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Chapter 93 : Arboviruses

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Abstract:

Important antigenic determinants have been elucidated for the most important arboviruses, and virus- and group-specific monoclonal antibodies are available for taxonomic and diagnostic purposes. Serologic cross-relationships are most evident in hemagglutination inhibition and binding assays, e.g., enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunofluorescent antibody tests, and occur to a lesser extent in complement fixation tests. The epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of the medically important arboviruses are summarized in this chapter. Immunoglobulin M capture ELISAs for arboviral central nervous system infections transmitted in the United States are offered by several reference and some state public health laboratories. A number of nucleic acid amplification strategies have been developed for the detection and identification of medically important arboviruses, including standard RT-PCR (with agarose gel analysis), real-time RT-PCR using fluorescent probes, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), and the recently developed reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method. Novel arboviruses continue to be discovered, usually as orphan viruses first identified in vector surveys but, remarkably, also from human clinical specimens. The majority of arboviruses are lethal to suckling (2 to 3-day-old) mice, which exhibit signs of illness, paralysis, and death within days to 2 weeks after intracerebral inoculation. While identification of arboviral isolates previously depended upon their antigenic characterization, PCR and other molecular tests are now available for many of the medically important arboviruses.

Citation: Lanciotti R, Tsai T. 2011. Arboviruses , p 1488-1503. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch93

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Tables

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TABLE 1

Charactertistics of arboviruses

Citation: Lanciotti R, Tsai T. 2011. Arboviruses , p 1488-1503. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch93
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TABLE 2

TABLE 2 Arboviruses associated with human illness by geographic region, mode of transmission, and clinical syndrome

Key: ○, rare or sporadic; ●, frequent, epidemic. Only arboviruses causing illness after natural infection are listed; viruses causing illness after laboratory exposure only are excluded.

Perinatal illness following third-trimester infection has also been described.

Transmissible by ingestion of infected milk products.

Transmissible through meat of infected animals.

Syndrome reported only after laboratory-acquired infection.

Citation: Lanciotti R, Tsai T. 2011. Arboviruses , p 1488-1503. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch93
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TABLE 3

Serologic assays commercially available in the United States for diagnosis of arbovirus infections

IVD, for in vitro diagnostics; ASR, analyte-specific reagent; RUO, for research use only. Additional products available for sale outside the United States include IFAs for WN, VEE, JE, YF, and DEN viruses; rapid lateral-flow and strip immunochromatographic tests for DEN virus, and IgM and IgG ELISAs for JE virus.

Citation: Lanciotti R, Tsai T. 2011. Arboviruses , p 1488-1503. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch93

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