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Chapter 86 : Rhinoviruses

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Abstract:

Human rhinoviruses (HRV) are members of the family . On the basis of neutralization tests in cell culture, 100 rhinovirus serotypes have been designated: HRV1A, HRV1B, HRV2 to HRV86, and HRV88 to HRV100. The authors found divergence within HRV-A of a distinct clade, clade D, and evidence for recombination as a mechanism for HRV diversity. Rhinovirus has been increasingly detected in lower respiratory tract infections, especially in the very young, school-age children, the elderly, and those with chronic illnesses, cancer, immunosuppressive illnesses or transplants or underlying pulmonary disease. Using primers or probes based on sequences in the 59NCR, all rhinovirus serotypes can theoretically be detected in a single assay. This chapter describes isolating procedures and talks about identification of virus. Rhinovirus serotyping is an expensive, labor-intensive research procedure that is rarely performed. Differentiation of rhinoviruses from enteroviruses, with which their cytopathic effects (CPE) can be confused, is based primarily on acid stability testing of isolates. Although clinical laboratories offer specific molecular to elucidate the important role of rhinoviruses as lower respiratory tract pathogens and as significant causes of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation, the standard diagnostic approach may not change substantially until effective therapy becomes available, the impact of rapid and sensitive rhinovirus diagnosis on the management of hospitalized patients can be demonstrated, or highly multiplexed molecular assays incorporating rhinoviruses are more widely adopted.

Citation: Landry M. 2011. Rhinoviruses, p 1400-1409. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch86

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FIGURE 1

Rhinovirus CPE in HELF. (A) Uninfected cells; (B) early focus of rhinovirus CPE; (C) more advanced rhinovirus CPE. Magnification, ×100.

Citation: Landry M. 2011. Rhinoviruses, p 1400-1409. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch86
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Flow scheme for the isolation or detection and identification of rhinovirus. REA, restriction enzyme analysis; BAL, bronchoalveolar lavage.

Citation: Landry M. 2011. Rhinoviruses, p 1400-1409. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch86
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Tables

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TABLE 1

Comparison of diagnostic methods for rhinoviruses

CMV, cytomegalovirus; VZV, varicella-zoster virus; HSV, herpes simplex virus.

NAT, nucleic acid test.

Citation: Landry M. 2011. Rhinoviruses, p 1400-1409. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch86

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