1887

Chapter 91 : Rabies Virus

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Rabies Virus, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap91-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap91-2.gif

Abstract:

The etiologic agents responsible for the acute, progressive viral encephalomyelitis known as rabies belong to the genus . The virions are rod shaped, approximately 180 by 75 nm, consisting of five structural proteins: the glycoprotein (G), matrix protein (M), nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein (P), and large polymerase (L). Human rabies cases due to nonbite exposures are extremely rare. Nonbite exposures include contamination of scratches, open wounds, and mucous membranes with a source of rabies virus, such as infected saliva or central nervous system (CNS) tissues from a rabid animal. Four antemortem clinical samples are required for diagnosing rabies: saliva for nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and/or virus isolation, nuchal skin biopsy for antigen detection and nested RT-PCR, and serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibody determination. The standard test for rabies virus antigen detection in CNS tissues is the direct fluorescent-antibody (DFA) test. The direct rapid immunohistochemistry (IHC) test (DRIT) is an alternate procedure for rabies virus antigen detection. An immunohistochemistry test for rabies virus antigen detection is an alternative protocol for formalin- fixed tissue samples which have been processed, embedded in paraffin, and sectioned. Isolation methods are useful in detecting infectious virus in samples and may be applied as an alternate confirmatory test to the standard DFA. Cell cultures may be useful in the propagation, amplification, and quantification of virus and antibodies, to produce vaccines, to determine the safety of vaccine lots, and to study the pathogenesis of rabies virus in particular cells.

Citation: Orciari L, Rupprecht C. 2011. Rabies Virus, p 1470-1478. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch91

Key Concept Ranking

Rabies virus
0.6735756
Single-Stranded RNA Viruses
0.6135424
Lagos bat virus
0.52307695
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
0.4844616
0.6735756
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Diagram of lyssavirus morphology and structural proteins.

Citation: Orciari L, Rupprecht C. 2011. Rabies Virus, p 1470-1478. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch91
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

(Left) Dorsal view of a dog brain with the cerebellum (vermis and right and left lobes) labeled. (Middle) Lateral view of the cerebellum and brain stem. A cross section of the tissues demonstrated by the dotted line includes the tissues required by the standard DFA for rabies diagnosis (cross section of brain stem and right, left, and vermis of the cerebellum). (Right) View of cross section of brain stem and cerebellum. Tissue characteristics are demonstrated for orientation during dissection.

Citation: Orciari L, Rupprecht C. 2011. Rabies Virus, p 1470-1478. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch91
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Comparison of nonspecific histologic staining and antigen detection methods.

Citation: Orciari L, Rupprecht C. 2011. Rabies Virus, p 1470-1478. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch91
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555816728.chap91
1. Blanton, J. D.,, K. Robertson,, D. Palmer,, and C. E. Rupprecht. 2009. Rabies surveillance in the United States in 2008. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 235:676689.
2. Bourhy, H.,, J. A. Cowley,, F. Larrous,, E. C. Holmes,, and P. J. Walker. 2005. Phylogenetic relationships among rhabdoviruses inferred using the L polymerase gene. J. Gen. Virol. 86:28492858.
3. Briggs, D. J.,, J. S. Smith,, F. L. Mueller,, J. Schwenke,, R. D. Davis,, C. R. Gordon,, K. Schweitzer,, L. A. Orciari,, P. A. Yager,, and C. E. Rupprecht. 1998. A comparison of two serological methods for detecting the immune response after rabies vaccination in dogs and cats being exported to rabiesfree areas. Biologicals 26:347355.
4.Center for Disease Control. 1977. Follow-up on rabies— New York. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 26:249250.
5.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2010. Use of (4-dose) reduced vaccine schedule for post-exposure prophylaxis to prevent human rabies. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. MMWR Recommend. Rep. 59 (RR-2):18.
6.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Institutes of Health. 1999. Agent Summary Statements—rabies virus, p. 170171. In J. Y. Richmond, and R. W. McKinney (ed.), Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, 4th ed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.
7. Cliquet, F.,, M. Aubert,, and L. Sagne. 1998. Development of a fluorescent antibody virus neutralisation test (FAVN test) for the quantitation of rabies-neutralising antibody. J. Immunol. Methods 212:7987.
8. Dietzschold, B.,, J. Li,, M. Faber,, and M. Schnell. 2008. Concepts in the pathogenesis of rabies. Future Virol. 3:481490.
9. Fauquet, C. M.,, M. A. Mayo,, J. Maniloff,, U. Desselberger,, and L. A. Ball (ed.). 2005. Virus Taxonomy. Eighth Report of the International Committee on Nomenclature of Viruses. Elsevier Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, CA.
10. Hamir, A. N.,, G. Moser,, Z. F. Fu,, B. Dietzschold,, and C. E. Rupprecht. 1995. Immunohistochemical test for rabies: identification of a diagnostically superior monoclonal antibody. Vet. Rec. 136:295296.
11. Hummeler, K.,, and P. Atanasiu,. 1973. Electron microscopy, p. 158164. In M. M. Kaplan and H. Koprowski (ed.), Laboratory Techniques in Rabies, 3rd ed. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
12. Jackson, A. C., 2007. Human disease, p. 309340. In A. C. Jackson, and W. H. Wunner (ed.), Rabies, 2nd ed. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
13. Kuzmin, I. V.,, A. E. Mayer,, M. Niezgoda,, W. Markotter,, B. Agwanda,, R. F. Breiman,, and C. E. Rupprecht. 2010. Shimoni bat virus, a new representative of the Lyssavirus genus. Virus Res. 149:197210.
14. Lembo, T.,, M. Niezgoda,, A. Velasco-Villa,, S. Cleaveland,, E. Ernest,, and C. E. Rupprecht. 2005. Evaluation of a direct immunohistochemical test for rabies diagnosis. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12:310313.
15. Lepine, P.,, and P. Atanasiu,. 1996. Histopathological diagnosis, p. 6679. In F. X. Meslin,, M. M. Kaplan, and H. Koprowski (ed.), Laboratory Techniques in Rabies, 4th ed. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
16. Nadin-Davis, S. A.,, M. Sheen,, and A. I. Wandeler. 2009. Development of real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction methods for human rabies diagnosis. J. Med. Virol. 81:14841497.
17. Nadin-Davis, S. A.,, F. Muldoon,, and A. I. Wandeler. 2006. A molecular epidemiological analysis of the incursion of the raccoon strain of rabies virus into Canada. Epidemiol. Infect. 134:534547.
18.National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians Committee. 2008. Compendium of animal rabies vaccines, 2008. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 232:14781486.
19. Noah, D. L.,, C. L. Drenzek,, J. S. Smith,, J. W. Krebs,, L. Orciari,, J. Shaddock,, D. Sanderlin,, S. Whitfield,, M. Fekadu,, J. G. Olson,, C. E. Rupprecht,, and J. E. Childs. 1998. Epidemiology of human rabies in the United States, 1980 to 1996. Ann. Intern. Med. 128:922930.
20. Orciari, L. A.,, M. Niezgoda,, C. A. Hanlon,, J. H. Shaddock,, D. W. Sanderlin,, P. A. Yager,, and C. E. Rupprecht. 2001. Rapid clearance of SAG-2 from dogs after oral rabies vaccination. Vaccine 19:45114518.
21. Smith, J. S. 1989. Rabies virus epitopic variation: use in ecologic studies. Adv. Virus Res. 36:215253.
22. Smith, J. S.,, P. A. Yager,, and G. M. Baer,. 1996. A rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) for determining rabies virus neutralizing antibody, p. 181192. In F. X. Meslin,, M. M. Kaplan, and H. Koprowski (ed.), Laboratory Techniques in Rabies, 4th ed. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
23. Tierkel, E. S.,, and P. Atanasiu,. 1996. Rapid microscopic examination for Negri bodies and preparation of specimens for biological tests, p. 5565. In F. X. Meslin,, M. M. Kaplan,, and H. Koprowski (ed.), Laboratory Techniques in Rabies, 4th ed. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
23a.U.S. Department of Transportation. 2006. Transporting Infectious Substances Safely. U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. https://hazmatonline.phmsa.dot.gov/services/ publication_documents/Transporting%20Infectious%20 Substances%20Safely.pdf.
24. Webster, L. T.,, and J. R. Dawson. 1935. Early diagnosis of rabies by mouse inoculation. Measurement of humoral immunity to rabies by mouse protection test. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 32:570573.
25. Webster, W. A.,, and G. A. Casey,. 1996. Virus isolation in neuroblastoma cell culture, p. 96104. In F. X. Meslin,, M. M. Kaplan,, and H. Koprowski (ed.), Laboratory Techniques in Rabies, 4th ed. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
26. Weyer, J.,, C. E. Rupprecht,, and L. H. Nel. 2009. Pox- vectored vaccines for rabies—a review. Vaccine 27:71987201.
27. Whitfield, S. G.,, M. Fekadu,, J. H. Shaddock,, M. Niezgoda,, C. K. Warner,, S. L. Messenger, and Rabies Working Group. 2001. A comparative study of the fluorescent antibody test for rabies diagnosis in fresh and formalin-fixed brain tissue specimens. J. Virol. Methods 95:145151.
28. Wiktor, T. J.,, A. Flamand,, and H. Koprowski. 1980. Use of monoclonal antibodies in diagnosis of rabies virus infection and differentiation of rabies and rabies-related viruses. J. Virol. Methods 1:3346.
29. Winkler, W. G.,, T. R. Fashinell,, L. Leffingwell,, P. Howard,, and P. Conomy. 1973. Airborne rabies transmission in a laboratory worker. JAMA 226:12191221.
30. Wunner, W. H., 2007. Rabies virus, p. 2356. In A. C. Jackson, and W. H. Wunner (ed.), Rabies, 2nd ed. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Routine tests for rabies diagnosis

H&E, hematoxylin and eosin; PH, public health; USDA, U.S. Department of Agriculture; MI, mouse inoculation; MNI, mouse neutralization.

Citation: Orciari L, Rupprecht C. 2011. Rabies Virus, p 1470-1478. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch91

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error