MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this :
Zoom in

, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap95-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap95-2.gif
There is no abstract provided for this chapter. We are in the process of generating a full text preview. Please bookmark and return later.
Citation: Rollin P, Nichol S, Zaki S, Ksiazek T. .

Key Concept Ranking

Single-Stranded RNA Viruses
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of FIGURE 1

Ultrastructural characteristics of LCMV and Ebola virus as seen in tissue culture cells. (A) LCM virus, an arenavirus, showing pleomorphic enveloped particles with internal ribosome-like granules; scale bar, 100 nm. (Courtesy of C. S. Goldsmith.) (B) Ebola virus isolate, a filovirus, showing enveloped filamentous particles around 80 nm wide. Some filaments can occasionally measure up to 15,000 nm in length; scale bar, 100 nm. (Courtesy of C. S. Goldsmith.)

Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2

Ebola virus hemorrhagic fever. (A) Section of liver showing hepatocellular necrosis and numerous intracytoplasmic, eosinophilic Ebola virus inclusions, as well as sinusoidal dilatation and congestion. Hematoxylin and eosin stain; original magnification, ×250. (B) Several Ebola virus inclusions are seen in this thin-section electron micrograph of liver. The inclusions consist of viral nucleocapsids mostly seen in longitudinal section. Numerous viral particles are also seen in sinusoidal spaces. Scale bar, 100 nm. (Courtesy of C. S. Goldsmith.)

Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3

(A) By use of immunohistochemistry, abundant Ebola virus antigens (in red) are seen in the lymph node of a pig infected by Ebola Reston virus. Original magnification, ×158. (B) Skin showing massive viral burden as seen in this section immunostained for Ebola virus antigens; original magnification, ×50. (Immunoalkaline phosphatase staining, naphthol fast red substrate with light hematoxylin counterstain.)

Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 4

By use of immunohistochemistry, abundant virus antigens are seen within the cytoplasm of hepatocytes and sinusoidal lining cells in the liver of patients infected by Lassa virus (original magnification, ×158) (A); by Lujo virus (original magnification, ×158) (B); and by LCM virus (transplant patient) (original magnification, ×50) (C). (Immunoalkaline phosphatase staining, naphthol fast red substrate with light hematoxylin counterstain.)

Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Ambrosio, A. M.,, M. R. Feuillade,, G. S. Gamboa,, and J. I. Maiztegui. 1994. Prevalence of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection in a human population in Argentina. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 50:381386.
2. Barrette, R. W.,, S. A. Metwally,, J. M. Rowland,, L. Xu,, S. R. Zaki,, S. T. Nichol,, P. E. Rollin,, J. S. Towner,, W. J. Shieh,, B. Batten,, T. K. Sealy,, C. Carrillo,, K. E. Moran,, A. J. Bracht,, G. A. Mayr,, M. Sirios-Cruz,, D. P. Catbagan,, E. A. Lautner,, T. G. Ksiazek,, W. R. White,, and M. T. McIntosh. 2009. Discovery of swine as a host for the Reston ebolavirus. Science 325:204206.
3. Bausch, D. G.,, P. E. Rollin,, A. H. Demby,, M. Coulibaly,, J. Kanu,, A. S. Conteh,, K. D. Wagoner,, L. K. McMullan,, M. D. Bowen,, C. J. Peters,, and T. G. Ksiazek. 2000. Diagnosis and clinical virology of Lassa fever as evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, indirect fluorescent-antibody tests, and virus isolation. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:26702677.
4. Bowen, M. D.,, C. J. Peters,, and S. T. Nichol. 1996. The phylogeny of new world (Tacaribe complex) arenaviruses. Virology 219:285290.
5. Bowen, M. D.,, C. J. Peters,, and S. T. Nichol. 1997. Phylogenetic analysis of the Arenaviridae: patterns of virus evolution and evidence for cospeciation between arenaviruses and their rodent hosts. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 8:301316.
6. Bowen, M. D.,, P. E. Rollin,, T. G. Ksiazek,, H. L. Hustad,, D. G. Bausch,, A. H. Demby,, M. D. Bajani,, C. J. Peters,, and S. T. Nichol. 2000. Genetic diversity among Lassa virus strains. J. Virol. 74:69927004.
7. Briese, T.,, J. T. Paweska,, L. K. McMullan,, S. K. Hutchison,, C. Streer,, G. Palacios,, M. L. Khristova,, J. Weyer,, R. Swanepoel,, M. Egholm,, S. T. Nichol,, and I. W. Lipkin. 2009. Genetic detection and characterization of Lujo virus, a new hemorrhagic fever-associated arenavirus from Southern Africa. PLoS Pathog. 4(5):e1000455.
8. Buchmeier, M. J.,, H. A. Lewicki,, O. Tomori,, and M. B. A. Oldstone. 1981. Monoclonal antibodies to lymphocytic choriomeningitis and Pichinde viruses: generation, characterization, and cross-reactivity with other arenaviruses. Virology 113:7385.
9. Buchmeier, M. J.,, and B. S. Parekh. 1987. Protein structure and expression among arenaviruses. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 133:4158.
10. Buchmeier, M. J.,, J. C. de la Torre,, and C. J. Peters,. 2007. Arenaviridae: the viruses and their replication, p. 17911827. In D. M. Knipe, and P. M. Howley (ed.), Fields Virology, 5th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
11. Cajimat, M. N. B.,, M. L. Milazzo,, R. D. Bradley,, and C. F. Fulhorst. 2007. Catarina virus, an arenaviral species principally associated with Neotoma micropus (southern plains woodrat) in Texas. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 77:732736.
12. Cajimat, M. N. B.,, M. L. Milazzo,, J. N. Borchert,, K. D. Abbott,, R. D. Bradley,, and C. F. Fulhorst. 2008. Diversity among Tacaribe serocomplex viruses (family Arenaviridae) naturally associated with the Mexican woodrat (Neotoma mexicana). Virus Res. 133:211217.
13.Casals, J. 1977. Serologic reactions with arenaviruses. Medicina (Buenos Aires) 37(Suppl. 3):5968.
14.Centers for Disease Control. 1988. Management of patients with suspected viral hemorrhagic fever. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 37(Suppl. 3):116.
15.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1995. Update. Management of patients with suspected viral hemorrhagic fever— United States. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 44:475479.
15.a. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 19 May 2005. Interim Guidance for Managing Patients with Suspected Viral Hemorrhagic Fever in U.S. Hospitals. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dhqp/pdf/bbp/VHFinterimGuidance05_19_05.pdf.
16.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention—National Institutes of Health. 2007. Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, 5th ed. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC. http://www.cdc.gov/ od/ohs/biosfty/bmbl5/BMBL_5th_Edition.pdf.
17.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2008. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus transmitted through solid organ transplantation—Massachusetts, 2008. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 57:799801.
18.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2009. Imported case of Marburg hemorrhagic fever—Colorado, 2008. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 58:13771381.
19. Connolly, B. M.,, A. B. Jenson,, C. J. Peters,, S. J. Geyer,, J. F. Barth,, and R. A. McPherson. 1993. Pathogenesis of Pichinde virus infection in strain 13 guinea pigs: an immunocytochemical, virologic, and clinical chemistry study. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 49:1023.
20. Connolly, B. M.,, K. E. Steele,, K. J. Davis,, T. W. Geisbert,, W. M. Kell,, N. K. Jaax,, and P. B. Jahrling. 1999. Pathogenesis of experimental Ebola virus infection in guinea pigs. J. Infect. Dis. 179(Suppl.):S203S217.
21. Delgado, S.,, B. R. Erickson,, R. Agudo,, P. J. Blair,, E. Vallejo,, C. G. Albarino,, J. Vargas,, J. A. Comer,, P. E. Rollin,, T. G. Ksiazek,, J. G. Olson,, and S. T. Nichol. 2008. Chapare Virus, a newly discovered arenavirus isolated from a fatal hemorrhagic fever case in Bolivia. PLoS Pathog. 4(4):e1000047.
22. Drosten, C.,, S. Gottig,, S. Schilling,, M. Asper,, M. Panning,, H. Schmitz,, and S. Gunther. 2002. Rapid detection and quantification of RNA of Ebola and Marburg viruses, Lassa virus, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus, Dengue virus, and Yellow fever virus by real-time reverse transcription-PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:23232330.
23. Elliott, L. H.,, S. P. Bauer,, G. Perez-Oronoz,, and E. S. Lloyd. 1993. Improved specificity of testing methods for filovirus antibodies. J. Virol. Methods 43:85100.
24. Elliott, L. H.,, J. B. McCormick,, and K. M. Johnson. 1982. Inactivation of Lassa, Marburg, and Ebola viruses by gamma irradiation. J. Clin. Microbiol. 16:704708.
25. Fischer, S. A.,, M. B. Graham,, M. J. Kuehnert,, C. N. Kotton,, A. Srinivasan,, F. M. Marty,, J. A. Comer,, J. Guarner,, C. D. Paddock,, D. L. DeMeo,, W. J. Shieh,, B. R. Erickson,, U. Bandy,, A. DeMaria,, J. P. Davis,, F. L. Delmonico,, B. Pavlin,, A. Likos,, M. J. Vincent,, T. K. Sealy,, C. S. Goldsmith,, D. B. Jernigan,, P. E. Rollin,, M. M. Packard,, M. Patel,, C. Rowland,, R. F. Helfand,, S. T. Nichol,, J. A. Fishman,, T. G. Ksiazek,, S. R. Zaki,, R. Sherif, and the LCMV in Transplant Recipients Investigation team. 2006. Transmission of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus by organ transplantation. N. Engl. J. Med. 354:22352249.
26. Fulhorst, C. F.,, S. G. Bennet,, M. L. Malazza,, H. L. Murray, Jr.,, J. P. Webb,, M. J. Cajima,, and R. D. Bradley. 2002. Bear Canyon virus: an arenavirus naturally associated with the California mouse (Peromyscus californicus). Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8:717721.
27. Geisbert, T. W.,, and P. B. Jahrling. 1995. Differentiation of filoviruses by electron microscopy. Virus Res. 39:129150.
28. Geisbert, T. W.,, and N. K. Jaax. 1997. Marburg hemorrhagic fever: report of a case studied by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Ultrastruct. Pathol. 22:317.
29. Geisbert, T. W.,, and P. B. Jahrling. 1990. Use of immunoelectron microscopy to show Ebola virus during the 1989 United States epizootic. J. Clin. Pathol. 43:813816.
30. Geisbert, T. W.,, P. B. Jahrling,, M. A. Hanes,, and P. M. Zack. 1992. Association of Ebola-related Reston virus particles and antigen with tissue lesions of monkeys imported to the United States. J. Comp. Pathol. 106:137152.
31. Georges-Courbot, M. C.,, A. Sanchez,, C. Y. Lu,, S. Baize,, E. Leroy,, J. Lansoud-Soukate,, C. Tevi-Benissan,, A. J. Georges,, S. G. Trappier,, S. R. Zaki,, R. Swanepoel,, P. A. Leman,, P. E. Rollin,, C. J. Peters,, S. T. Nichol,, and T. G. Ksiazek. 1997. Isolation and phylogenetic characterization of Ebola viruses causing different outbreaks in Gabon. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 3:5962.
32. Grolla, A.,, A. Lucht,, D. Dick,, J. E. Strong,, and H. Feldmann. 2005. Laboratory diagnosis of Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fever. Bull. Soc. Path. Exot. 98:205209.
33. Gunther, S.,, M. Asper,, C. Roser,, L. K. S. Luna,, C. Drosten,, B. Becker-Ziaja,, P. Borowski,, H.-M. Chen,, and R. S. Hosmane. 2004. Application of real-time PCR for testing antiviral compounds against Lassa virus, SARS Coronavirus and Ebola virus in vitro. Antivir. Res. 63:209215.
34. Gunther, S.,, G. Hoofd,, R. Charrel,, C. Roser,, B. Becker- Ziaja,, G. Lloyd,, C. Sabuni,, R. Verhagen,, G. van der Groen,, J. Kennis,, A. Katakweba,, R. Machang’u,, R. Makundi,, and H. Leirs. 2009. Mopeia virus-related arenavirus in natal multimammate mice, Morogoro, Tanzania. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 15:20082012.
35. Hotchin, J.,, and E. Sikora. 1975. Laboratory diagnosis of lymphocytic choriomeningitis. Bull. W. H. O. 52:555558.
36. Ikegami, T.,, M. Saijo,, M. Niikura,, M. E. G. Miranda,, A. B. Calaor,, M. Hernandez,, D. L. Manalo,, I. Kurane,, Y. Yoshikawa,, and S. Morikawa. 2002. Development of an immunofluorescence method for the detection of antibodies to Ebola virus subtype Reston by the use of recombinant nucleoprotein-expressing HeLa cells. Microbiol. Immunol. 46:633638.
37. Ikegami, T.,, M. Niikura,, M. Saijo,, M. E. Miranda,, A. B. Calaor,, M. Hernandez,, L. P. Acosta,, D. L. Manalo,, I. Kurane,, Y. Yoshikawa,, and S. Morikawa. 2003. Antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for specific detection of Reston Ebola virus nucleoprotein. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 10:552557.
38. Ikegami, T.,, M. Saijo,, M. Niikura,, M. E. Miranda,, A. B. Calaor,, M. Hernandez,, D. L. Manalo,, I. Kurane,, Y. Yoshikawa,, and S. Morikawa. 2003. Immunoglobulin G enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay using truncated nucleoproteins of Reston Ebola virus. Epidemiol. Infect. 130:533539.
39. Jaax, N. K.,, K. J. Davis,, T. W. Geisbert,, A. P. Vogel,, G. P. Jaax,, M. Topper,, and P. B. Jahrling. 1996. Lethal experimental infection of rhesus monkeys with Ebola-Zaire ( Mayinga) virus by the oral and conjunctival route of exposure. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 120:140155.
40. Jahrling, P. B.,, T. W. Geisbert,, D. W. Dalgard,, E. D. Johnson,, T. G. Ksiazek,, W. C. Hall,, and C. J. Peters. 1990. Preliminary report: isolation of Ebola virus from monkeys imported to USA. Lancet 335:502505.
41. Jahrling, P. B.,, and C. J. Peters. 1984. Passive antibody therapy of Lassa fever in cynomolgus monkeys. Infect. Immun. 44:528533.
42. Jahrling, P. B.,, T. W. Geisbert,, J. B. Geisbert,, J. R. Swearengen,, M. Bray,, N. K. Jaax,, J. W. Huggins,, J. W. LeDuc,, and C. J. Peters. 1999. Evaluation of immune globulin and recombinant interferon a-2b for treatment of experimental Ebola virus infections. J. Infect. Dis. 179(Suppl.):S224S234.
43. Jahrling, P. B.,, T. W. Geisbert,, N. K. Jaax,, M. A. Hanes,, T. G. Ksiazek,, and C. J. Peters. 1996. Experimental infection of cynomolgus macaques with Ebola-Reston filoviruses from the 1989-1990 U.S. epizootic. Arch. Virol. Suppl. 11: 115134.
44. Johnson, K. M.,, L. H. Elliott,, and D. L. Heymann. 1981. Preparation of polyvalent viral immunofluorescent intracellular antigens and use in human serosurveys. J. Clin. Microbiol. 14:527529.
45. Kalter, S. S.,, R. L. Heberling,, J. D. Barry,, and P. Y. Tian. 1995. Detection of Ebola-Reston (filoviridae) virus antibody by dot-immunobinding assay. Lab. Anim. Sci. 45:523525.
46. Kiley, M. P.,, E. T. W. Bowen,, G. A. Eddy,, M. Isaacson,, K. M. Johnson,, J. B. McCormick,, F. A. Murphy,, S. R. Pattyn,, D. Peters,, O. W. Prozesky,, R. L. Regnery,, D. I. H. Simpson,, W. Slenczka,, P. Sureau,, G. Van der Groen,, P. A. Webb,, and H. Wulff. 1982. Filoviridae: taxonomic home for Marburg and Ebola viruses? Intervirology 18:2432.
47. Kiley, M. P.,, N. J. Cox,, L. H. Elliott,, A. Sanchez,, R. Defries,, M. J. Buchmeier,, D. D. Richman,, and J. B. McCormick. 1988. Physiochemical properties of Marburg virus: evidence for three distinct virus strains and their relationship to Ebola virus. J. Gen. Virol. 69:19571967.
48. Ksiazek, T. G.,, P. E. Rollin,, A. J. Williams,, D. S. Bressler,, M. L. Martin,, R. Swanepoel,, F. J. Burt,, P. A. Leman,, A. K. Rowe,, R. Mukunu,, A. Sanchez,, and C. J. Peters. 1999. Clinical virology of Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) virus: virus, virus antigen, and IgG and IgM findings among EHF patients in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of Congo, 1995. J. Infect. Dis. 179(Suppl.):S177S187.
49. Ksiazek, T. G.,, P. E. Rollin,, P. B. Jahrling,, E. Johnson,, D. W. Dalgard,, and C. J. Peters. 1992. Enzyme immunosorbent assay for Ebola virus antigens in tissues of infected primates. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:947950.
50. Ksiazek, T. G.,, C. P. West,, P. E. Rollin,, P. B. Jahrling,, and C. J. Peters. 1999. ELISA for the detection of antibodies to Ebola viruses. J. Infect. Dis. 179(Suppl. 1):S191S198.
51. Kurosaki, Y.,, A. Takada,, H. Ebihara,, A. Grolla,, N. Kamo,, H. Feldmann,, Y. Kawacka,, and J. Yasuda. 2007. Rapid and simple detection of Ebola virus by reverse transcriptionloop- mediated isothermal amplification. J. Virol. Methods 141:7883.
52. Lecompte, E.,, J. ter Meulen,, S. Emonet,, S. Daffis,, and R. N. Charrel. 2007. Genetic identification of Kodoko virus, a novel arenavirus of the African pigmy mouse (Mus Nannomys minutoides) in West Africa. Virology 364:178183.
53. Lederberg, J.,, R. E. Shope,, and S. C. Oals, Jr. (ed.). 1992. Emerging Infections. Microbial Threats to Health in the United States. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
54. Le Guenno, B.,, P. Formenty,, M. Wyers,, P. Gounon,, F. Walker,, and C. Boesch. 1995. Isolation and partial characterisation of a new strain of Ebola virus. Lancet 345: 12711274.
55. Lehmann-Grube, F. 1971. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Virol. Monogr. 10:1173.
56. Leroy, E. M.,, B. Kumulungui,, X. Pourrut,, P. Rouquet,, A. Hassanin,, P. Yaba,, A. Delicat,, J. T. Paweska,, J. P. Gonzalez,, and R. Swanepoel. 2005. Fruit bats as reservoirs of Ebola virus. Nature 438:575576.
57. Leroy, E. M.,, A. Epelboin,, V. Mondonge,, X. Pourrut,, J. P. Gonzalez,, J. J. Muyembe-Tamfum,, and P. Formenty. 2009. Human Ebola outbreak resulting from direct exposure to fruit bats in Luebo, Democratic Republic of Congo, 2007. Vector Borne Zoon. Dis. 9:723728.
58. Lozano, M. E.,, D. Enria,, J. I. Maiztegui,, O. Grau,, and V. Romanowski. 1995. Rapid diagnosis of Argentine hemorrhagic fever by reverse transcriptase PCR-based assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:13271332.
59. Lozano, M. E.,, D. M. Posik,, C. G. Albarino,, G. Schujman,, P. D. Ghiringhelli,, G. Calderon,, M. Sabattini,, and V. Romanowski. 1997. Characterization of arenaviruses using a family-specific primer set for RT-PCR amplification and RFLP analysis. Its potential use for detection of uncharacterized arenaviruses. Virus Res. 49:7989.
60. Lucht, A.,, R. Grunow,, C. Otterbein,, P. Möller,, H. Feldmann,, and S. Becker. 2004. Production of monoclonal antibodies and development of an antigen capture ELISA directed against the envelope glycoprotein GP of Ebola virus. Med. Microbiol. Immunol. 193:181187.
61. Lucht, A.,, P. Formenty,, H. Feldmann,, M. Gotz,, E. Leroy,, P. Bataboukila,, A. Grolla,, F. Feldmann,, T. Wittmann,, P. Campbell,, C. Atsangandoko,, P. Boumandoki,, E. J. Finke,, P. Miethe,, S. Becker,, and R. Grunow. 2007. Development of an immunofiltration-based antigen-detection assay for rapid diagnosis of Ebola virus infection. J. Infect. Dis. 196(Suppl. 2):S184S192.
62. Martini, G. A., 1971. Marburg virus disease. Clinical syndrome, p. 19. In G. A. Martini, and R. Siegert (ed.), Marburg Virus Disease. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY.
63. Meissner, F.,, T. Maruyama,, M. Frentsch,, A. Hessell,, L. Rodriguez,, T. Geisbert,, P. Jahrling,, D. Burton,, and P. Parren. 2002. Detection of antibodies against the four subtypes of Ebola virus in sera from any species using a novel antibody-phage indicator assay. Virology 300:236243.
64. Mets, M. B.,, L. J. Barton,, A. S. Khan,, and T. G. Ksiazek. 2000. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus: an underdiagnosed cause of congenital chorioretinitis. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 130:209215.
65. Moncayo, A.,, C. L. Hice,, D. M. Watts,, A. P. A. Travassos da Rosa,, H. Guzman,, K. L. Russell,, C. Calampa,, A. Gozalo,, V. L. Popov,, S. C. Weaver,, and R. B. Tesh. 2001. Allpahuayo virus, a newly recognized arenavirus (Arenaviridae) from arboreal rice rats (Oecomys bicolor and Oecomys paricola) in Northeastern Peru. Virology 284:277286.
66. Murphy, F. A.,, G. Van der Groen,, S. G. Whitfield,, and J. V. Lange,. 1978. Ebola and Marburg virus morphology and taxonomy, p. 6184. In S. R. Pattyn (ed.), Ebola Virus Haemorrhagic Fever. Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
67. Murphy, F. A.,, and S. G. Whitfield. 1975. Morphology and morphogenesis of arenaviruses. Bull. W. H. O. 52:409419.
68. Niikura, M.,, T. Ikegami,, M. Saijo,, I. Kurane,, M. E. Miranda,, and S. Morikawa. 2001. Detection of Ebola viral antigen by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using a novel monoclonal antibody to nucleoprotein. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:32673271.
69. Niklasson, B. S.,, P. B. Jahrling,, and C. J. Peters. 1984. Detection of Lassa virus antigens and Lassa-specific IgG and IgM by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 20:239244.
70. Okware, S. I.,, F. G. Omaswa,, S. Zaramba,, A. Opio,, J. J. Lutwama,, J. Kamugisha,, E. B. Rwaguma,, P. Kagwa,, and M. Lamunu. 2002. An outbreak of Ebola in Uganda. Trop. Med. Intern. Health 7:10681075.
71. Onyango, C. O.,, M. L. Opoka,, T. G. Ksiazek,, P. Formenty,, A. Ahmed,, P. M. Tukei,, R. C. Sang,, V. O. Ofula,, S. L. Konongoi,, R. L. Coldren,, T. G. Grein,, D. Legros,, M. Bell,, K. M. De Cock,, W. J. Bellini,, J. S. Towner,, S. T. Nichol,, and P. E. Rollin. 2007. Laboratory diagnosis of Ebola hemorrhagic fever during an outbreak in Yambio, Sudan, 2004. J. Infect. Dis. 196(Suppl. 2):S193S198.
72. Paddock, C.,, T. Ksiazek,, J. A. Comer,, P. Rollin,, S. Nichol,, W. J. Shieh,, J. Guarner,, C. Goldsmith,, P. Greer,, A. Srinivasan,, D. Jernigan,, S. Kehl,, M. Graham,, and S. Zaki. 2005. Pathology of fatal lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection in multiple organ transplant recipients from a common donor. Mod. Pathol. 18(Suppl.):263A264A.
73. Panning, M.,, T. Laue,, S. Olschlager,, M. Eickmann,, S. Becker,, S. Raith,, M. C. Georges-Courbot,, M. Nilsson,, R. Gopal,, A. Lundkvist,, A. di Caro,, D. Brown,, H. Meyer,, G. Lloyd,, B. M. Kummerer,, S. Gunther,, and C. Drosten. 2007. Diagnostic reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction kit for filoviruses based on the strain collections of all European biosafety level 4 laboratories. J. Infect. Dis. 196(Suppl. 2): S199S204.
74. Paweska, J. T.,, N. H. Sewlall,, T. G. Ksiazek,, L. H. Blumberg,, M. J. Hale,, I. Lipkin,, J. Weyer,, S. T. Nichol,, P. E. Rollin,, L. K. McMullan,, C. D. Paddock,, T. Briese,, J. Mnyaluza,, T. H. Dinh,, V. Mukonka,, P. Ching,, A. Duse,, G. Richards,, G. de Jong,, C. Cohen,, B. Ikalafeng,, C. Mugero,, C. Asomugha,, M. M. Molotle,, D. M. Nteo,, E. Misiani,, R. Swanepoel,, S. R. Zaki, and members of the Outbreak Control and Investigation Teams. 2009. Nosocomial outbreak of novel arenavirus infection, Southern Africa. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 15:15981602.
75. Peters, C. J., 1997. Viral hemorrhagic fevers, p. 779799. In N. Nathanson (ed.), Viral Pathogenesis. Lippincott-Raven Publishers, Philadelphia, PA.
76. Rodriguez, L.,, A. De Roo,, Y. Guimard,, S. Trappier,, A. Sanchez,, D. Bressler,, A. J. Williams,, T. G. Ksiazek,, C. J. Peters,, and S. T. Nichol. 1999. Persistence and genetic stability of Ebola virus during the outbreak in Kikwit, Zaire 1995. J. Infect. Dis. 179(Suppl. 1):S170S176.
77. Rollin, P. E.,, R. J. Williams,, D. S. Bressler,, S. Pearson,, M. Cottingham,, G. Pucak,, A. Sanchez,, S. G. Trappier,, R. L. Peters,, P. W. Greer,, S. Zaki,, T. Demarcus,, K. Hendricks,, M. Kelley,, D. Simpson,, T. W. Geisbert,, P. B. Jahrling,, C. J. Peters,, and T. G. Ksiazek. 1999. Ebola-Reston virus among quarantined nonhuman primates recently imported from the Philippines to the United States. J. Infect. Dis. 179(Suppl.):S108S114.
78. Rollin, P. E.,, D. G. Bausch,, and A. Sanchez. 2007. Blood chemistry measurements and D-dimer levels associated with fatal and nonfatal outcomes in humans infected with Sudan Ebola virus. J. Infect. Dis. 196(Suppl. 2):S364S371.
79. Rouquet, P.,, J.-M. Froment,, M. Bermejo,, A. Kilbourn,, W. Karesh,, P. Reed,, B. Kumulungui,, P. Yaba,, A. Délicat,, P. E. Rollin,, and E. M. Leroy. 2005. Wild animal mortality monitoring and human Ebola outbreaks, Gabon and Republic of Congo, 2001-2003. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 11:283290.
80. Saijo, M.,, M. Niikura,, S. Morikawa,, T. G. Ksiazek,, R. F. Meyer,, C. J. Peters,, and I. Kurane. 2001. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detection of antibodies to Ebola and Marburg viruses using recombinant nucleoproteins. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:17.
81. Saijo, M.,, M. C. Georges-Courbot,, S. Fukushi,, T. Mizutani,, P. Marianneau,, A. J. Georges,, I. Kurane,, and S. Morikawa. 2006. Marburgvirus nucleoprotein-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using monoclonal antibodies to recombinant nucleoprotein: detection of authentic marburgvirus. Jpn. J. Infect. Dis. 59:323325.
82. Sanchez, A.,, T. W. Geisbert,, and H. Feldmann,. 2007. Filoviridae: Marburg and Ebola viruses, p. 14091448. In D. M. Knipe, and P. M. Howley (ed.), Fields Virology, 5th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
83. Sanchez, A.,, M. P. Kiley,, B. P. Holloway,, and D. D. Auperin. 1993. Sequence analysis of the Ebola virus genome: organization, genetic elements, and comparison with the genome of Marburg virus. Virus Res. 29:215240.
84. Sanchez, A.,, T. G. Ksiazek,, P. E. Rollin,, M. E. G. Miranda,, S. G. Trappier,, A. S. Khan,, C. J. Peters,, and S. T. Nichol. 1999. Detection and molecular characterization of Ebola viruses causing disease in humans and nonhuman primates. J. Infect. Dis. 179(Suppl. 1):S164S169.
85. Sanchez, A.,, D. Y. Pifat,, R. H. Kenyon,, C. J. Peters,, J. B. McCormick,, and M. P. Kiley. 1989. Junin virus monoclonal antibodies: characterization and cross-reactivity with other arenaviruses. J. Gen. Virol. 70:11251132.
86. Sanchez, A.,, S. G. Trappier,, U. Stroher,, S. T. Nichol,, M. D. Bowen,, and H. Feldmann. 1998. Variation in the glycoprotein and VP35 genes of Marburg virus strains. Virology 240:138146.
87. Sanchez, A.,, S. G. Trappier,, B. W. Mahy,, C. J. Peters,, and S. T. Nichol. 1996. The virion glycoproteins of Ebola virus are encoded in two reading frames and are expressed through transcriptional editing. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93:36023607.
88. Swanepoel, R.,, S. B. Smit,, P. E. Rollin,, P. Formenty,, P. A. Leman,, A. Kemp,, F. J. Burt,, A. A. Grobbelaar,, J. Croft,, D. G. Bausch,, H. Zeller,, H. Leirs,, L. E. O. Braack,, M. L. Libande,, S. Zaki,, S. T. Nichol,, T. G. Ksiazek,, and J. T. Paweska. 2007. Studies of reservoir hosts for Marburg virus. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 13:18471851.
89. Timen, A.,, M. P. Koopmans,, A. C. Vossen,, G. J. van Doornum,, S. Gunther,, F. van den Berkmortel,, K. M. Verduin,, S. Dittrich,, P. Emmerich,, A. D. Osterhaus,, J. T. van Dissel,, and R. A. Coutinho. 2009. Response to imported case of Marburg hemorrhagic fever, the Netherland. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 15:11711175.
90. Towner, J. S.,, P. E. Rollin,, D.G. Bausch,, A. Sanchez,, S. M. Crary,, M. Vincent,, W. F. Lee,, C. F. Spiropoulou,, T. G. Ksiazek,, M. Lukwiya,, F. Kaducu,, R. Downing,, and S.T. Nichol. 2004. Rapid diagnosis of Ebola hemorrhagic fever by reverse transcription-PCR in an outbreak setting and assessment of patient viral load as a predictor of outcome. J. Virol. 78:43304341.
91. Towner, J. S.,, M. L. Khristova,, T. K. Sealy,, M. J. Vincent,, B. R. Erickson,, D. A. Bawiec,, A. L. Hartman,, J. A. Comer,, S. R. Zaki,, U. Stroher,, F. Gomes da Silva,, F. del Castillo,, P. E. Rollin,, T. G. Ksiazek,, and S. T. Stuart. 2006. Marburgvirus genomics and association with a large hemorrhagic fever outbreak in Angola. J. Virol. 80:64976516.
92. Towner, J. S.,, T. K. Sealy,, M. L. Khristova,, C. G. Albarino,, S. Conlan,, S. A. Reeder,, P. L. Quan,, W. I. Lipkin,, R. Downing,, J. W. Tappero,, S. Okware,, J. Lutwama,, B. Bakamutumaho,, J. Kayiwa,, J. A. Comer,, P. E. Rollin,, T. G. Ksiazek,, and S. T. Nichol. 2008. Newly discovered Ebola virus associated with hemorrhagic fever outbreak in Uganda. PLoS Pathog. 4(11):e1000212.
93. Towner, J. S.,, B. R. Amman,, T. K. Sealy,, S. A. Reeder,, J. A. Comer,, A. Kemp,, R. Swanepoel,, C. D. Paddock,, S. Balinandi,, M. L. Khristova,, P. B. H. Formenty,, C. G. Albarino,, D. M. Miller,, Z. D. Reed,, J. T. Kayiwa,, J. N. Mills,, D. L. Cannon,, P. W. Greer,, E. Byaruhanga,, E. C. Farnon,, P. Atimnedi,, S. Okware,, E. Katongole-Mbidde,, R. Downing,, J. W. Tappero,, S. R. Zaki,, T. G. Ksiazek,, S. T. Nichol,, and P. E. Rollin. 2009. Isolation of genetically diverse Marburg viruses from Egyptian fruit bats. PLoS Pathog. 5(7):e1000536.
94. Trappier, S. G.,, A. L. Conaty,, B. B. Farrar,, D. D. Auperin,, J. B. McCormick,, and S. P. Fisher-Hoch. 1993. Evaluation of the polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of Lassa virus infection. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 49:214221.
95. Van der Groen, G.,, and L. H. Elliott. 1982. Use of betapropiolactone- inactivated Ebola, Marburg, and Lassa intracellular antigens in immunofluorescent antibody assay. Ann. Soc. Belg. Med. Trop. 62:4954.
96. Vieth, S.,, C. Drosten,, O. Lenz,, M. Vincent,, S. Omilabu,, M. Hass,, B. Becker-Ziaja,, J. ter Meulen,, S. T. Nichol,, H. Schmitz,, and S. Gunther. 2007. RT-PCR assay for detection of Lassa virus and related Old World arenaviruses targeting the L gene. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 101: 12531264.
97. Weidmann, M.,, E. Muhlberger,, and F. T. Hufert. 2004. Rapid detection protocol for filoviruses. J. Clin. Virol. 30:9499.
98.World Health Organization. 1999. Viral haemorrhagic fever/ Marburg. Democratic Republic of the Congo. Wkly. Epidemiol. Rec. 50(5):7377.
99.World Health Organization. 2005. Ebola haemorrhagic fever, Angola, Congo. 2005. Wkly Epidemiol. Rec. 80:178. (Erratum, Marburg instead of Ebola.)
100.World Health Organization. 24 August 2005. Marburg haemorrhagic fever in Angola—update 25. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. http://www.who.int/csr/ don/2005_08_24/en/index.html.
101. Wright, R.,, D. Johnson,, M. Neumann,, T. G. Ksiazek,, P. Rollin,, R. V. Keech,, D. J. Bonthius,, P. Hitchon,, C. F. Grose,, W. E. Bell,, and J. F. Bale. 1997. Congenital lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus syndrome: a disease that mimics congenital toxoplasmosis or cytomegalovirus infection. Pediatrics 100:E91E96.
102. Wulff, H.,, and K. M. Johnson. 1979. Immunoglobulin M and G responses measured by immunofluorescence in patients with Lassa or Marburg virus infections. Bull. W. H. O. 57:631635.
103. Wulff, H.,, J. V. Lange,, and P. A. Webb. 1978. Interrelationships among arenaviruses measured by indirect immunofluorescence. Intervirology 9:344350.
104. Zaki, S. R.,, W.-J. Shieh,, P. W. Greer,, C. J. Goldsmith,, T. Ferebee,, J. Katshitshi,, K. Tchioko,, M. A. Bwaki,, R. Swanepoel,, P. Calain,, A. S. Khan,, E. Lloyd,, P. E. Rollin,, T. G. Ksiazek,, C. J. Peters, and the EHF Study Group. 1999. A novel immunohistochemical assay for detection of Ebola virus in skin: implications for diagnosis, spread, and surveillance of Ebola hemorrhagic fever. J. Infect. Dis. 177(Suppl. 1):S36S47.


Generic image for table

Currently recognized arenaviruses and filoviruses and associated human diseases


This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error