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Chapter 95 : Arenaviruses and Filoviruses

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Abstract:

This chapter focuses on the viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) viruses from two taxa, the families and . The family comprises 29 named viruses, which have unique morphologic and physiochemical characteristics. Antigenic relationships are established mainly on the basis of broadly reactive antibody binding assays: historically, the complement fixation test and the indirect fluorescent-antibody (IFA) test, and more recently, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The morphology of arenaviruses is distinctive in thin-section electron microscopy and was the basis for first associating lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM) virus with Machupo virus and ultimately associating these viruses with all the viruses in the present family. Immunoelectron microscopy techniques also work well for diagnosis of arenavirus infections, although the morphology of the virions is less striking for arenaviruses than filoviruses. The reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) followed by genome analysis is rapidly replacing identification methods based on antigen-antibody methods criteria and has the advantage of complete inactivation of the samples in the first extraction step. This chapter emphasizes on the application of immunohistochemical techniques for detecting arenaviruses and filoviruses with a variety of chromogens. Western blotting is feasible for demonstrating antibodies to arenaviruses and filoviruses. However, it has never been applied systematically or routinely to diagnosis, although it was proposed as a confirmatory test to supplement the IFA test for filovirus antibodies. The highest priority for future development is refinement of the available diagnostic tools to permit definitive virus identification in the field.

Citation: Rollin P, Nichol S, Zaki S, Ksiazek T. 2011. Arenaviruses and Filoviruses, p 1514-1529. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch95

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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Ultrastructural characteristics of LCMV and Ebola virus as seen in tissue culture cells. (A) LCM virus, an arenavirus, showing pleomorphic enveloped particles with internal ribosome-like granules; scale bar, 100 nm. (Courtesy of C. S. Goldsmith.) (B) Ebola virus isolate, a filovirus, showing enveloped filamentous particles around 80 nm wide. Some filaments can occasionally measure up to 15,000 nm in length; scale bar, 100 nm. (Courtesy of C. S. Goldsmith.)

Citation: Rollin P, Nichol S, Zaki S, Ksiazek T. 2011. Arenaviruses and Filoviruses, p 1514-1529. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch95
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Ebola virus hemorrhagic fever. (A) Section of liver showing hepatocellular necrosis and numerous intracytoplasmic, eosinophilic Ebola virus inclusions, as well as sinusoidal dilatation and congestion. Hematoxylin and eosin stain; original magnification, ×250. (B) Several Ebola virus inclusions are seen in this thin-section electron micrograph of liver. The inclusions consist of viral nucleocapsids mostly seen in longitudinal section. Numerous viral particles are also seen in sinusoidal spaces. Scale bar, 100 nm. (Courtesy of C. S. Goldsmith.)

Citation: Rollin P, Nichol S, Zaki S, Ksiazek T. 2011. Arenaviruses and Filoviruses, p 1514-1529. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch95
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

(A) By use of immunohistochemistry, abundant Ebola virus antigens (in red) are seen in the lymph node of a pig infected by Ebola Reston virus. Original magnification, ×158. (B) Skin showing massive viral burden as seen in this section immunostained for Ebola virus antigens; original magnification, ×50. (Immunoalkaline phosphatase staining, naphthol fast red substrate with light hematoxylin counterstain.)

Citation: Rollin P, Nichol S, Zaki S, Ksiazek T. 2011. Arenaviruses and Filoviruses, p 1514-1529. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch95
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Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

By use of immunohistochemistry, abundant virus antigens are seen within the cytoplasm of hepatocytes and sinusoidal lining cells in the liver of patients infected by Lassa virus (original magnification, ×158) (A); by Lujo virus (original magnification, ×158) (B); and by LCM virus (transplant patient) (original magnification, ×50) (C). (Immunoalkaline phosphatase staining, naphthol fast red substrate with light hematoxylin counterstain.)

Citation: Rollin P, Nichol S, Zaki S, Ksiazek T. 2011. Arenaviruses and Filoviruses, p 1514-1529. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch95
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Tables

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TABLE 1

Currently recognized arenaviruses and filoviruses and associated human diseases

Citation: Rollin P, Nichol S, Zaki S, Ksiazek T. 2011. Arenaviruses and Filoviruses, p 1514-1529. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch95

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