Chapter 86 : Rhinoviruses

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Rhinoviruses, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap86-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap86-2.gif


Human rhinoviruses (HRV) are members of the family . On the basis of neutralization tests in cell culture, 100 rhinovirus serotypes have been designated: HRV1A, HRV1B, HRV2 to HRV86, and HRV88 to HRV100. The authors found divergence within HRV-A of a distinct clade, clade D, and evidence for recombination as a mechanism for HRV diversity. Rhinovirus has been increasingly detected in lower respiratory tract infections, especially in the very young, school-age children, the elderly, and those with chronic illnesses, cancer, immunosuppressive illnesses or transplants or underlying pulmonary disease. Using primers or probes based on sequences in the 59NCR, all rhinovirus serotypes can theoretically be detected in a single assay. This chapter describes isolating procedures and talks about identification of virus. Rhinovirus serotyping is an expensive, labor-intensive research procedure that is rarely performed. Differentiation of rhinoviruses from enteroviruses, with which their cytopathic effects (CPE) can be confused, is based primarily on acid stability testing of isolates. Although clinical laboratories offer specific molecular to elucidate the important role of rhinoviruses as lower respiratory tract pathogens and as significant causes of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation, the standard diagnostic approach may not change substantially until effective therapy becomes available, the impact of rapid and sensitive rhinovirus diagnosis on the management of hospitalized patients can be demonstrated, or highly multiplexed molecular assays incorporating rhinoviruses are more widely adopted.

Citation: Landry M. 2011. Rhinoviruses, p 1400-1409. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch86

Key Concept Ranking

Lower Respiratory Tract Infections
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of FIGURE 1

Rhinovirus CPE in HELF. (A) Uninfected cells; (B) early focus of rhinovirus CPE; (C) more advanced rhinovirus CPE. Magnification, ×100.

Citation: Landry M. 2011. Rhinoviruses, p 1400-1409. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch86
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2

Flow scheme for the isolation or detection and identification of rhinovirus. REA, restriction enzyme analysis; BAL, bronchoalveolar lavage.

Citation: Landry M. 2011. Rhinoviruses, p 1400-1409. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch86
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Andries, K.,, B. Dewindt,, J. Snoeks,, L. Wouters,, H. Moereels,, P. J. Lewis,, and P. A. Janssen. 1990. Two groups of rhinoviruses revealed by a panel of antiviral compounds present sequence divergence and differential pathogenicity. J. Virol. 64:11171123.
2. Arden, K. E.,, P. McErlean,, M. D. Nissen,, T. P. Sloots,, and I. M. Mackay. 2006. Frequent detection of human rhinoviruses, paramyxoviruses, coronaviruses, and bocavirus during acute respiratory tract infections. J. Med. Virol. 78:12321240.
3. Arruda, E.,, C. E. Crump,, B. S. Rollins,, A. Ohlin,, and F. G. Hayden. 1996. Comparative susceptibilities of human embryonic fibroblasts and HeLa cells for isolation of human rhinoviruses. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:12771279.
4. Barclay, W. S.,, and W. Al-Nakib. 1987. An ELISA for the detection of rhinovirus specific antibody in serum and nasal secretion. J. Virol. Methods 15:5364.
5. Bellau-Pujol, S.,, A. Vabret,, L. Legrand,, J. Dina,, S. Gouarin,, J. Petitjean-Lecherbonnier,, B. Pozzetto,, C. Ginevra,, and F. Freymuth. 2005. Development of three multiplex RT-PCR assays for the detection of 12 respiratory RNA viruses. J. Virol. Methods 126:5363.
6. Blomqvist, S.,, A. Skytta,, M. Roivainen,, and T. Hovi. 1999. Rapid detection of human rhinoviruses in nasopharyngeal aspirates by a microwell reverse transcription-PCR-hybridization assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:28132816.
7. Blomqvist, S.,, C. Savolainen,, L. Raman,, M. Roivainen,, and T. Hovi. 2002. Human rhinovirus 87 and enterovirus 68 represent a unique serotype with rhinovirus and enterovirus features. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:42184223
8. Briese, T.,, N. Renwick,, M. Venter,, R. G. Jarman,, D. Ghosh,, S. Köndgen,, S. K. Shrestha,, A. M. Hoegh,, I. Casas,, E. V. Adjogoua,, C. Akoua-Koffi,, K. S. Myint,, D. T. Williams,, G. Chidlow,, R. van den Berg,, C. Calvo,, O. Koch,, G. Palacios,, V. Kapoor,, J. Villari,, S. R. Dominguez,, K. V. Holmes,, G. Harnett,, D. Smith,, J. S. Mackenzie,, H. Ellerbrok,, B. Schweiger,, K. Schønning,, M. S. Chadha,, F. H. Leendertz,, A. C. Mishra,, R. V. Gibbons,, E. C. Holmes,, and W. I. Lipkin. 2008. Global distribution of novel rhinovirus genotype. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14:944947.
9. Brittain-Long, R.,, S. Nord,, S. Olofsson,, J. Westin,, L. M. Anderson,, and M. Lindh. 2008. Multiplex real-time PCR for detection of respiratory tract infections. J. Clin. Virol. 41:5356.
10. Brown, P. K.,, and D. A. J. Tyrrell. 1964. Experiments on the sensitivity of strains of human fibroblasts to infection with rhinovirus. Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 45:571578.
11. Brownlee, J. W.,, and R. B. Turner. 2008. New developments in the epidemiology and clinical spectrum of rhinovirus infections. Curr. Opin. Pediatr. 20:6771.
12. Cate, T. R.,, R. B. Couch,, and K. M. Johnson. 1964. Studies with rhinovirus in volunteers; production of illness, effect of naturally acquired antibody, and demonstration of a protective effect not associated with serum antibody. J. Clin. Investig. 43:5667.
13. Christensen, M. S.,, L. P. Nielsen,, and H. Hasle. 2005. Few but severe viral infections in children with cancer: a prospective RT-PCR and PCR-based 12-month study. Pediatr. Blood Cancer 45:945951.
14. Clejan, S.,, E. Mandrea,, I. V. Pandrea,, J. Dufour,, S. Japa,, and R. S. Veazey. 2005. Immune responses induced by intranasal imiquimod and implications for therapeutics in rhinovirus infections. J. Cell. Mol. Med. 9:457461.
15. Cohen, S.,, and D. A. J. Tyrrell. 1991. Psychological stress and susceptibility to the common cold. N. Engl. J. Med. 325:606612.
16. Cohen, S.,, W. J. Doyle,, C. M. Alper,, D. Janicki-Deverts,, and R. B. Turner. 2009. Sleep habits and susceptibility to the common cold. Arch. Intern. Med. 169:6267.
17. Couch, R. B.,, and R. L. Atmar,. 1999. Rhinoviruses, p. 787802. In E. H Lennette, and T. F. Smith (ed.), Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Infections. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, NY.
18. Dagher, H.,, J. Donninger,, P. Hutchinson,, R. Ghildyal,, and P. Bardin. 2004. Rhinovirus detection: comparison of realtime and conventional PCR. J. Virol. Methods 117:113121.
19. Deffernez, C.,, W. Wunderli,, Y. Thomas,, S. Yerly,, L. Perrin,, and L. Kaiser. 2004. Amplicon sequencing and improved detection of human rhinovirus in respiratory samples. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:32123218.
20. De Palma, A. M.,, I. Vliegen,, E. De Clercq,, and J. Neyts. 2008. Selective inhibitors of picornavirus replication. Med. Res. Rev. 28:823884.
21. Dick, E. C.,, L. C. Jennings,, K. A. Mink,, C. D. Wartgow,, and S. L. Inhorn. 1987. Aerosol transmission of rhinovirus colds. J. Infect. Dis. 156:442448.
22. Douglas, R. G., Jr. 1970. Pathogenesis of rhinovirus common colds in human volunteers. Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 79:563571.
23. Douglas, R. G.Jr.,, , T. R. Cate,, P. J. Gerone,, and R. B. Couch. 1966. Quantitative rhinovirus shedding patterns in volunteers. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 94:159167.
24. Douglas, R. G., Jr.,, W. F. Fleet,, T. R. Cate,, and R. B. Couch. 1968. Antibody to rhinovirus in human sera. I. Standardization of a neutralization test. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 127:497502.
25. Douglas, R. G., Jr.,, K. M. Lindgren,, and R. B. Couch. 1968. Exposure to cold environment and rhinovirus common cold. Failure to demonstrate effect. N. Engl. J. Med. 279:742747.
26. Fendrick, A. M.,, A. S. Monto,, B. Nightengale,, and M. Sarnes. 2003. The economic burden of non-influenza-related viral respiratory tract infection in the United States. Arch. Intern. Med. 163:487494.
27. Freymuth, F.,, A. Vabret,, D. Cuvillon-Nimal,, S. Simon,, J. Dina,, L. Legrand,, S. Gouarin,, J. Petitjean,, P. Eckart,, and J. Brouard. 2006. Comparison of multiplex PCR assays and conventional techniques for the diagnostic of respiratory virus infections in children admitted to hospital with an acute respiratory illness. J. Med. Virol. 78:14981504.
28. Geist, F. C.,, and F. G. Hayden. 1985. Comparative susceptibilities of strain MRC-5 human embryonic lung fibroblast cells and the Cooney strain of human fetal tonsil cells for isolation of rhinoviruses from clinical specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 22:455456.
29. Gern, J. E. 2009. Rhinovirus and the initiation of asthma. Curr. Opin. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 9:7378.
30. Gruteke, P.,, A. S. Glas,, M. Dierdorp,, W. B. Vreede,, J. W. Pilon,, and S. M. Bruisten. 2004. Practical implementation of a multiplex PCR for acute respiratory tract infections in children. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:55965603.
31. Gutman, J. A.,, A. J. Peck,, J. Kuypers,, and M. Boeckh. 2007. Rhinovirus as a cause of fatal lower respiratory tract infection in adult stem cell transplantation patients: a report of two cases. Bone Marrow Transplant. 40:809811.
32. Gwaltney, J. M., Jr.,, P. B. Moskalski,, and J. O. Hendley. 1978. Hand-to-hand transmission of rhinovirus colds. Ann. Intern. Med. 88:463467.
33. Gwaltney, J. M., Jr. 1992. Combined antiviral and antimediator treatment of rhinovirus colds. J. Infect. Dis. 166:776782.
34. Halonen, P.,, E. Rocha,, J. Hierholzer,, B. Holloway,, T. Hyypia,, P. Hurskainen,, and M. Pallansch. 1995. Detection of enteroviruses and rhinoviruses in clinical specimens by PCR and liquid-phase hybridization. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:648653.
35. Hayden, F. G.,, L. Diamond,, P. B. Wood,, D. C. Korts,, and M. T. Wecher. 1996. Effectiveness and safety of intranasal ipratropium bromide in common colds. Ann. Intern. Med. 125:8997.
36. Hayden, F. G.,, D. T. Herrington,, T. L. Coats,, K. Kim,, E. C. Cooper,, S. A. Villano,, S. Liu,, S. Hudson,, D. C. Pevear,, M. Collett,, M. McKinlay, and the Pleconaril Respiratory Infection Study Group. 2003. Efficacy and safety of oral pleconaril for treatment of colds due to picornaviruses in adults: results of 2 double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials. Clin. Infect. Dis. 36:15231532.
37. Hayden, F. G. 2004. Rhinovirus and the lower respiratory tract. Rev. Med. Virol. 14:1731.
38. Hendley, J. O. 1999. Clinical virology of rhinoviruses. Adv. Virus Res. 54:453466.
39. Hendley, J. O.,, and J. M Gwaltney, Jr. 1988. Mechanisms of transmission of rhinovirus infections. Epidemiol. Rev. 10:242258.
40. Hofer, F.,, M. Gruenberger,, H. Kowlaski,, H. Machat,, M. Huettinger,, E. Kuechler,, and D. Blaas. 1994. Members of the low density lipoprotein receptor family mediate cell entry of a minor-group common cold virus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91:18391842.
41. Hyypia, T.,, T. Puhakka,, O. Ruuskanen,, M. Makela,, A. Arola,, and P. Arstila. 1998. Molecular diagnosis of human rhinovirus infections: comparison with virus isolation. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:20812083.
42. Jang, Y. J.,, S. H. Lee,, H. J. Kwon,, Y. S. Chung,, and B. J. Lee. 2005. Development of rhinovirus study model using organ culture of turbinate mucosa. J. Virol. Methods 125:4147.
43. Jartti, T.,, P. Lehtinen,, T. Vuorinen,, M. Koskenvuo,, and O. Ruuskanen. 2004. Persistence of rhinovirus and enterovirus RNA after acute respiratory illness in children. J. Med. Virol. 72:695699.
44. Johnston, S. L.,, G. Sanderson,, P. K. Pattemore,, S. Smith,, P. G. Vardin,, C. B. Bruce,, P. R. Lambden,, D. A. J. Tyrrell,, and S. T. Holgate. 1993. Use of polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of picornavirus infection in subjects with and without respiratory symptoms. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31:111117.
45. Kares, S.,, M. Lonnrot,, P. Vuorinen,, S. Oikarinen,, S. Taurianen,, and H. Hyoty. 2004. Real-time PCR for rapid diagnosis of entero- and rhinovirus infections using LightCycler. J. Clin. Virol. 29:99104.
46. Khetsuriani, N.,, X. Lu,, W. G. Teague,, N. Kazerouni,, L. J. Anderson,, and D. D. Erdman. 2008. Novel human rhinoviruses and exacerbation of asthma in children. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14:17931796.
47. Kiang, D.,, I. Kalra,, S. Yagi,, J. K. Louie,, H. Boushey,, J. Boothby,, and D. P. Schnurr. 2008. Assay for 59 noncoding region analysis of all human rhinovirus prototype strains. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46:37363745.
48. Kistler, A.,, P. C. Avila,, S. Rouskin,, D. Wang,, T. Ward,, S. Yagi,, D. Schnurr,, D. Ganem,, J. L. DeRisi,, and H. A. Boushey. 2007. Pan-viral screening of respiratory tract infections in adults with and without asthma reveals unexpected human coronavirus and human rhinovirus diversity. J. Infect. Dis. 196:817825.
49. Kling, S.,, H. Donninger,, Z. Williams,, J. Vermeulen,, E. Weinberg,, K. Latiff,, R. Ghildyal,, and P. Bardin. 2005. Persistence of rhinovirus RNA after asthma exacerbation in children. Clin. Exp. Allergy 35:672678.
50. Korppi, M.,, A. Kotaniemi-Syrjanen,, M. Waris,, R. Vainionpaa,, and T. M. Reijonen. 2004. Rhinovirus-associated wheezing in infancy. Comparison with respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 23:995999.
51. Kumar, D.,, D. Erdman,, S. Keshavjee,, T. Peret,, R. Tellier,, D. Hadjiliadis,, G. Johnson,, M. Ayers,, D. Siegal,, and A. Humar. 2005. Clinical impact of community-acquired respiratory viruses on bronchiolitis obliterans after lung transplant. Am. J. Transplant. 5:20312036.
52. Laine, P.,, C. Savolainen,, S. Blomqvist,, and T. Hovi. 2005. Phylogenetic analysis of human rhinovirus capsid protein VP1 and 2A protease coding sequences confirms shared genus-like relationships with human enteroviruses. J. Gen. Virol. 86:697706.
53. Lamson, D.,, N. Renwick,, V. Kapoor,, Z. Liu,, G. Palacios,, J. Ju,, A. Dean,, K. St. George,, T. Briese,, and W. I. Lipkin. 2006. MassTag polymerase-chain-reaction detection of respiratory pathogens, including a new rhinovirus genotype, that caused influenza-like illness in New York State during 2004-2005. J. Infect. Dis. 194:13981402.
54. Las Heras, J.,, and V. L. Swanson. 1983. Sudden death of an infant with rhinovirus infection complicating bronchial asthma: case report. Pediatr. Pathol. 1:319323.
55. Lau, S. K.,, C. C. Yip,, H. W. Tsoi,, R. A. Lee,, L. Y. So,, Y. L. Lau,, K. H. Chan,, P. C. Woo,, and K. Y. Yuen. 2007. Clinical features and complete genome characterization of a distinct human rhinovirus (HRV) genetic cluster, probably representing a previously undetected HRV species, HRV-C, associated with acute respiratory illness in children. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45:36553664.
56. Ledford, R. M.,, N. R. Patel,, T. M. Demenczuk,, A. Watanyar,, T. Herbertz,, M. S. Collet,, and D. C. Pevear. 2004. VP1 sequencing of all human rhinovirus serotypes: insights into genus phylogeny and susceptibility to antiviral capsid-binding compounds. J. Virol. 78:36633674.
57. Lee, B. E.,, J. L. Robinson,, V. Khurana,, X. L. Pang,, J. K. Preiksaitis,, and J. D. Fox. 2006. Enhanced identification of viral and atypical bacterial pathogens in lower respiratory tract samples with nucleic acid amplification tests. J. Med. Virol. 78:702710.
58. Lee, W. M.,, C. Kiesner,, T. Pappas,, I. Lee,, K. Grindle,, T. Jartti,, B. Jakiela,, R. F. Lemanske, Jr.,, P. A. Shult,, and J. E. Gern. 2007. A diverse group of previously unrecognized human rhinoviruses are common causes of respiratory illnesses in infants. PLoS ONE 2:e966.
59. Lee, W. M.,, K. Grindle,, T. Pappas,, D. J. Marshall,, M. J. Moser,, E. L. Beaty,, P. A. Shult,, J. R. Prudent,, and J. E. Gern. 2007. High-throughput, sensitive, and accurate multiplex PCR-microsphere flow cytometry system for large-scale comprehensive detection of respiratory viruses. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45:26262634.
60. Loens, K.,, H. Goossens,, C. de Laat,, H. Foolen,, P. Oudshoorn,, S. Pattyn,, P. Sillekens,, and M. Ieven. 2006. Detection of rhinoviruses by tissue culture and two independent amplification techniques, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification and reverse transcription-PCR, in children with acute respiratory infections during a winter season. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:166171.
61. Louie, J. K.,, S. Yagi,, F. A. Nelson,, D. Kiang,, C. A. Glaser,, J. Rosenberg,, C. K. Cahill,, and D. P. Schnurr. 2005. Rhinovirus outbreak in a long term care facility for elderly persons associated with unusually high mortality. Clin. Infect. Dis. 41:262265.
62. Louie, J. K.,, A. Roy-Burman,, L. Guardia-Labar,, E. J. Boston,, D. Kiang,, T. Padilla,, S. Yagi,, S. Messenger,, A. M. Petru,, C. A. Glaser,, and D. P. Schnurr. 2009. Rhinovirus associated with severe lower respiratory tract infections in children. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 28:337339.
63. Lu, X.,, B. Holloway,, R. K. Dare,, J. Kuypers,, S. Yagi,, J. V. Williams,, C. B. Hall,, and D. D. Erdman. 2008. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR assay for comprehensive detection of human rhinoviruses. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46:533539.
64. Mahony, J.,, S. Chong,, F. Merante,, S. Yaghoubian,, T. Sinha,, C. Lisle,, and R. Janeczko. 2007. Development of a respiratory virus panel test for detection of twenty human respiratory viruses by use of multiplex PCR and a fluid microbead-based assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45:29652970.
65. Mallia, P.,, and S. L. Johnston. 2006. How viral infections cause exacerbation of airway diseases. Chest 130:12031210.
66. McErlean, P.,, L. A. Shackelton,, S. B. Lambert,, M. D. Nissen,, T. P. Sloots,, and I. M. Mackay. 2007. Characterisation of a newly identified human rhinovirus, HRV-QPM, discovered in infants with bronchiolitis. J. Clin. Virol. 39:6775.
67. McErlean, P.,, L. A. Shackelton,, E. Andrews,, D. R. Webster,, S. B. Lambert,, M. D. Nissen,, T. P. Sloots,, and I. M. Mackay. 2008. Distinguishing molecular features and clinical characteristics of a putative new rhinovirus species, human rhinovirus C (HRV C). PLoS ONE 3:e1847.
68. Miller, E. K.,, X. Lu,, D. D. Erdman,, K. A. Poehling,, Y. Zhu,, M. R. Griffin,, T. V. Hartert,, L. J. Anderson,, G. A. Weinberg,, C. B. Hall,, M. K. Iwane,, and K. M. Edwards for the New Vaccine Surveillance Network. 2007. Rhinovirus-associated hospitalizations in young children. J. Infect. Dis. 195:773781.
69. Miller, E. K.,, K. M. Edwards,, G. A. Weinberg,, M. K. Iwane,, M. R. Griffin,, C. B. Hall,, Y. Zhu,, P. G. Szilagyi,, L. L. Morin,, L. H. Heil,, X. Lu,, and J. V. WilliamsfortheNewVaccineSurveillanceNetwork. 2009. A novel group of rhinoviruses is associated with asthma hospitalizations. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 123:98104.
70. Monto, A. S. 2002. The seasonality of rhinovirus infections and its implications for clinical recognition. Clin. Ther. 24:19871997
71. Nicholson, K. G.,, J. Kent,, V. Hammersley,, and E. Cancio. 1996. Risk factors for lower respiratory complications of rhinovirus infections in elderly people living in the community: prospective cohort study. BMJ 313:11191123.
72. Nokso-Koivisto, J.,, R. Raty,, S. Blomqvist,, M. Kleemola,, R. Syrjanen,, A. Pitkaranta,, T. Kilpi,, and T. Hovi. 2004. Presence of specific viruses in the middle ear fluids and respiratory secretions of young children with acute otitis media. J. Med. Virol. 72:241248
73. Nolte, F. S.,, D. J. Marshall,, C. Rasberry,, S. Schievelbein,, G. G. Banks,, G. A. Storch,, M.Q. Arens,, R. S. Buller,, and J. R. Prudent. 2007. MultiCode-PLx system for multiplexed detection of seventeen respiratory viruses. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45:27792786.
74. Palmenberg, A. C.,, D. Spiro,, R. Kuzmickas,, S. Wang,, A. Djikeng,, J. A. Rathe,, C. M. Fraser-Liggett,, and S. B. Liggett. 2009. Sequencing and analyses of all known human rhinovirus genomes reveal structure and evolution. Science 324:5559.
75. Papadopoulos, N. G.,, J. Hunter,, G. Sanderson,, J. Meyer,, and S. L. Johnston. 1999. Rhinovirus identification by BglI digestion of picornavirus RT-PCR amplicons. J. Virol. Methods 80:179185.
76. Papadopoulos, N. G.,, P. J. Bates,, P. G. Bardin,, A. Papi,, S. H. Leir,, D. J. Fraenkel,, J. Meyer,, P. M. Lackie,, G. Sanderson,, S. T. Holgate,, and S. L. Johnston. 2000. Rhinoviruses infect the lower airways. J. Infect. Dis. 181:18751884.
77. Rossmann, M. G.,, J. Bella,, P. R. Kolatkar,, Y. He,, E. Wimmer,, R. J. Kuhn,, and T. S. Baker. 2000. Cell recognition and entry by rhino- and enteroviruses. Virology 269:239247.
78. Savolainen-Kopra, C.,, S. Blomqvist,, T. Kilpi,, M. Roivainen,, and T. Hovi. 2009. Novel species of human rhinoviruses in acute otitis media. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 28:5961.
79. Scheltinga, S. A.,, K. E. Templeton,, M. F. C. Beersma,, and E. C. J. Claas. 2005. Diagnosis of human metapneumovirus and rhinovirus in patients with respiratory tract infections by an internally controlled multiplex real-time RNA PCR. J. Clin. Virol. 33:306311.
80. Spyridaki, I. S.,, I. Christodoulou,, L. de Beer,, V. Hovland,, M. Kurowski,, A. Olszewska-Ziaber,, K. H. Carlsen,, K. Lødrup-Carlsen,, C. M. van Drunen,, M. L. Kowalski,, R. Molenkamp,, and N. G. Papadopoulos. 2009. Comparison of four nasal sampling methods for the detection of viral pathogens by RT-PCR—a GA(2)LEN project. J. Virol. Methods 156:102106.
81. Steininger, C.,, S. W. Aberle,, and T. Popow-Kraupp. 2001. Early detection of acute rhinovirus infections by a rapid reverse transcription-PCR assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:129133.
82. Templeton, K. E.,, C. B. Forde,, A. M. Loon,, E. C. Claas,, H. G. Niesters,, P. Wallace,, and W. F. Carman. 2006. A multicentre pilot proficiency programme to assess the quality of molecular detection of respiratory viruses. J. Clin. Virol. 35:5158.
83. Torgersen, H.,, T. Skern,, and D. Blaas. 1989. Typing of human rhinoviruses based on sequence variations in the 59 non-coding region. J. Gen. Virol. 70:31113116.
84. Tsolia, M. N.,, S. Psarras,, A. Bossios,, H. Audi,, M. Paldanius,, D. Gourgiotis,, K. Kallergi,, D. A. Kafetzis,, A. Constantopoulos,, and N. G. Papadopoulos. 2004. Etiology of community-acquired pneumonia in hospitalized school-age children: evidence for high prevalence of viral infections. Clin. Infect. Dis. 39:681686.
85. Turner, R. B.,, M. T. Wecker,, G. Pohl,, T. J. Witek,, E. McNally,, R. St. George,, B. Winther,, and F. G. Hayden. 1999. Efficacy of tremacamra, a soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 alpha, for experimental rhinovirus infection. JAMA 281:17971804.
86. Turner, R. B.,, R. Bauer,, K. Woelkart,, T. C. Hulsey,, and J. D. Gangemi. 2005. An evaluation of Echinacea angustifolia in experimental rhinovirus infections. N. Engl. J. Med. 353:341348.
87. Uncapher, C. R.,, C. M. DeWitt,, and R. J. Colonno. 1991. The major and minor group receptor families contain all but one human rhinovirus serotype. Virology 180:814817.
88. Van Kraaij, M. G. J.,, L. J. R. van Elden,, A. M. van Loon,, K. A. W. Hendriksen,, L. Laterveer,, A. W. Dekker,, and M. Nijhuis. 2005. Frequent detection of respiratory viruses in adult recipients of stem cell transplants with the use of realtime polymerase chain reaction, compared with viral culture. Clin. Infect. Dis. 40:662669.
89. Vlasak, M.,, M. Roivainen,, M. Reithmayer,, I. Goesler,, P. Laine,, L. Snyers,, T. Hovi,, and D. Blaas. 2005. The minor receptor group of human rhinovirus (HRV) includes HRV23 and HRV25, but the presence of a lysine in the VP1 HI loop is not sufficient for receptor binding. J. Virol. 79:73897395.
90. Vuorinen, T.,, R. Vainionpaa,, and T. Hyypia. 2003. Five years’ experience of reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in daily diagnosis of enterovirus and rhinovirus infections. Clin. Infect. Dis. 37:452455.
91. Wang, J. H.,, H. J. Kwon,, Y. S. Chung,, B. J. Lee,, and Y. J. Jang. 2008. Infection rate and virus-induced cytokine secretion in experimental rhinovirus infection in mucosal organ culture: comparison between specimens from patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps and those from normal subjects. Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 134:424427.
92. Winther, B.,, F. G. Hayden,, and J. O. Hendley. 2006. Picornavirus infections in children diagnosed by RT-PCR during longitudinal surveillance with weekly sampling: association with symptomatic illness and effect of season. J. Med. Virol. 78:644650.
93. Wright, P. F.,, A. M. Deatly,, R. A. Karron,, R. B. Belshe,, J. R. Shi,, W. C. Gruber,, Y. Zhu,, and V. B. Randolph. 2007. Comparison of results of detection of rhinovirus by PCR and viral culture in human nasal wash specimens from subjects with and without clinical symptoms of respiratory illness. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45:21262129.
94. Xatzipsalti, M.,, S. Kyrana,, M. Tsolia,, S. Psarras,, A. Bossios,, V. Laza-Stanca,, S. L. Johnston,, and N. G. Papadopoulos. 2005. Rhinovirus viremia in children with respiratory infections. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 172:10371040.
95. Xing, l.,, J. M. Casasnovvas,, and R. H. Cheng. 2003. Structural analysis of human rhinovirus complexed with ICAM-1 reveals the dynamics of receptor-mediated virus uncoating. J. Virol. 77:61016107.
96. Zhang, Y.,, A. A. Simpson,, R. M. Ledford,, C. M. Bator,, S. Chakravarty,, G. A. Skochko,, T. M. Demenczuk,, A. Watanyar,, D. C. Pevear,, and M. G. Rossmann. 2004. Structural and virological studies of the stages of virus replication that are affected by antirhinovirus compounds. J. Virol. 78:1106111069.
97. Zoll, J.,, S. Erkens Hulshof,, K. Lanke,, F. Verduyn Lunel,, W. J. Melchers,, E. Schoondermark-van de Ven,, M. Roivainen,, J. M. Galama,, and F. J. van Kuppeveld. 2009. Saffold virus, a human Theiler’s-like cardiovirus, is ubiquitous and causes infection early in life. PLoS Pathog. 5:e1000416.


Generic image for table

Comparison of diagnostic methods for rhinoviruses

CMV, cytomegalovirus; VZV, varicella-zoster virus; HSV, herpes simplex virus.

NAT, nucleic acid test.

Citation: Landry M. 2011. Rhinoviruses, p 1400-1409. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch86

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error