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Chapter 90 : Gastroenteritis Viruses

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Abstract:

Common causes of viral gastroenteritis include rotavirus, calicivirus (norovirus and sapovirus), astrovirus, and enteric adenovirus (EAdV). The major symptoms of rotavirus gastroenteritis include watery diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and fever. The major symptoms of norovirus gastroenteritis include watery diarrhea, vomiting, anorexia, abdominal pain, and fever. AdV-associated acute gastroenteritis is usually milder but lasts longer (5 to 12 days) than other viral gastroenteritis viruses. The major symptoms of astrovirus gastroenteritis include diarrhea, vomiting, anorexia, abdominal pain, and fever, which are generally milder than those of rota-and norovirus gastroenteritis. Due to the difficulty of propagating many gastroenteritis viruses, reliable antigen detection assays remain unavailable for many viral families because of the lack of specific antibodies. Both antigenic and genetic typing methods are important in understanding the classification and epidemiology of many gastroenteritis viruses and for developing preventive strategies against the diseases caused by pathogens. Typing does not affect clinical treatment. Therefore, typing of gastroenteritis viruses is used mainly in research laboratories. The recently recommended new classification system based on sequence information for all 11 genomic RNA segments is an extension of the previous classification systems. There is no neutralization-based serologic test for most other gastroenteritis viruses. Application of assays in sero-surveillance against gastroenteritis viruses has played an important role in understanding the importance of viruses in different populations.

Citation: Pang X, Jiang X. 2011. Gastroenteritis Viruses , p 1456-1469. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch90

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FIGURE 1

Electron micrographs of gastroenteritis viruses. (A) Sapoviruses; (B) noroviruses; (C) astroviruses; (D1) Aichi virus; (D2) picornaviruses; (E) rotaviruses; (F) AdVs; (G) coronaviruses; (H) torovirus-like particles; (I) picobirnaviruses. Bar = 100 nm. Modified from Fig. 2 of reference . Panel D1 was provided by Teruo Yamashita, and panels E and I were provided by Charles Humphrey.

Citation: Pang X, Jiang X. 2011. Gastroenteritis Viruses , p 1456-1469. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch90
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Tables

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Table 1

Taxonomy and virologic properties of gastroenteritis viruses

dsRNA, double-stranded RNA; ss(+)RNA, single-stranded positive-sense RNA; dsDNA, double-stranded DNA; SRSV, small, round, structured virus.

Citation: Pang X, Jiang X. 2011. Gastroenteritis Viruses , p 1456-1469. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch90
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Table 2

Epidemiology, transmission, and clinical significance of gastroenteritis viruses

Citation: Pang X, Jiang X. 2011. Gastroenteritis Viruses , p 1456-1469. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch90
Generic image for table
Table 3

Commercial antigen detection tests available for diagnosis of viral gastroenteritis

Citation: Pang X, Jiang X. 2011. Gastroenteritis Viruses , p 1456-1469. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch90
Generic image for table
Table 4

Summary of commercial and laboratory development assays using real-time PCR and RT-PCR for detection of enteric viruses associated with gastroenteritis in stool specimens

LD, laboratory development assay; CM, commercial assay.

ASR, analyte-specific reagents.

MGB, minor groove buffer.

Citation: Pang X, Jiang X. 2011. Gastroenteritis Viruses , p 1456-1469. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch90

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