, R. J. Whitley,, J. F. Modlin,, M. Cascino,, J. F. O’Connell,, M. A. Menegus,, and D. Blum. 1997. Diagnosis of enterovirus infection by polymerase chain reaction of multiple specimen types. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 16: 409 411.
90. Rotbart, H. A.,, M. H. Sawyer,, S. Fast,, C. Lewinski,, N. Murphy,, E. F. Keyser,, J. Spadoro,, S. Y. Kao,, and M. Loeffelholz. 1994. Diagnosis of enteroviral meningitis by using PCR with a colorimetric microwell detection assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32: 2590 2592.
91. Roth, B.,, M. Enders,, A. Arents,, A. Pfitzner,, and E. Terletskaia-Ladwig. 2007. Epidemiologic aspects and laboratory features of enterovirus infections in Western Germany, 2000-2005. J. Med. Virol. 79: 956 962. doi:10.1002/ jmv.20917.
92. Sawyer, M. H.,, D. Holland,, N. Aintablian,, J. D. Connor,, E. F. Keyser,, and N. J. Waecker, Jr. 1994. Diagnosis of enteroviral central nervous system infection by polymerase chain reaction during a large community outbreak. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 13: 177 182.
93. She, R. C.,, G. Crist,, E. Billetdeaux,, J. Langer,, and C. A. Petti. 2006. Comparison of multiple shell vial cell lines for isolation of enteroviruses: a national perspective. J. Clin. Virol. 37: 151 155. doi:10.1016/j.jcv.2006.06.009.
94. Shen, S.,, U. Desselberger,, and T. A. McKee. 1997. The development of an antigen capture polymerase chain reaction assay to detect and type human enteroviruses. J. Virol. Methods 65: 139 144.
95. Silva, P. A.,, S. Diedrich,, D. das Dores de Paula Cardoso,, and E. Schreier. 2008. Identification of enterovirus serotypes by pyrosequencing using multiple sequencing primers. J. Virol. Methods 148: 260 264.
96. Smalling, T. W.,, S. E. Sefers,, H. Li,, and Y.-W. Tang. 2002. Molecular approaches to detecting herpes simplex virus and enteroviruses in the central nervous system. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40: 2317 2322.
97. Stanway, G.,, F. Brown,, P. Christian,, T. Hovi,, T. Hyypiä,, A. M. Q. King,, N. J. Knowles,, S. M. Lemon,, P. D. Minor,, et al. 2005. Picornaviridae, p. 757 788. In C. M. Fauquet,, M. A. Mayo,, J. Maniloff,, U. Desselberger,, and L. A. Ball (ed.), Virus Taxonomy: Eighth Report of the International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses. Elsevier Academic Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
98. Stanway, G.,, N. Kalkkinen,, M. Roivainen,, F. Ghazi,, M. Khan,, M. Smyth,, O. Meurman,, and T. Hyypia. 1994. Molecular and biological characteristics of echovirus 22, a representative of a new picornavirus group. J. Virol. 68: 8232 8238.
99. Stellrecht, K. A.,, I. Harding,, F. M. Hussain,, N. G. Mishrik,, R. T. Czap,, M. L. Lepow,, and R. A. Venezia. 2000. A onestep RT-PCR assay using an enzyme-linked detection system for the diagnosis of enterovirus meningitis. J. Clin. Virol. 17: 143 149.
100. Stellrecht, K. A.,, I. Harding,, A. M. Woron,, M. L. Lepow,, and R. A. Venezia. 2002. The impact of an enteroviral RTPCR assay on the diagnosis of aseptic meningitis and patient management. J. Clin. Virol. 25( Suppl. 1): S19 S26.
101. Strikas, R. A.,, L. J. Anderson,, and R. A. Parker. 1986. Temporal and geographic patterns of isolates of nonpolio enterovirus in the United States, 1970-1983. J. Infect. Dis. 153: 346 351.
102. Susi, P.,, L. Hattara,, M. Waris,, T. Luoma-aho,, H. Siitari,, T. Hyypia,, and P. Saviranta. 2009. Typing of enteroviruses by use of microwell oligonucleotide arrays. J. Clin. Microbiol. 47: 1863 1870.
103. Tapparel, C.,, T. Junier,, D. Gerlach,, S. Van-Belle,, L. Turin,, S. Cordey,, K. Muhlemann,, N. Regamey,, J. D. Aubert,, P. M. Soccal,, P. Eigenmann,, E. Zdobnov,, and L. Kaiser. 2009. New respiratory enterovirus and recombinant rhinoviruses among circulating picornaviruses. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 15: 719 726.
104. Terletskaia-Ladwig, E.,, S. Meier,, R. Hahn,, M. Leinmuller,, F. Schneider,, and M. Enders. 2008. A convenient rapid culture assay for the detection of enteroviruses in clinical samples: comparison with conventional cell culture and RT-PCR. J. Med. Microbiol. 57: 1000 1006. doi:10.1099/ jmm.0.47799-0.
105. van der Sanden, S.,, E. de Bruin,, H. Vennema,, C. Swanink,, M. Koopmans,, and H. van der Avoort. 2008. Prevalence of human parechovirus in the Netherlands in 2000 to 2007. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46: 2884 2889. doi:10.1128/JCM.00168-08.
106. Van Doornum, G. J.,, and J. C. De Jong. 1998. Rapid shell vial culture technique for detection of enteroviruses and adenoviruses in fecal specimens: comparison with conventional virus isolation method. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 2865 2868.
107. Van Vliet, K. E.,, P. Muir,, J. M. Echevarria,, P. E. Klapper,, G. M. Cleator,, and A. M. van Loon. 2001. Multicenter proficiency testing of nucleic acid amplification methods for the detection of enteroviruses. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39: 3390 3392.
108. Verboon-Maciolek, M. A.,, F. Groenendaal,, C. D. Hahn,, J. Hellmann,, A. M. van Loon,, G. Boivin,, and L. S. de Vries. 2008. Human parechovirus causes encephalitis with white matter injury in neonates. Ann. Neurol. 64: 266 273. doi:10.1002/ana.21445.
109. Vuorinen, T.,, R. Vainionpaa,, and T. Hyypia. 2003. Five years’ experience of reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in daily diagnosis of enterovirus and rhinovirus infections. Clin. Infect. Dis. 37: 452 455.
110. Wang, S. Y.,, T. L. Lin,, H. Y. Chen,, and T. S. Lin. 2004. Early and rapid detection of enterovirus 71 infection by an IgM-capture ELISA. J. Virol. Methods 119: 37 43.
111. Webster, A. D. B. 2005. Pleconaril—an advance in the treatment of enteroviral infection in immuno-compromised patients. J. Clin. Virol. 32: 1 6.
112. Wikswo, M. E.,, N. Khetsuriani,, A. L. Fowlkes,, X. Zheng,, S. Penaranda,, N. Verma,, S. T. Shulman,, K. Sircar,, C. C. Robinson,, T. Schmidt,, D. Schnurr,, and M. S. Oberste. 2009. Increased activity of coxsackievirus B1 strains associated with severe disease among young infants in the United States, 2007-2008. Clin. Infect. Dis. 49: e44 e51. doi:10.1086/605090.
113. Wilfert, C. M.,, and J. Zeller,. 1985. Enterovirus diagnosis, p. 85 107. In L. M. de la Maza, and E. M. Peterson (ed.), Medical Virology, 4th ed. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ.
114.. Wolthers, K. C.,, K. S. Benschop,, J. Schinkel,, R. Molenkamp,, R. M. Bergevoet,, I. J. Spijkerman,, H. C. Kraakman,, and D. Pajkrt. 2008. Human parechoviruses as an important viral cause of sepsislike illness and meningitis in young children. Clin. Infect. Dis. 47: 358 363. doi:10.1086/589752.
115. Wright, H. T., Jr.,, R. M. Mcallister,, and R. Ward. 1962. “Mixed” meningitis. Report of a case with isolation of Haemophilus influenzae type B and ECHO virus type 9 from the cerebrospinal fluid. N. Engl. J. Med. 267: 142 144.
116. Zeichhardt, H.,, and H.-P. Grunert,. 2000. Enteroviruses, p. 252 269. In S. Specter,, R. L. Hodinka,, and S. A. Young (ed.), Clinical Virology Manual, 3rd ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
117. Zhou, F.,, F. Kong,, K. McPhie,, M. Ratnamohan,, L. Donovan,, F. Zeng,, G. L. Gilbert,, and D. E. Dwyer. 2009. Identification of 20 common human enterovirus serotypes by use of a reverse transcription-PCR-based reverse line blot hybridization assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 47: 2737 2743.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

HEVs and HPeVs

Classification adapted from the Picornavirus Study Group of the International Committee for the Taxonomy of Viruses (http://www.picornastudygroup.com) ( ).

As of February 2010 (http://www.picornaviridae.com/enterovirus/hrv-c/hrv-c_seqs.htm).

Citation: Stellrecht K, Lamson D, Romero J. 2011. Enteroviruses and Parechoviruses, p 1388-1399. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch85
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Clinical syndromes associated with EV and HPeV infection

Citation: Stellrecht K, Lamson D, Romero J. 2011. Enteroviruses and Parechoviruses, p 1388-1399. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch85
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

EV and HPeV diseases and specimen selection

+, specimen is appropriate for testing; ±, specimen may be appropriate for testing.

AHC, acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis.

Citation: Stellrecht K, Lamson D, Romero J. 2011. Enteroviruses and Parechoviruses, p 1388-1399. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch85
Generic image for table
TABLE 4

NAATs for EV and HPeV detection

IVD, in vitro diagnostic (FDA-approved test).

NASBA, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification.

RUO, research use only reagent.

Citation: Stellrecht K, Lamson D, Romero J. 2011. Enteroviruses and Parechoviruses, p 1388-1399. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch85
Generic image for table
TABLE 5

Susceptibilities of cell lines commonly used for isolation of EV and HPeV

Relative susceptibilities: +, minimally susceptible; + + + +, maximally susceptible; -, nonsusceptible; unk, unknown (no published reports). Some EVs are difficult to isolate even on minimally susceptible cell lines.

Some type A coxsackieviruses (A1, A19, and A20) are not readily isolated.

Improved yields after passage.

Many types of type A coxsackie virus grow only in RD cells.

BGMK-hDAF, BGMK cells expressing human decay-accelerating factor; CaCo, human colon adenocarcinoma cells.

Citation: Stellrecht K, Lamson D, Romero J. 2011. Enteroviruses and Parechoviruses, p 1388-1399. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch85

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error