1887

Chapter 90 : Gastroenteritis Viruses

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Gastroenteritis Viruses , Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap90-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap90-2.gif

Abstract:

Common causes of viral gastroenteritis include rotavirus, calicivirus (norovirus and sapovirus), astrovirus, and enteric adenovirus (EAdV). The major symptoms of rotavirus gastroenteritis include watery diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and fever. The major symptoms of norovirus gastroenteritis include watery diarrhea, vomiting, anorexia, abdominal pain, and fever. AdV-associated acute gastroenteritis is usually milder but lasts longer (5 to 12 days) than other viral gastroenteritis viruses. The major symptoms of astrovirus gastroenteritis include diarrhea, vomiting, anorexia, abdominal pain, and fever, which are generally milder than those of rota-and norovirus gastroenteritis. Due to the difficulty of propagating many gastroenteritis viruses, reliable antigen detection assays remain unavailable for many viral families because of the lack of specific antibodies. Both antigenic and genetic typing methods are important in understanding the classification and epidemiology of many gastroenteritis viruses and for developing preventive strategies against the diseases caused by pathogens. Typing does not affect clinical treatment. Therefore, typing of gastroenteritis viruses is used mainly in research laboratories. The recently recommended new classification system based on sequence information for all 11 genomic RNA segments is an extension of the previous classification systems. There is no neutralization-based serologic test for most other gastroenteritis viruses. Application of assays in sero-surveillance against gastroenteritis viruses has played an important role in understanding the importance of viruses in different populations.

Citation: Pang X, Jiang X. 2011. Gastroenteritis Viruses , p 1456-1469. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch90

Key Concept Ranking

Viral Gastroenteritis
0.5576057
Multiplex Real-Time PCR
0.53646773
DNA Restriction Enzymes
0.457664
0.5576057
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Electron micrographs of gastroenteritis viruses. (A) Sapoviruses; (B) noroviruses; (C) astroviruses; (D1) Aichi virus; (D2) picornaviruses; (E) rotaviruses; (F) AdVs; (G) coronaviruses; (H) torovirus-like particles; (I) picobirnaviruses. Bar = 100 nm. Modified from Fig. 2 of reference . Panel D1 was provided by Teruo Yamashita, and panels E and I were provided by Charles Humphrey.

Citation: Pang X, Jiang X. 2011. Gastroenteritis Viruses , p 1456-1469. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch90
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555816728.chap90
1. Abad, F. X.,, R. M. Pinto,, and A. Bosch. 1994. Survival of enteric viruses on environmental fomites. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60: 3704 3710.
2. Allard, A.,, B. Albinsson,, and G. Wadell. 2001. Rapid typing of human adenoviruses by a general PCR combined with restriction endonuclease analysis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39: 498 505.
3. Al-Soud, W. A.,, and P. Radstrom. 2001. Purification and characterization of PCR-inhibitory components in blood cells. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39: 485 493.
4. Ball, J. M.,, P. Tian,, C. Q. Zeng,, A. P. Morris,, and M. K. Estes. 1996. Age-dependent diarrhea induced by a rotaviral nonstructural glycoprotein. Science 272: 101 104.
5. Banyai, K.,, A. Bogdan,, G. Domonkos,, P. Kisfali,, P. Molnar,, A. Toth,, B. Melegh,, V. Martella,, J. R. Gentsch,, and G. Szucs. 2009. Genetic diversity and zoonotic potential of human rotavirus strains, 2003-2006, Hungary. J. Med. Virol. 81: 362 370.
6. Banyai, K.,, P. Kisfali,, A. Bogdan,, V. Martella,, B. Melegh,, D. Erdman,, and G. Szucs. 2009. Adenovirus gastroenteritis in Hungary, 2003-2006. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 28: 997 999.
7. Belliot, G.,, H. Laveran,, and S. S. Monroe. 1997. Detection and genetic differentiation of human astroviruses: phylogenetic grouping varies by coding region. Arch. Virol. 142: 1323 1334.
8. Belliot, G.,, H. Laveran,, and S. S. Monroe. 1997. Outbreak of gastroenteritis in military recruits associated with serotype 3 astrovirus infection. J. Med. Virol. 51: 101 106.
9. Bon, F.,, J. Kaplon,, M. H. Metzger,, and P. Pothier. 2007. Evaluation of seven immunochromatographic assays for the rapid detection of human rotaviruses in fecal specimens. Pathol. Biol. (Paris) 55: 149 153. (In French.)
10. Buesa, J.,, R. Montava,, R. Abu-Mallouh,, M. Fos,, J. M. Ribes,, R. Bartolome,, H. Vanaclocha,, N. Torner,, and A. Dominguez. 2008. Sequential evolution of genotype GI.4 norovirus variants causing gastroenteritis outbreaks from 2001 to 2006 in eastern Spain. J. Med. Virol. 80: 1288 1295.
11. Carraturo, A.,, V. Catalani,, and L. Tega. 2008. Microbiological and epidemiological aspects of rotavirus and enteric adenovirus infections in hospitalized children in Italy. New Microbiol. 31: 329 336.
12. Chan, M. C.,, J. J. Sung,, R. K. Lam,, P. K. Chan,, R. W. Lai,, and W. K. Leung. 2006. Sapovirus detection by quantitative real-time RT-PCR in clinical stool specimens. J. Virol. Methods 134: 146 153.
13. Chizhikov, V.,, M. Wagner,, A. Ivshina,, Y. Hoshino,, A. Z. Kapikian,, and K. Chumakov. 2002. Detection and genotyping of human group A rotaviruses by oligonucleotide microarray hybridization. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40: 2398 2407.
14. Cortese, M. M.,, and U. D. Parashar. 2009. Prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis among infants and children: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm. Rep. 58: 1 25.
15. Cromeans, T. L.,, X. Lu,, D. D. Erdman,, C. D. Humphrey,, and V. R. Hill. 2008. Development of plaque assays for adenoviruses 40 and 41. J. Virol. Methods 151: 140 145.
16. de Bruin, E.,, E. Duizer,, H. Vennema,, and M. P. Koopmans. 2006. Diagnosis of norovirus outbreaks by commercial ELISA or RT-PCR. J. Virol. Methods 137: 259 264.
17. de Jong, J. C.,, A. D. Osterhaus,, M. S. Jones,, and B. Harrach. 2008. Human adenovirus type 52: a type 41 in disguise? J. Virol. 82: 3809 3810. (Letter.)
18. Dennehy, P. H.,, M. Hartin,, S. M. Nelson,, and S. F. Reising. 1999. Evaluation of the ImmunoCardSTAT! rotavirus assay for detection of group A rotavirus in fecal specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 1977 1979.
19. de Rougemont, A.,, J. Kaplon,, G. Billaud,, B. Lina,, S. Pinchinat,, T. Derrough,, E. Caulin,, P. Pothier,, and D. Floret. 2008. Sensitivity and specificity of the VIKIA® Rota- Adeno immuno-chromatographic test (bioMérieux) and the ELISA IDEIA™ rotavirus kit (Dako) compared to genotyping. Pathol. Biol. (Paris) 57: 86 89. (In French.)
20. Duizer, E.,, A. Pielaat,, H. Vennema,, A. Kroneman,, and M. Koopmans. 2007. Probabilities in norovirus outbreak diagnosis. J. Clin. Virol. 40: 38 42.
21. Estes, M., 2001. Rotaviruses and their replication, p. 1747 1785. D. M. Knipe,, P. M. Howley,, D. E. Griffin,, R. A. Lamb,, M. A. Martin,, B. Roizman,, and S. E. Straus (ed.), Fields Virology, 4th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
22. Estes, M. K.,, and A. P. Morris. 1999. A viral enterotoxin. A new mechanism of virus-induced pathogenesis. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 473: 73 82.
23. Fankhauser, R. L.,, S. S. Monroe,, J. S. Noel,, C. D. Humphrey,, J. S. Bresee,, U. D. Parashar,, T. Ando,, and R. I. Glass. 2002. Epidemiologic and molecular trends of “ Norwalk-like viruses” associated with outbreaks of gastroenteritis in the United States. J. Infect. Dis. 186: 1 7.
24. Farkas, T.,, T. Berke,, G. Reuter,, G. Szucs,, D. O. Matson,, and X. Jiang. 2002. Molecular detection and sequence analysis of human caliciviruses from acute gastroenteritis outbreaks in Hungary. J. Med. Virol. 67: 567 573.
25. Farkas, T.,, K. Sestak,, C. Wei,, and X. Jiang. 2008. Characterization of a rhesus monkey calicivirus representing a new genus of Caliciviridae. J. Virol. 82: 5408 5416.
26. Farkas, T.,, W. M. Zhong,, Y. Jing,, P. W. Huang,, S. M. Espinosa,, N. Martinez,, A. L. Morrow,, G. M. Ruiz-Palacios,, L. K. Pickering,, and X. Jiang. 2004. Genetic diversity among sapoviruses. Arch. Virol. 149: 1309 1323.
27. Fischer, S. A. 2008. Emerging viruses in transplantation: there is more to infection after transplant than CMV and EBV. Transplantation 86: 1327 1339.
28. Fregolente, M. C.,, E. de Castro-Dias,, S. S. Martins,, F. R. Spilki,, S. M. Allegretti,, and M. S. Gatti. 2009. Molecular characterization of picobirnaviruses from new hosts. Virus Res. 143: 134 136.
29. Gary, G. W., Jr.,, J. C. Hierholzer,, and R. E. Black. 1979. Characteristics of noncultivable adenoviruses associated with diarrhea in infants: a new subgroup of human adenoviruses. J. Clin. Microbiol. 10: 96 103.
30. Gouvea, V.,, R. I. Glass,, P. Woods,, K. Taniguchi,, H. F. Clark,, B. Forrester,, and Z. Y. Fang. 1990. Polymerase chain reaction amplification and typing of rotavirus nucleic acid from stool specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28: 276 282.
31. Green, K.,, R. Chanock,, and A. Kapikian,. 2001. Human calicivirus, p. 841 874. In D. M. Knipe,, P. M. Howley,, D. E. Griffin,, R. A. Lamb,, M. A. Martin,, B. Roizman,, and S. E. Straus (ed.), Fields Virology, 4th ed., vol. 2. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
32. Green, K. Y.,, T. Ando,, M. S. Balayan,, T. Berke,, I. N. Clarke,, M. K. Estes,, D. O. Matson,, S. Nakata,, J. D. Neill,, M. J. Studdert,, and H. J. Thiel. 2000. Taxonomy of the caliciviruses. J. Infect. Dis. 181( Suppl. 2): S322 S330.
33. Grimm, A. C.,, J. L. Cashdollar,, F. P. Williams,, and G. S. Fout. 2004. Development of an astrovirus RT-PCR detection assay for use with conventional, real-time, and integrated cell culture/RT-PCR. Can. J. Microbiol. 50: 269 278.
34. Grohmann, G. S.,, R. I. Glass,, H. G. Pereira,, S. S. Monroe,, A. W. Hightower,, R. Weber,, and R. T. Bryan, for the Enteric Opportunistic Infections Working Group. 1993. Enteric viruses and diarrhea in HIV-infected patients. N. Engl. J. Med. 329: 14 20.
35. Guix, S.,, A. Bosch,, and R. M. Pinto. 2005. Human astrovirus diagnosis and typing: current and future prospects. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 41: 103 105.
36. Gunson, R. N.,, T. C. Collins,, and W. F. Carman. 2006. The real-time detection of sapovirus. J. Clin. Virol. 35: 321 322
37. Gutierrez-Aguirre, I.,, M. Banjac,, A. Steyer,, M. Poljsak- Prijatelj,, M. Peterka,, A. Strancar,, and M. Ravnikar. 2008. Concentrating rotaviruses from water samples using monolithic chromatographic supports. J. Chromatogr. A 1216: 2700 2704.
38. Hansman, G. S.,, T. Oka,, K. Katayama,, and N. Takeda. 2007. Human sapoviruses: genetic diversity, recombination, and classification. Rev. Med. Virol. 17: 133 141.
39. Hoehne, M.,, and E. Schreier. 2006. Detection of norovirus genogroup I and II by multiplex real-time RT-PCR using a 39-minor groove binder-DNA probe. BMC Infect. Dis. 6: 69.
40. Holmes, K., 2001. Coronaviruses, p. 1187 1203. In D. M. Knipe,, P. M. Howley,, D. E. Griffin,, R. A. Lamb,, M. A. Martin,, B. Roizman,, and S. E. Straus (ed.), Fields Virology, 4th ed., vol. 2. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
41. Horowitz, M., 2001. Adenoviruses, p. 2301 2326. In D. M. Knipe,, P. M. Howley,, D. E. Griffin,, R. A. Lamb,, M. A. Martin,, B. Roizman,, and S. E. Straus (ed.), Fields Virology, 4th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philiadelphia, PA.
42. Huang, P.,, T. Farkas,, W. Zhong,, M. Tan,, S. Thornton,, A. L. Morrow,, and X. Jiang. 2005. Norovirus and histo-blood group antigens: demonstration of a wide spectrum of strain specificities and classification of two major binding groups among multiple binding patterns. J. Virol. 79: 6714 6722.
43. Hudson, R. W.,, J. E. Herrmann,, and N. R. Blacklow. 1989. Plaque quantitation and virus neutralization assays for human astroviruses. Arch. Virol. 108: 33 38.
44. Ishiko, H.,, and K. Aoki. 2009. Spread of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis due to a novel serotype of human adenovirus in Japan. J. Clin. Microbiol. 47: 2678 2679.
45. Iturriza-Gomara, M.,, G. Kang,, and J. Gray. 2004. Rotavirus genotyping: keeping up with an evolving population of human rotaviruses. J. Clin. Virol. 31: 259 265.
46. Jaaskelainen, A. J.,, and L. Maunula. 2006. Applicability of microarray technique for the detection of noro- and astroviruses. J. Virol. Methods 136: 210 216.
47. Jiang, X.,, D. Y. Graham,, K. N. Wang,, and M. K. Estes. 1990. Norwalk virus genome cloning and characterization. Science 250: 1580 1583.
48. Jiang, X.,, M. Wang,, K. Wang,, and M. K. Estes. 1993. Sequence and genomic organization of Norwalk virus. Virology 195: 51 61.
49. Jiang, X.,, N. Wilton,, W. M. Zhong,, T. Farkas,, P. W. Huang,, E. Barrett,, M. Guerrero,, G. Ruiz-Palacios,, K. Y. Green,, J. Green,, A. D. Hale,, M. K. Estes,, L. K. Pickering,, and D. O. Matson. 2000. Diagnosis of human caliciviruses by use of enzyme immunoassays. J. Infect. Dis. 181( Suppl. 2): S349 S359.
50. Jones, M. S., II,, B. Harrach,, R. D. Ganac,, M. M. Gozum,, W. P. Dela Cruz,, B. Riedel,, C. Pan,, E. L. Delwart,, and D. P. Schnurr. 2007. New adenovirus species found in a patient presenting with gastroenteritis. J. Virol. 81: 5978 5984.
51. Jothikumar, N.,, T. L. Cromeans,, V. R. Hill,, X. Lu,, M. D. Sobsey,, and D. D. Erdman. 2005. Quantitative real-time PCR assays for detection of human adenoviruses and identification of serotypes 40 and 41. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71: 3131 3136.
52. Jothikumar, N.,, G. Kang,, and V. R. Hill. 2009. Broadly reactive TaqMan assay for real-time RT-PCR detection of rotavirus in clinical and environmental samples. J. Virol. Methods 155: 126 131.
53. Jothikumar, N.,, J. A. Lowther,, K. Henshilwood,, D. N. Lees,, V. R. Hill,, and J. Vinje. 2005. Rapid and sensitive detection of noroviruses by using TaqMan-based one-step reverse transcription-PCR assays and application to naturally contaminated shellfish samples. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71: 1870 1875.>
54. Kageyama, T.,, S. Kojima,, M. Shinohara,, K. Uchida,, S. Fukushi,, F. B. Hoshino,, N. Takeda,, and K. Katayama. 2003. Broadly reactive and highly sensitive assay for N orwalk-like viruses based on real-time quantitative reverse transcription- PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41: 1548 1557.
55. Kapikian, A. Z.,, R. G. Wyatt,, R. Dolin,, T. S. Thornhill,, A. R. Kalica,, and R. M. Chanock. 1972. Visualization by immune electron microscopy of a 27-nm particle associated with acute infectious nonbacterial gastroenteritis. J. Virol. 10: 1075 1081.
56. Ko, G.,, N. Jothikumar,, V. R. Hill,, and M. D. Sobsey. 2005. Rapid detection of infectious adenoviruses by mRNA realtime RT-PCR. J. Virol. Methods 127: 148 153.
57. Le Cann, P.,, S. Ranarijaona,, S. Monpoeho,, F. Le Guyader,, and V. Ferre. 2004. Quantification of human astroviruses in sewage using real-time RT-PCR. Res. Microbiol. 155: 11 15.
58. Lee, B. E.,, X. L. Pang,, J. L. Robinson,, D. Bigam,, S. S. Monroe,, and J. K. Preiksaitis. 2008. Chronic norovirus and adenovirus infection in a solid organ transplant recipient. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 27: 360 362.
59. Lee, T. W.,, and J. B. Kurtz. 1994. Prevalence of human astrovirus serotypes in the Oxford region 1976-92, with evidence for two new serotypes. Epidemiol. Infect. 112: 187 193.
60. Lewis, D.,, T. Ando,, C. D. Humphrey,, S. S. Monroe,, and R. I. Glass. 1995. Use of solid-phase immune electron microscopy for classification of Norwalk-like viruses into six antigenic groups from 10 outbreaks of gastroenteritis in the United States. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 501 504.
61. Lewis, D. C.,, N. F. Lightfoot,, W. D. Cubitt,, and S. A. Wilson. 1989. Outbreaks of astrovirus type 1 and rotavirus gastroenteritis in a geriatric in-patient population. J. Hosp. Infect. 14: 9 14.
62. Lindesmith, L. C.,, E. F. Donaldson,, A. D. Lobue,, J. L. Cannon,, D. P. Zheng,, J. Vinje,, and R. S. Baric. 2008. Mechanisms of GI.4 norovirus persistence in human populations. PLoS Med. 5: e31.
63. Lindner, J.,, and S. Modrow. 2008. Human bocavirus—a novel parvovirus to infect humans. Intervirology 51: 116 122.
64. Logan, C.,, J. O’Leary,, and N. O’Sullivan. 2007. Real-time reverse transcription PCR detection of norovirus, sapovirus and astrovirus as causative agents of acute viral gastroenteritis. J. Virol. Methods 146: 36 44.
65. Logan, C.,, J. J. O’Leary,, and N. O’Sullivan. 2006. Realtime reverse transcription-PCR for detection of rotavirus and adenovirus as causative agents of acute viral gastroenteritis in children. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44: 3189 3195.
66. Long, S. S. 2008. Evidence of norovirus causing necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in a NICU. J. Pediatr. 153: A2.
67. Lu, X.,, M. Chittaganpitch,, S. J. Olsen,, I. M. Mackay,, T. P. Sloots,, A. M. Fry,, and D. D. Erdman. 2006. Real-time PCR assays for detection of bocavirus in human specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44: 3231 3235.
68. Matthijnssens, J.,, M. Ciarlet,, E. Heiman,, I. Arijs,, T. Delbeke,, S. M. McDonald,, E. A. Palombo,, M. Iturriza- Gomara,, P. Maes,, J. T. Patton,, M. Rahman,, and M. Van Ranst. 2008. Full genome-based classification of rotaviruses reveals a common origin between human Wa-like and porcine rotavirus strains and human DS-1-like and bovine rotavirus strains. J. Virol. 82: 3204 3219.
69. Matthijnssens, J.,, M. Ciarlet,, M. Rahman,, H. Attoui,, K. Banyai,, M. K. Estes,, J. R. Gentsch,, M. Iturriza-Gomara,, C. D. Kirkwood,, V. Martella,, P. P. Mertens,, O. Nakagomi,, J. T. Patton,, F. M. Ruggeri,, L. J. Saif,, N. Santos,, A. Steyer,, K. Taniguchi,, U. Desselberger,, and M. Van Ranst. 2008. Recommendations for the classification of group A rotaviruses using all 11 genomic RNA segments. Arch. Virol. 153: 1621 1629.
70. Mattison, K.,, E. Grudeski,, B. Auk,, H. Charest,, S. J. Drews,, A. Fritzinger,, N. Gregoricus,, S. Hayward,, A. Houde,, B. E. Lee,, X. L. Pang,, J. Wong,, T. F. Booth,, and J. Vinje. 2009. Multicenter comparison of two norovirus ORF2-based genotyping protocols. J. Clin. Microbiol. 47: 3927 3932.
71. Midthun, K.,, H. B. Greenberg,, J. B. Kurtz,, G. W. Gary,, F. Y. Lin,, and A. Z. Kapikian. 1993. Characterization and seroepidemiology of a type 5 astrovirus associated with an outbreak of gastroenteritis in Marin County, California. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31: 955 962.
72. Moore, P. L.,, A. D. Steele,, and J. J. Alexander. 2000. Relevance of commercial diagnostic tests to detection of enteric adenovirus infections in South Africa. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 1661 1663.
73. Moosai, R. B.,, M. J. Carter,, and C. R. Madeley. 1984. Rapid detection of enteric adenovirus and rotavirus: a simple method using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. J. Clin. Pathol. 37: 1404 1408.
74. Nakagomi, O.,, H. Oyamada,, and T. Nakagomi. 1991. Experience with serotyping rotavirus strains by reverse transcription and two-step polymerase chain reaction with generic and type-specific primers. Mol. Cell. Probes 5: 285 289.
75. Noel, J.,, and D. Cubitt. 1994. Identification of astrovirus serotypes from children treated at the Hospitals for Sick Children, London 1981-93. Epidemiol. Infect. 113: 153 159.
76. Noel, J. S.,, T. W. Lee,, J. B. Kurtz,, R. I. Glass,, and S. S. Monroe. 1995. Typing of human astroviruses from clinical isolates by enzyme immunoassay and nucleotide sequencing. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 797 801.
77. Oka, T.,, K. Katayama,, G. S. Hansman,, T. Kageyama,, S. Ogawa,, F. T. Wu,, P. A. White,, and N. Takeda. 2006. Detection of human sapovirus by real-time reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction. J. Med. Virol. 78: 1347 1353.
78. Oliver, S. L.,, E. Asobayire,, A. M. Dastjerdi,, and J. C. Bridger. 2006. Genomic characterization of the unclassified bovine enteric virus Newbury agent-1 (Newbury1) endorses a new genus in the family Caliciviridae. Virology 350: 240 250.
79. Pang, X.,, B. Lee,, L. Chui,, J. K. Preiksaitis,, and S. S. Monroe. 2004. Evaluation and validation of real-time reverse transcription- PCR assay using the LightCycler system for detection and quantitation of norovirus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42: 4679 4685.
79a.. Pang, X.,, M. Cao,, M. Zhang,, and B. Lee. 2011. Increased sensitivity for various rotavirus genotypes in stool specimens by amending three mismatched nucleotides in the forward primer of a real-time RT-PCR assay. J. Virol. Methods 172: 85 87.
80. Pang, X. L.,, J. K. Preiksaitis,, and B. Lee. 2005. Multiplex real time RT-PCR for the detection and quantitation of norovirus genogroups I and II in patients with acute gastroenteritis. J. Clin. Virol. 33: 168 171.
81. Petric, M.,, and M. T. Szymanski,. 2000. Electron microscopy and immunoelectron microscopy, p. 54 65. In S. Specter,, R. L. Hodinka,, and S. A. Young (ed.), Clinical Virology Manual, 3rd ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
81a.. Petric, M.,, and R. Tellier,. 2003. Rotaviruses, caliciviruses, astroviruses, and other diarrheic viruses, p. 1439 1451. In P. R. Murray,, E. J. Baron,, J. H. Jorgensen,, M . A. Pfaller,, and R. H. Yolken (ed.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 8th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
82. Rahman, M.,, R. Sultana,, G. Podder,, A. S. Faruque,, J. Matthijnssens,, K. Zaman,, R. F. Breiman,, D. A. Sack,, M. Van Ranst,, and T. Azim. 2005. Typing of human rotaviruses: nucleotide mismatches between VP7 gene and primer are associated with genotyping failure. Virol. J. 2: 24.
83. Rasool, N. B.,, S. S. Monroe,, and R. I. Glass. 2002. Determination of a universal nucleic acid extraction procedure for PCR detection of gastroenteritis viruses in faecal specimens. J. Virol. Methods 100: 1 16.
84. Schofield, K. P.,, D. J. Morris,, A. S. Bailey,, J. C. de Jong,, and G. Corbitt. 1994. Gastroenteritis due to adenovirus type 41 in an adult with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Clin. Infect. Dis. 19: 311 312.
85. Schwab, K. J.,, M. K. Estes,, F. H. Neill,, and R. L. Atmar. 1997. Use of heat release and an internal RNA standard control in reverse transcription-PCR detection of Norwalk virus from stool samples. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 511 514.
86. Siebenga, J. J.,, H. Vennema,, E. Duizer,, and M. P. Koopmans. 2007. Gastroenteritis caused by norovirus GGI.4, The N etherlands, 1994-2005. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 13: 144 146.
87. Siebenga, J. J.,, H. Vennema,, B. Renckens,, E. de Bruin,, B. van der Veer,, R. J. Siezen,, and M. Koopmans. 2007. Epochal evolution of GGI.4 norovirus capsid proteins from 1995 to 2006. J. Virol. 81: 9932 9941.
88. Tan, M.,, and X. Jiang. 2005. The P domain of norovirus capsid protein forms a subviral particle that binds to histoblood group antigen receptors. J. Virol. 79: 14017 14030.
89. Taylor, M. B.,, W. O. Grabow,, and W. D. Cubitt. 1997. Propagation of human astrovirus in the PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma cell line. J. Virol. Methods 67: 13 18.
90. Tellez, C. J.,, R. Montava,, J. M. Ribes,, M. D. Tirado,, and J. Buesa. 2008. Evaluation of two immunochromatography kits for rapid diagnosis of rotavirus infections. Rev. Argent. Microbiol. 40: 167 170. (In Spanish.)
91. Trevino, M.,, E. Prieto,, D. Penalver,, A. Aguilera,, A. Garcia- Zabarte,, C. Garcia-Riestra,, and B. J. Regueiro. 2001. Diarrhea caused by adenovirus and astrovirus in hospitalized immunodeficient patients. Enferm. Infecc. Microbiol. Clin. 19: 7 10. (In Spanish.)
92. Trujillo, A. A.,, K. A. McCaustland,, D. P. Zheng,, L. A. Hadley,, G. Vaughn,, S. M. Adams,, T. Ando,, R. I. Glass,, and S. S. Monroe. 2006. Use of TaqMan real-time reverse transcription-PCR for rapid detection, quantification, and typing of norovirus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44: 1405 1412.
93. Turcios-Ruiz, R. M.,, P. Axelrod,, K. St. John,, E. Bullitt,, J. Donahue,, N. Robinson,, and H. E. Friss. 2008. Outbreak of necrotizing enterocolitis caused by norovirus in a neonatal intensive care unit. J. Pediatr. 153: 339 344.
94. Van Regenmortel, M.,, C. M. Fauquet,, D. H. L. Bishop,, E. Carstens,, M. K. Estes,, S. Lemon,, J. Maniloff,, M. A. Mayo,, D. J. McGeoch,, C. R. Pringle,, and R. Wickner. 1999. Virus Taxonomy: Classification and Nomenclature of Viruses. Seventh Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Academic Press, New York, NY.
95. Walsh, M. P.,, A. Chintakuntlawar,, C. M. Robinson,, I. Madisch,, B. Harrach,, N. R. Hudson,, D. Schnurr,, A. Heim,, J. Chodosh,, D. Seto,, and M. S. Jones. 2009. Evidence of molecular evolution driven by recombination events influencing tropism in a novel human adenovirus that causes epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. PLoS One 4: e5635.
96. Walter, J. E.,, and D. K. Mitchell. 2003. Astrovirus infection in children. Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis. 16: 247 253.
97. Westhoff, T. H.,, M. Vergoulidou,, C. Loddenkemper,, S. Schwartz,, J. Hofmann,, T. Schneider,, W. Zidek,, and M. van der Giet. 2009. Chronic norovirus infection in renal transplant recipients. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 24: 1051 1053.
98. Wobus, C. E.,, S. M. Karst,, L. B. Thackray,, K. O. Chang,, S. V. Sosnovtsev,, G. Belliot,, A. Krug,, J. M. Mackenzie,, K. Y. Green,, and H. W. Virgin. 2004. Replication of norovirus in cell culture reveals a tropism for dendritic cells and macrophages. PLoS Biol. 2: e432.
99. Xu, W.,, M. C. McDonough,, and D. D. Erdman. 2000. Species-specific identification of human adenoviruses by a multiplex PCR assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 4114 4120.
100. Zheng, D. P.,, T. Ando,, R. L. Fankhauser,, R. S. Beard,, R. I. Glass,, and S. S. Monroe. 2006. Norovirus classification and proposed strain nomenclature. Virology 346: 312 323.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Taxonomy and virologic properties of gastroenteritis viruses

dsRNA, double-stranded RNA; ss(+)RNA, single-stranded positive-sense RNA; dsDNA, double-stranded DNA; SRSV, small, round, structured virus.

Citation: Pang X, Jiang X. 2011. Gastroenteritis Viruses , p 1456-1469. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch90
Generic image for table
Table 2

Epidemiology, transmission, and clinical significance of gastroenteritis viruses

Citation: Pang X, Jiang X. 2011. Gastroenteritis Viruses , p 1456-1469. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch90
Generic image for table
Table 3

Commercial antigen detection tests available for diagnosis of viral gastroenteritis

Citation: Pang X, Jiang X. 2011. Gastroenteritis Viruses , p 1456-1469. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch90
Generic image for table
Table 4

Summary of commercial and laboratory development assays using real-time PCR and RT-PCR for detection of enteric viruses associated with gastroenteritis in stool specimens

LD, laboratory development assay; CM, commercial assay.

ASR, analyte-specific reagents.

MGB, minor groove buffer.

Citation: Pang X, Jiang X. 2011. Gastroenteritis Viruses , p 1456-1469. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch90

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error