1887

Chapter 96 : Herpes Simplex Viruses and Herpes B Virus

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Herpes Simplex Viruses and Herpes B Virus, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap96-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap96-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter focuses on the herpes simplex viruses (HSV) and herpes B virus, describing their transmission, clinical significance, and detection mechanisms. Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), formally designated human herpesvirus 1 and human herpesvirus 2, respectively, are members of the family . Primary infection with HSV-1 or HSV-2 is followed by the establishment of latency in the dorsal root ganglia, typically the trigeminal ganglia for orolabial disease and the lumbosacral ganglia for genital disease. Immunostaining methods to detect antigen require less expertise than cytopathic effect (CPE)-based culture methods and are usually less expensive than culture. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) provides the best sensitivity of the direct detection approaches. Tests based on crude antigen mixtures are still marketed, but they have unacceptably low sensitivity and specificity, especially for detecting new HSV-2 infections in those with prior HSV-1 infection. The HSV Western blot assay used by the University of Washington laboratory uses nitrocellulose blots prepared with human diploid fibroblast-infected cell proteins. Western blotting detects antibodies to multiple viral proteins, including those to the type-specific glycoproteins gG-1 and gG-2. Simple gG-based lateral-flow assays are available that are designed for point-of-care testing. Type-specific serology is critical for identifying pregnant women with new HSV infections. Serodiagnosis of herpes B virus infections has been complicated by extensive cross-reactivity with HSV-1 and HSV-2. Serologic testing can be useful for evaluation of potentially infected animals involved in human exposures and for screening of research animals.

Citation: Jerome K, Morrow R. 2011. Herpes Simplex Viruses and Herpes B Virus, p 1530-1544. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch96

Key Concept Ranking

Herpes simplex virus 1
0.44239348
0.44239348
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

(A) Normal human diploid fibroblasts. Magnification, ×400. (B) HSV-1 in human diploid fibroblasts. Magnification, ×400. (C) Normal mink lung cells. Magnification, ×100. (D) HSV-2 in mink lung cells. Magnification, ×100. (E) Normal HEp-2 cells. Magnification, ×400. (F) HSV-2 in HEp-2 cells. Magnification, ×400.

Citation: Jerome K, Morrow R. 2011. Herpes Simplex Viruses and Herpes B Virus, p 1530-1544. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch96
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

(A) Toxicity in human diploid fibroblasts. Magnification, ×100. (B) HSV-2 DFA confirmatory test.

Citation: Jerome K, Morrow R. 2011. Herpes Simplex Viruses and Herpes B Virus, p 1530-1544. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch96
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555816728.chap96
1. Ando, Y.,, H. Kimura,, H. Miwata,, T. Kudo,, M. Shibata,, and T. Morishima. 1993. Quantitative analysis of herpes simplex virus DNA in cerebrospinal fluid of children with herpes simplex encephalitis. J. Med. Virol. 41: 170 173.
2. Anonymous. June 2007. Clinical management guidelines for obstetrician-gynecologists. Management of herpes in pregnancy. Obstet. Gynecol. 109: 14891498.
3.Anonymous. 1987. B virus infection in humans—Pensacola, Florida. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 36: 289290.
4.Anonymous. 1998. Fatal cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (B virus) infection following mucocutaneous exposure and interim recommendations for worker protection. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 47: 10731076.
5. Ashley, R.,, A. Cent,, V. Maggs,, A. Nahmias,, and L. Corey. 1991. Inability of enzyme immunoassays to discriminate between infections with herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2. Ann. Intern. Med. 115: 520 526.
6. Ashley, R.,, and D. M. Koelle,. 1992. Immune responses to genital herpes infection, p. 201 238. In T. C. Quinn (ed.), Advances in Host Defense Mechanisms: Sexually Transmitted Diseases, vol. 8. Raven Press, New York, NY.
7. Ashley, R. L. 2001. Sorting out the new HSV type specific antibody tests. Sex. Transm. Infect. 77: 232 237.
8. Ashley, R. L.,, M. Eagleton,, and N. Pfeiffer. 1999. Ability of a rapid serology test to detect seroconversion to herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein G soon after infection. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 1632 1633.
9. Ashley, R. L.,, J. Militoni,, F. Lee,, A. Nahmias,, and L. Corey. 1988. Comparison of Western blot (immunoblot) and glycoprotein G-specific immunodot enzyme assay for detecting antibodies to herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in human sera. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26: 662 667.
10. Ashley Morrow, R.,, E. Krantz,, D. Friedrich,, and A. Wald. 2006. Clinical correlates of index values in the focus Herpe- Select ELISA for antibodies to herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). J. Clin. Virol. 36: 141 145.
11. Ashley-Morrow, R.,, E. Krantz,, and A. Wald. 2003. Time course of seroconversion by HerpeSelect ELISA after acquisition of genital herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) or HSV-2. Sex. Transm. Dis. 30: 310 314.
12. Batterson, W.,, D. Furlong,, and B. Roizman. 1983. Molecular genetics of herpes simplex virus. VIII. Further characterization of a ts mutant defective in release of viral DNA and in other stages of viral reproductive cycle. J. Virol. 45: 397 407.
13. Benedetti, J.,, L. Corey,, and R. Ashley. 1994. Recurrence rates in genital herpes after symptomatic first-episode infection. Ann. Intern. Med. 121: 847 854.
14. Berrington, W. R.,, K. R. Jerome,, L. Cook,, A. Wald,, L. Corey,, and C. Casper. 2009. Clinical correlates of herpes simplex virus viremia among hospitalized adults. Clin. Infect. Dis. 49: 1295 1301.
15. Boggess, K. A.,, D. H. Watts,, A. C. Hobson,, R. L. Ashley,, Z. A. Brown,, and L. Corey. 1997. Herpes simplex virus type 2 detection by culture and polymerase chain reaction and relationship to genital symptoms and cervical antibody status during the third trimester of pregnancy. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 176: 443 451.
16. Boivin, G. 2004. Diagnosis of herpesvirus infections of the central nervous system. Herpes 11( Suppl. 2): 48A 56A.
17. Brain, R. T. 1932. The demonstration of herpetic antibody in human sera by complement fixation, and the correlation between its presence and infection with herpes virus. Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 13: 166 167.
18. Brinker, J. P.,, and J. E. Herrmann. 1995. Comparison of three monoclonal antibody-based enzyme immunoassays for detection of herpes simplex virus in clinical specimens. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 14: 314 317.
19. Brown, Z. A. 2000. HSV-2 specific serology should be offered routinely to antenatal patients. Rev. Med. Virol. 10: 141 144.
20. Brown, Z. A.,, S. Selke,, J. Zeh,, J. Kopelman,, A. Maslow,, R. L. Ashley,, D. H. Watts,, S. Berry,, M. Herd,, and L. Corey. 1997. The acquisition of herpes simplex virus during pregnancy. N. Engl. J. Med. 337: 509 515.
21. Brown, Z. A.,, A. Wald,, R. A. Morrow,, S. Selke,, J. Zeh,, and L. Corey. 2003. Effect of serologic status and cesarean delivery on transmission rates of herpes simplex virus from mother to infant. JAMA 289: 203 209.
22. Brugha, R.,, K. Keersmaekers,, A. Renton,, and A. Meheus. 1997. Genital herpes infection: a review. Int. J. Epidemiol. 26: 698 709.
23. Burnet, F. M.,, and S. W. Williams. 1939. Herpes simplex: a new point of view. Med. J. Aust. 1: 637 642.
24. Cassinotti, P.,, H. Mietz,, and G. Siegl. 1996. Suitability and clinical application of a multiplex nested PCR assay for the diagnosis of herpes simplex virus infections. J. Med. Virol. 50: 75 81.
24a. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2002. Guidelines for treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 51: 1217.
25. Chan, E. L.,, K. Brandt,, and G. B. Horsman. 2001. Comparison of Chemicon SimulFluor direct fluorescent antibody staining with cell culture and shell vial direct immunoperoxidase staining for detection of herpes simplex virus and with cytospin direct immunofluorescence staining for detection of varicella-zoster virus. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 8: 909 912.
26. Chilukuri, S.,, and T. Rosen. 2003. Management of acyclovirresistant herpes simplex virus. Dermatol. Clin. 21: 311 320.
27. Cinque, P.,, G. M. Cleator,, T. Weber,, P. Monteyne,, C. J. Sindic,, and A. M. van Loon. 1996. The role of laboratory investigation in the diagnosis and management of patients with suspected herpes simplex encephalitis: a consensus report. The EU concerted action on virus meningitis and encephalitis. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 61: 339 345.
28. Cohen, J. I.,, D. S. Davenport,, J. A. Stewart,, S. Deitchman,, J. K. Hilliard,, and L. E. Chapman. 2002. Recommendations for prevention of and therapy for exposure to B virus (cercopithecine herpesvirus 1). Clin. Infect. Dis. 35: 1191 1203.
29. Cone, R. W.,, A. C. Hobson,, and M. L. Huang. 1992. Coamplified positive control detects inhibition of polymerase chain reactions. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30: 3185 3189.
30. Cone, R. W.,, A. C. Hobson,, J. Palmer,, M. Remington,, and L. Corey. 1991. Extended duration of herpes simplex virus DNA in genital lesions detected by the polymerase chain reaction. J. Infect. Dis. 164: 757 760.
31. Cone, R. W.,, P. D. Swenson,, A. C. Hobson,, M. Remington,, and L. Corey. 1993. Herpes simplex virus detection from genital lesions: a comparative study using antigen detection (HerpChek) and culture. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31: 1774 1776.
32. Corey, L.,, H. G. Adams,, Z. A. Brown,, and K. K. Holmes. 1983. Genital herpes simplex virus infections: clinical manifestations, course, and complications. Ann. Intern. Med. 98: 958 972.
33. Corey, L.,, and H. H. Handsfield. 2000. Genital herpes and public health: addressing a global problem. JAMA 283: 791 794.
34. Corey, L.,, M. L. Huang,, S. Selke,, and A. Wald. 2005. Differentiation of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in clinical samples by a real-time Taqman PCR assay. J. Med. Virol. 76: 350 355.
35. Corey, L.,, and P. G. Spear. 1986. Infections with herpes simplex viruses. N. Engl. J. Med. 314: 686 691.
36. Corey, L.,, and A. Wald. 2009. Maternal and neonatal herpes simplex virus infections. N. Engl. J. Med. 361: 1376 1385.
37. Corey, L.,, A. Wald,, R. Patel,, S. L. Sacks,, S. K. Tyring,, T. Warren,, J. M. Douglas, Jr.,, J. Paavonen,, R. A. Morrow,, K. R. Beutner,, L. S. Stratchounsky,, G. Mertz,, O. N. Keene,, H. A. Watson,, D. Tait,, and M. Vargas-Cortes. 2004. Oncedaily valacyclovir to reduce the risk of transmission of genital herpes. N. Engl. J. Med. 350: 11 20.
38. Coyle, P. V.,, A. Desai,, D. Wyatt,, C. McCaughey,, and H. J. O’Neill. 1999. A comparison of virus isolation, indirect immunofluorescence and nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of primary and recurrent herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 infections. J. Virol. Methods 83: 75 82.
39. Crane, L. R.,, P. A. Gutterman,, T. Chapel,, and A. M. Lerner. 1980. Incubation of swab materials with herpes simplex virus. J. Infect. Dis. 141: 531.
40. Croughan, W. S.,, and A. M. Behbehani. 1988. Comparative study of inactivation of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 by commonly used antiseptic agents. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26: 213 215.
41. Cunningham, A. L.,, R. R. Turner,, A. C. Miller,, M. F. Para,, and T. C. Merigan. 1985. Evolution of recurrent herpes simplex lesions. An immunohistologic study. J. Clin. Investig. 75: 226 233.
42. Daubin, C.,, S. Vincent,, A. Vabret,, D. du Cheyron,, J. J. Parienti,, M. Ramakers,, F. Freymuth,, and P. Charbonneau. 2005. Nosocomial viral ventilator-associated pneumonia in the intensive care unit: a prospective cohort study. Intensive Care Med. 31: 1116 1122.
43. Dawson, C., 1995. Management of herpes simplex eye diseases, p. 127 136. In P. D. Griffiths (ed.), Clinical Management of Herpes Viruses. IOS Press, Washington, DC.
44. De Vos, N.,, L. Van Hoovels,, A. Vankeerberghen,, K. Van Vaerenbergh,, A. Boel,, I. Demeyer,, L. Creemers,, and H. De Beenhouwer. 2009. Monitoring of herpes simplex virus in the lower respiratory tract of critically ill patients using real-time PCR: a prospective study. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 15: 358 363.
45. Diamond, C.,, and L. Corey,. 1999. Antiviral drugs and therapy, p. 349 364. In R. K. Root,, W. Stamm,, F. Waldvogel,, and L. Corey (ed.), Clinical Infectious Diseases: a Practical Approach. University Press, Oxford, United Kingdom.
46. Diamond, C.,, K. Mohan,, A. Hobson,, L. Frenkel,, and L. Corey. 1999. Viremia in neonatal herpes simplex virus infections. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 18: 487 489.
47. Diamond, C.,, S. Selke,, R. Ashley,, J. Benedetti,, and L. Corey. 1999. Clinical course of patients with serologic evidence of recurrent genital herpes presenting with signs and symptoms of first episode disease. Sex. Transm. Dis. 26: 221 225.
48. Diefenbach, R. J.,, M. Miranda-Saksena,, M. W. Douglas,, and A. L. Cunningham. 2008. Transport and egress of herpes simplex virus in neurons. Rev. Med. Virol. 18: 35 51.
49. Dix, R. D.,, L. Pereira,, and J. R. Baringer. 1981. Use of monoclonal antibody directed against herpes simplex virus glycoproteins to protect mice against acute virus-induced neurological disease. Infect. Immun. 34: 192 199.
50. Domingues, R. B.,, F. D. Lakeman,, M. S. Mayo,, and R. J. Whitley. 1998. Application of competitive PCR to cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with herpes simplex encephalitis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 2229 2234.
51. Domingues, R. B.,, A. M. Tsanaclis,, C. S. Pannuti,, M. S. Mayo,, and F. D. Lakeman. 1997. Evaluation of the range of clinical presentations of herpes simplex encephalitis by using polymerase chain reaction assay of cerebrospinal fluid samples. Clin. Infect. Dis. 25: 86 91.
52. Dunn, J. J.,, E. Billetdeaux,, L. Skodack-Jones,, and K. C. Carroll. 2003. Evaluation of three Copan viral transport systems for the recovery of cultivatable, clinical virus isolates. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 45: 191 197.
53. Engelberg, R.,, D. Carrell,, E. Krantz,, L. Corey,, and A. Wald. 2003. Natural history of genital herpes simplex virus type 1 infection. Sex. Transm. Dis. 30: 174 177.
54. Espy, M. J.,, and T. F. Smith. 1988. Detection of herpes simplex virus in conventional tube cell cultures and in shell vials with a DNA probe kit and monoclonal antibodies. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26: 22 24.
55. Espy, M. J.,, J. R. Uhl,, P. S. Mitchell,, J. N. Thorvilson,, K. A. Svien,, A. D. Wold,, and T. F. Smith. 2000. Diagnosis of herpes simplex virus infections in the clinical laboratory by LightCycler PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 795 799.
56. Fleming, D. T.,, G. M. McQuillan,, R. E. Johnson,, A. J. Nahmias,, S. O. Aral,, F. K. Lee,, and M. E. St. Louis. 1997. Herpes simplex virus type 2 in the United States, 1976 to 1994. N. Engl. J. Med. 337: 1105 1111.
57. Freifeld, A. G.,, J. Hilliard,, J. Southers,, M. Murray,, B. Savarese,, J. M. Schmitt,, and S. E. Straus. 1995. A controlled seroprevalence study of primate handlers for evidence of asymptomatic herpes B virus infection. J. Infect. Dis. 171: 1031 1034.
58. Frenkel, L. M.,, E. M. Garratty,, J. P. Shen,, N. Wheeler,, O. Clark,, and Y. J. Bryson. 1993. Clinical reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in seropositive pregnant women with no history of genital herpes. Ann. Intern. Med. 118: 414 418.
59. Fujima, A.,, Y. Ochiai,, A. Saito,, Y. Omori,, A. Noda,, Y. Kazuyama,, H. Shoji,, K. Tanabayashi,, F. Ueda,, Y. Yoshikawa,, and R. Hondo. 2008. Discrimination of antibody to herpes B virus from antibody to herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in human and macaque sera. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46: 56 61.
60. Gay, F. P.,, and M. Holden. 1933. The herpes encephalitis problem. J. Infect. Dis. 53: 287 303.
61. Gentry, G. A.,, M. Lowe,, G. Alford,, and R. Nevins. 1988. Sequence analyses of herpesviral enzymes suggest an ancient origin for human sexual behavior. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85: 2658 2661.
62. Gentry, G. A.,, S. Rana,, M. Hutchinson,, and P. Starr. 1988. Evolution of herpes and pox viruses and their hosts: a problem with the molecular clock. Intervirology 29: 277 280.
63. Gordon, B.,, O. A. Selnes,, J. J. Hart,, D. F. Hanley,, and R. J. Whitley. 1990. Long-term cognitive sequelae of acyclovirtreated herpes simplex encephalitis. Arch. Neurol. 47: 646 647.
64. Handsfield, H. H. 2000. Public health strategies to prevent genital herpes: where do we stand? Curr. Infect. Dis. Rep. 2: 25 30.
65. Hardy, D. A.,, A. M. Arvin,, L. L. Yasukawa,, R. N. Bronzan,, D. M. Lewinsohn,, P. A. Hensleigh,, and C. G. Prober. 1990. Use of polymerase chain reaction for successful identification of asymptomatic genital infection with herpes simplex virus in pregnant women at delivery. J. Infect. Dis. 162: 1031 1035.
66. Heldwein, E. E.,, and C. Krummenacher. 2008. Entry of herpesviruses into mammalian cells. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 65: 1653 1668.
67. Hilliard, J. K.,, R. Eberle,, S. L. Lipper,, R. M. Munoz,, and S. A. Weiss. 1987. Herpesvirus simiae (B virus): replication of the virus and identification of viral polypeptides in infected cells. Arch. Virol. 93: 185 198.
68. Hjalmarsson, A.,, F. Granath,, M. Forsgren,, M. Brytting,, P. Blomqvist,, and B. Skoldenberg. 2009. Prognostic value of intrathecal antibody production and DNA viral load in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with herpes simplex encephalitis. J. Neurol. 256: 1243 1251.
69. Hobson, A.,, A. Wald,, N. Wright,, and L. Corey. 1997. Evaluation of a quantitative competitive PCR assay for measuring herpes simplex virus DNA content in genital tract secretions. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 548 552.
70. Hofgartner, W. T.,, A. F. Huhmer,, J. P. Landers,, and J. A. Kant. 1999. Rapid diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis using microchip electrophoresis of PCR products. Clin. Chem. 45: 2120 2128.
71. Holmes, G. P.,, L. E. Chapman,, J. A. Stewart,, S. E. Straus,, J. K. Hilliard,, and D. S. Davenport. 1995. Guidelines for the prevention and treatment of B-virus infections in exposed persons. Clin. Infect. Dis. 20: 421 439.
72. Hsiung, G. D., 1994. Diagnostic virology, p. 241 248. In G. D. Hsiung,, C. K. Y. Fong,, and M. L. Landry (ed.), Hsiung’s Diagnostic Virology. Yale University Press, London, United Kingdom.
73. Huang, Y. T.,, S. Hite,, V. Duane,, and H. Yan. 2002. CV-1 and MRC-5 mixed cells for simultaneous detection of herpes simplex viruses and varicella zoster virus in skin lesions. J. Clin. Virol. 24: 37 43.
74. Jensen, C.,, and F. B. Johnson. 1994. Comparison of various transport media for viability maintenance of herpes simplex virus, respiratory syncytial virus, and adenovirus. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 19: 137 142.
75. Jerome, K. R.,, M. L. Huang,, A. Wald,, S. Selke,, and L. Corey. 2002. Quantitative stability of DNA after extended storage of clinical specimens as determined by real-time PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40: 2609 2611.
76. Johnson, R. E.,, A. J. Nahmias,, L. S. Magder,, F. K. Lee,, C. A. Brooks,, and C. B. Snowden. 1989. A seroepidemiologic survey of the prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in the United States. N. Engl. J. Med. 321: 7 12.
77. Katz, D.,, J. K. Hilliard,, R. Eberle,, and S. L. Lipper. 1986. ELISA for the detection of group-specific and virusspecific antibodies in human and simian sera induced by herpes simplex and related simian viruses. J. Virol. Methods 14: 99 109.
78. Kessler, H. H.,, G. Muhlbauer,, B. Rinner,, E. Stelzl,, A. Berger,, H. W. Dorr,, B. Santner,, E. Marth,, and H. Rabenau. 2000. Detection of herpes simplex virus DNA by realtime PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 2638 2642.
79. Khan, B. F.,, and D. Pavan-Langston. 2004. Clinical manifestations and treatment modalities in herpes simplex virus of the ocular anterior segment. Int. Ophthalmol. Clin. 44: 103 133.
80. Kimberlin, D. W.,, D. M. Coen,, K. K. Biron,, J. I. Cohen,, R. A. Lamb,, M. McKinlay,, E. A. Emini,, and R. J. Whitley. 1995. Molecular mechanisms of antiviral resistance. Antivir. Res. 26: 369 401.
81. Kimberlin, D. W.,, F. D. Lakeman,, A. M. Arvin,, C. G. Prober,, L. Corey,, D. A. Powell,, S. K. Burchett,, R. F. Jacobs,, S. E. Starr,, R. J. Whitley, et al. 1996. Application of the polymerase chain reaction to the diagnosis and management of neonatal herpes simplex virus disease. J. Infect. Dis. 174: 1162 1167.
82. Kimberlin, D. W.,, C. Y. Lin,, R. F. Jacobs,, D. A. Powell,, L. Corey,, W. C. Gruber,, M. Rathore,, J. S. Bradley,, P. S. Diaz,, M. Kumar,, A. M. Arvin,, K. Gutierrez,, M. Shelton,, L. B. Weiner,, J. W. Sleasman,, T. M. de Sierra,, S. Weller,, S. J. Soong,, J. Kiell,, F. D. Lakeman,, and R. J. Whitley. 2001. Safety and efficacy of high-dose intravenous acyclovir in the management of neonatal herpes simplex virus infections. Pediatrics 108: 230 238.
83. Kimura, H.,, K. Aso,, K. Kuzushima,, N. Hanada,, M. Shibata,, and T. Morishima. 1992. Relapse of herpes simplex encephalitis in children. Pediatrics 89: 891 894.
84. Kimura, H.,, M. Shibata,, K. Kuzushima,, K. Nishikawa,, Y. Nishiyama,, and T. Morishima. 1990. Detection and direct typing of herpes simplex virus by polymerase chain reaction. Med. Microbiol. Immunol. 179: 177 184.
85. Knickelbein, J. E.,, R. L. Hendricks,, and P. Charukamnoetkanok. 2009. Management of herpes simplex virus stromal keratitis: an evidence-based review. Surv. Ophthalmol. 54: 226 234.
86. Knickelbein, J. E.,, K. M. Khanna,, M. B. Yee,, C. J. Baty,, P. R. Kinchington,, and R. L. Hendricks. 2008. Noncytotoxic lytic granule-mediated CD8+ T cell inhibition of HSV-1 reactivation from neuronal latency. Science 322: 268 271.
87. Koelle, D. M.,, C. M. Posavad,, G. R. Barnum,, M. L. Johnson,, J. M. Frank,, and L. Corey. 1998. Clearance of HSV-2 from recurrent genital lesions correlates with infiltration of HSV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. J. Clin. Investig. 101: 1500 1508.
88. Kohl, S. 2002. The diagnosis and treatment of neonatal herpes simplex virus infection. Pediatr. Ann. 31: 726 732.
89. Kramer, M. F.,, and D. M. Coen. 2001. Enzymatic amplification of DNA by PCR: standard procedures and optimization. Curr. Protoc. Immunol. Chapter 10:Unit 10.20.
90. Kropp, R. Y.,, T. Wong,, L. Cormier,, A. Ringrose,, S. Burton,, J. E. Embree,, and M. Steben. 2006. Neonatal herpes simplex virus infections in Canada: results of a 3-year national prospective study. Pediatrics 117: 1955 1962.
91. Kudelova, M.,, M. Muranyiova,, O. Kudela,, J. Rajcani,, M. Lehtinen,, J. Stankovic,, M. Arvaja,, and O. Balint. 1995. Detection of herpes simplex virus DNA by polymerase chain reaction in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with viral meningoencephalitis using primers for the glycoprotein D gene. Acta Virol. 39: 11 17.
92. Kwok, S.,, and R. Higuchi. 1989. Avoiding false positives with PCR. Nature 339: 237 238.
93. Laderman, E. I.,, E. Whitworth,, E. Dumaual,, M. Jones,, A. Hudak,, W. Hogrefe,, J. Carney,, and J. Groen. 2008. Rapid, sensitive, and specific lateral-flow immunochromatographic point-of-care device for detection of herpes simplex virus type 2-specific immunoglobulin G antibodies in serum and whole blood. Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 15: 159 163.
94. Lafferty, W. E.,, R. W. Coombs,, J. Benedetti,, C. Critchlow,, and L. Corey. 1987. Recurrences after oral and genital herpes simplex virus infection: influence of anatomic site and viral type. N. Engl. J. Med. 316: 1444 1449.
95. Lafferty, W. E.,, S. Krofft,, M. Remington,, R. Giddings,, C. Winter,, A. Cent,, and L. Corey. 1987. Diagnosis of herpes simplex virus by direct immunofluorescence and viral isolation from samples of external genital lesions in a highprevalence population. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25: 323 326.
96. Landry, M. L. 1995. False-positive polymerase chain reaction results in the diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis. J. Infect. Dis. 172: 1641 1643.
97. Landry, M. L.,, D. Ferguson,, and J. Wlochowski. 1997. Detection of herpes simplex virus in clinical specimens by cytospin-enhanced direct immunofluorescence. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 302 304.
98. Langenberg, A.,, J. Benedetti,, J. Jenkins,, R. Ashley,, C. Winter,, and L. Corey. 1989. Development of clinically recognizable genital lesions among women previously identified as having “asymptomatic” herpes simplex virus type 2 infection. Ann. Intern. Med. 110: 882 887.
99. LaRocco, M. T. 2000. Evaluation of an enzyme-linked viral inducible system for the rapid detection of herpes simplex virus. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 19: 233 235.
100. Leone, P.,, T. Warren,, K. Hamed,, K. Fife,, and A. Wald. 2007. Famciclovir reduces viral mucosal shedding in HSVseropositive persons. Sex. Transm. Dis. 34: 900 907.
101. Lowenstein, A. 1919. Aetiologische untersuchungen über den fieberhaften, Herpes. Meunch. Med. Wochenschr. 66: 769 770.
102. Ludwig, H. 1972. Untersuchen am genetischn Material von Herpesvirus I. Biophysikalisch-chemische. Charakterisierung von Herpesvirus-Desoxyribonukleinsauren. Med. Microbiol. Immunol. 157: 186 211.
103. Maertzdorf, J.,, L. Remeijer,, A. Van Der Lelij,, J. Buitenwerf,, H. G. Niesters,, A. D. Osterhaus,, and G. M. Verjans. 1999. Amplification of reiterated sequences of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) genome to discriminate between clinical HSV-1 isolates. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 3518 3523.
104. Malkin, J. E. 2004. Epidemiology of genital herpes simplex virus infection in developed countries. Herpes 11( Suppl. 1): 2A 23A.
105. Mark, K. E.,, A. Wald,, A. S. Magaret,, S. Selke,, L. Olin,, M. L. Huang,, and L. Corey. 2008. Rapidly cleared episodes of herpes simplex virus reactivation in immunocompetent adults. J. Infect. Dis. 198: 1141 1149.
106. Martin, E. T.,, D. M. Koelle,, B. Byrd,, M. L. Huang,, J. Vieira,, L. Corey,, and A. Wald. 2006. Sequence-based methods for identifying epidemiologically linked herpes simplex virus type 2 strains. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44: 2541 2546.
107. Martin, E. T.,, E. Krantz,, S. L. Gottlieb,, A. S. Magaret,, A. Langenberg,, L. Stanberry,, M. Kamb,, and A. Wald. 2009. A pooled analysis of the effect of condoms in preventing HSV-2 acquisition. Arch. Intern. Med. 169: 1233 1240.
108. Martins, T. B.,, R. D. Woolstenhulme,, T. D. Jaskowski,, H. R. Hill,, and C. M. Litwin. 2001. Comparison of four enzyme immunoassays with a Western blot assay for the determination of type-specific antibodies to herpes simplex virus. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 115: 272 277.
109. Mertz, K. J.,, D. Trees,, W. C. Levine,, J. S. Lewis,, B. Litchfield,, K. S. Pettus,, S. A. Morse,, M. E. St. Louis,, J. B. Weiss,, J. Schwebke,, J. Dickes,, R. Kee,, J. Reynolds,, D. Hutcheson,, D. Green,, I. Dyer,, G. A. Richwald,, J. Novotny,, I. Weisfuse,, M. Goldberg,, J. A. O’Donnell,, R. Knaup, et al. 1998. Etiology of genital ulcers and prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus coinfection in 10 US cities. J. Infect. Dis. 178: 1795 1798.
110. Moellering, R. C., Jr.,, J. R. Graybill,, J. E. McGowan, Jr.,, and L. Corey. 2007. Antimicrobial resistance prevention initiative—an update: proceedings of an expert panel on resistance. Am. J. Infect. Control 35: S1 S23.
111. Morrow, R.,, and D. Friedrich. 2006. Performance of a novel test for IgM and IgG antibodies in subjects with culture-documented genital herpes simplex virus-1 or -2 infection. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 12: 463 469.
112. Morrow, R. A.,, and Z. A. Brown. 2005. Common use of inaccurate antibody assays to identify infection status with herpes simplex virus type 2. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 193: 361 362.
113. Morrow, R. A.,, and D. Friedrich. 2003. Inaccuracy of certain commercial enzyme immunoassays in diagnosing genital infections with herpes simplex virus types 1 or 2. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 120: 839 844.
114. Morrow, R. A.,, D. Friedrich,, E. Krantz,, and A. Wald. 2004. Development and use of a type-specific antibody avidity test based on herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein G. Sex. Transm. Dis. 31: 508 515.
115. Morrow, R. A.,, D. Friedrich,, A. Meier,, and L. Corey. 2005. Use of “Biokit HSV-2 Rapid Assay” to improve the positive predictive value of Focus HerpeSelect HSV-2 ELISA. BMC Infect. Dis. 5: 84.
116. Nahass, G. T.,, B. A. Goldstein,, W. Y. Zhu,, U. Serfling,, N. S. Penneys,, and C. L. Leonardi. 1992. Comparison of Tzanck smear, viral culture, and DNA diagnostic methods in detection of herpes simplex and varicella-zoster infection. JAMA 268: 2541 2544.
117. Nahmias, A. J.,, F. K. Lee,, and S. Beckman-Nahmias. 1990. Sero-epidemiological and -sociological patterns of herpes simplex virus infection in the world. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 69( Suppl.): 19 36.
118. Nicoll, S.,, A. Brass,, and H. A. Cubie. 2001. Detection of herpes viruses in clinical samples using real-time PCR. J. Virol. Methods 96: 25 31.
119. Norberg, P.,, T. Bergstrom,, E. Rekabdar,, M. Lindh,, and J. A. Liljeqvist. 2004. Phylogenetic analysis of clinical herpes simplex virus type 1 isolates identified three genetic groups and recombinant viruses. J. Virol. 78: 10755 10764.
120. Norrild, B.,, H. Ludwig,, and R. Rott. 1978. Identification of a common antigen of herpes simplex virus, bovine herpes mammilitis virus, and B virus. J. Virol. 26: 712 717.
121. Olson, L. C.,, E. L. Buescher,, and M. S. Artenstein. 1967. Herpesvirus infections of the human central nervous system. N. Engl. J. Med. 277: 1271 1276.
122. Orcutt, R. P.,, G. J. Pucak,, H. L. Foster,, J. T. Kilcourse,, and T. Ferrell. 1976. Multiple testing for the detection of B virus antibody in specially handled rhesus monkeys after capture from virgin trapping grounds. Lab. Anim. Sci. 26: 70 74.
123. Ostrowski, S. R.,, M. J. Leslie,, T. Parrott,, S. Abelt,, and P. E. Piercy. 1998. B-virus from pet macaque monkeys: an emerging threat in the United States? Emerg. Infect. Dis. 4: 117 121.
124. Parris, D. S.,, and J. E. Harrington. 1982. Herpes simplex virus variants resistant to high concentrations of acyclovir exist in clinical isolates. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 22: 71 77.
125. Patel, N.,, L. Kauffmann,, G. Baniewicz,, M. Forman,, M. Evans,, and D. Scholl. 1999. Confirmation of low-titer, herpes simplex virus-positive specimen results by the enzymelinked virus-inducible system (ELVIS) using PCR and repeat testing. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 3986 3989.
126. Pepose, J. D., 1996. Herpes simplex virus diseases: anterior segment of the eye, p. 905 932. In J. D. Pepose,, G. N. Holland,, and K. R. Wilhelmus (ed.), Ocular Infection and Immunity. Mosby, St. Louis, MO.
127. Peterson, E. M.,, B. L. Hughes,, S. L. Aarnaes,, and L. M. de la Maza. 1988. Comparison of primary rabbit kidney and MRC-5 cells and two stain procedures for herpes simplex virus detection by a shell vial centrifugation method. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26: 222 224.
128. Reference deleted.
129. Prober, C. G.,, W. M. Sullender,, L. L. Yasukawa,, D. S. Au,, A. S. Yeager,, and A. M. Arvin. 1987. Low risk of herpes simplex virus infections in neonates exposed to the virus at the time of vaginal delivery to mothers with recurrent herpes simplex virus infections. N. Engl. J. Med. 316: 240 244.
130. Puchhammer-Stockl, E.,, E. Presterl,, C. Croy,, S. Aberle,, T. Popow-Kraupp,, M. Kundi,, H. Hofmann,, U. Wenninger,, and I. Godl. 2001. Screening for possible failure of herpes simplex PCR in cerebrospinal fluid for the diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis. J. Med. Virol. 64: 531 536.
131. Ramaswamy, M.,, C. McDonald,, M. Smith,, D. Thomas,, S. Maxwell,, M. Tenant-Flowers,, and A. M. Geretti. 2004. Diagnosis of genital herpes by real time PCR in routine clinical practice. Sex. Transm. Infect. 80: 406 410.
132. Reeves, W. C.,, L. Corey,, H. G. Adams,, L. A. Vontver,, and K. K. Holmes. 1981. Risk of recurrence after first episodes of genital herpes. Relation to HSV type and antibody response. N. Engl. J. Med. 305: 315 319.
133. Revello, M. G.,, F. Baldanti,, A. Sarasini,, D. Zella,, M. Zavattoni,, and G. Gerna. 1997. Quantitation of herpes simplex virus DNA in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with herpes simplex encephalitis by the polymerase chain reaction. Clin. Diagn. Virol. 7: 183 191.
134. Roberts, C. 2005. Genital herpes in young adults: changing sexual behaviours, epidemiology and management. Herpes 12: 10 14.
135. Roizman, B.,, and D. M. Knipe,. 2001. Herpes simplex viruses and their replication, p. 2399 2459. In D. M. Knipe et al. (ed.), Fields Virology, 4th ed., vol. 2. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
136. Roizman, B.,, and M. Tognon. 1983. Restriction endonuclease patterns of herpes simplex virus DNA: application to diagnosis and molecular epidemiology. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 104: 275 286.
137. Ryder, N.,, F. Jin,, A. M. McNulty,, A. E. Grulich,, and B. Donovan. 2009. Increasing role of herpes simplex virus type 1 in first-episode anogenital herpes in heterosexual women and younger men who have sex with men, 1992-2006. Sex. Transm. Infect. 85: 416 419.
138. Ryncarz, A. J.,, J. Goddard,, A. Wald,, M.-L. Huang,, B. Roizman,, and L. Corey. 1999. Development of a highthroughput quantitative assay for detecting herpes simplex virus DNA in clinical samples. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 1941 1947.
139. Safrin, S.,, T. Elbeik,, L. Phan,, D. Robinson,, J. Rush,, A. Elbaggari,, and J. Mills. 1994. Correlation between response to acyclovir and foscarnet therapy and in vitro susceptibility result for isolates of herpes simplex virus from human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 38: 1246 1250.
140. Sanders, C.,, C. Nelson,, M. Hove,, and G. L. Woods. 1998. Cytospin-enhanced direct immunofluorescence assay versus cell culture for detection of herpes simplex virus in clinical specimens. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 32: 111 113.
141. Schalasta, G.,, A. Arents,, M. Schmid,, R. W. Braun,, and G. Enders. 2000. Fast and type-specific analysis of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 by rapid PCR and fluorescence melting-curve-analysis. Infection 28: 85 91.
142. Schloss, L.,, K. I. Falk,, E. Skoog,, M. Brytting,, A. Linde,, and E. Aurelius. 2009. Monitoring of herpes simplex virus DNA types 1 and 2 viral load in cerebrospinal fluid by real-time PCR in patients with herpes simplex encephalitis. J. Med. Virol. 81: 1432 1437.
143. Schloss, L.,, A. M. van Loon,, P. Cinque,, G. Cleator,, J. M. Echevarria,, K. I. Falk,, P. Klapper,, J. Schirm,, B. F. Vestergaard,, H. Niesters,, T. Popow-Kraupp,, W. Quint,, and A. Linde. 2003. An international external quality assessment of nucleic acid amplification of herpes simplex virus. J. Clin. Virol. 28: 175 185.
144. Schmutzhard, E. 2001. Viral infections of the CNS with special emphasis on herpes simplex infections. J. Neurol. 248: 469 477.
145. Scinicariello, F.,, R. Eberle,, and J. K. Hilliard. 1993. Rapid detection of B virus (herpesvirus simiae) DNA by polymerase chain reaction. J. Infect. Dis. 168: 747 750.
146. Scinicariello, F.,, W. J. English,, and J. Hilliard. 1993. Identification by PCR of meningitis caused by herpes B virus. Lancet 341: 1660 1661.
146a. Selvaraju, S. B.,, D. M. Wurst,, R. T. Horvat,, and R. Selvarangan. 2009. Evaluation of three analyte-specific reagents for detection and typing of herpes simplex virus in cerebrospinal fluid. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 63: 286 291.
147. Slomka, M. J. 2000. Current diagnostic techniques in genital herpes: their role in controlling the epidemic. Clin. Lab. 46: 591 607.
148. Slomka, M. J.,, D. W. Brown,, J. P. Clewley,, A. M. Bennett,, L. Harrington,, and D. C. Kelly. 1993. Polymerase chain reacion for detection of herpevirus simiae (B virus) in clinical specimens. Arch. Virol. 131: 89.
149. Smith, J. S.,, and N. J. Robinson. 2002. Age-specific prevalence of infection with herpes simplex virus types 2 and 1: a global review. J. Infect. Dis. 186( Suppl. 1): S3 S28.
150. Spear, P. G. 2004. Herpes simplex virus: receptors and ligands for cell entry. Cell. Microbiol. 6: 401 410.
151. Specter, S.,, and D. Jeffries,. 1996. Detection of virus and viral antigens, p. 309 322. In B. W. Mahy, and H. L. Kangro (ed.), Virology Methods Manual. Harcourt, New York, NY.
152. Spruance, S. L. 1992. The natural history of recurrent oral-facial herpes simplex virus infection. Semin. Dermatol. 11: 200 206.
153. Stabell, E. C.,, S. R. O’Rourke,, G. A. Storch,, and P. D. Olivo. 1993. Evaluation of a genetically engineered cell line and a histochemical beta-galactosidase assay to detect herpes simplex virus in clinical specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31: 2796 2798.
154. Strick, L. B.,, and A. Wald. 2006. Diagnostics for herpes simplex virus: is PCR the new gold standard? Mol. Diagn. Ther. 10: 17 28.
155. Sullender, W. M.,, L. L. Yasukawa,, M. Schwartz,, L. Pereira,, P. A. Hensleigh,, C. G. Prober,, and A. M. Arvin. 1988. Type-specific antibodies to herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) glycoprotein G in pregnant women, infants exposed to maternal HSV-2 infection at delivery, and infants with neonatal herpes. J. Infect. Dis. 157: 164 171.
156. Superti, F.,, M. G. Ammendolia,, and M. Marchetti. 2008. New advances in anti-HSV chemotherapy. Curr. Med. Chem. 15: 900 911.
157. Tang, Y. W.,, P. S. Mitchell,, M. J. Espy,, T. F. Smith,, and D. H. Persing. 1999. Molecular diagnosis of herpes simplex virus infections in the central nervous system. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 2127 2136.
158. Tognon, M.,, D. Furlong,, A. J. Conley,, and B. Roizman. 1981. Molecular genetics of herpes simplex virus. V. Characterization of a mutant defective in ability to form plaques at low temperatures and in a viral function which prevents accumulation of coreless capsids at nuclear pores late in infection. J. Virol. 40: 870 880.
159. Tyler, R.,, and G. A. Ayliffe. 1987. A surface test for virucidal activity of disinfectants: preliminary study with herpes virus. J. Hosp. Infect. 9: 22 29.
160. Verano, L.,, and F. J. Michalski. 1995. Comparison of a direct antigen enzyme immunoassay, Herpchek, with cell culture for detection of herpes simplex virus from clinical specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 1378 1379.
161. Wald, A.,, L. Corey,, R. Cone,, A. Hobson,, G. Davis,, and J. Zeh. 1997. Frequent genital herpes simplex virus 2 shedding in immunocompetent women. Effect of acyclovir treatment. J. Clin. Investig. 99: 1092 1097.
162. Wald, A.,, M. Ericsson,, E. Krantz,, S. Selke,, and L. Corey. 2004. Oral shedding of herpes simplex virus type 2. Sex. Transm. Infect. 80: 272 276.
163. Wald, A.,, M. L. Huang,, D. Carrell,, S. Selke,, and L. Corey. 2003. Polymerase chain reaction for detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA on mucosal surfaces: comparison with HSV isolation in cell culture. J. Infect. Dis. 188: 1345 1351.
164. Wald, A.,, E. Krantz,, S. Selke,, E. Lairson,, R. A. Morrow,, and J. Zeh. 2006. Knowledge of partners’ genital herpes protects against herpes simplex virus type 2 acquisition. J. Infect. Dis. 194: 42 52.
165. Wald, A.,, A. G. Langenberg,, E. Krantz,, J. M. Douglas, Jr.,, H. H. Handsfield,, R. P. DiCarl,o, A. A. Adimora,, A. E. Izu,, R. A. Morrow,, and L. Corey. 2005. The relationship between condom use and herpes simplex virus acquisition. Ann. Intern. Med. 143: 707 713.
166. Wald, A.,, J. Zeh,, S. Selke,, R. L. Ashley,, and L. Corey. 1995. Virologic characteristics of subclinical and symptomatic genital herpes infections. N. Engl. J. Med. 333: 770 775.
167. Wald, A.,, J. Zeh,, S. Selke,, T. Warren,, A. J. Ryncarz,, R. Ashley,, J. N. Krieger,, and L. Corey. 2000. Reactivation of genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in asymptomatic seropositive persons. N. Engl. J. Med. 342: 844 850.
168. Waldhuber, M. G.,, I. Denham,, C. Wadey,, W. Leong- Shaw,, and G. F. Cross. 1999. Detection of herpes simplex virus in genital specimens by type-specific polymerase chain reaction. Int. J. STD AIDS 10: 89 92.
169. Weigler, B. J.,, D. W. Hird,, J. K. Hilliard,, N. W. Lerche,, J. A. Roberts,, and L. M. Scott. 1993. Epidemiology of cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (B virus) infection and shedding in a large breeding cohort of rhesus macaques. J. Infect. Dis. 167: 256 263.
170. Weigler, B. J.,, J. A. Roberts,, D. W. Hird,, N. W. Lerche,, and J. K. Hilliard. 1990. A cross sectional survey for B virus antibody in a colony of group housed rhesus macaques. Lab. Anim. Sci. 40: 257 261.
171. Weigler, B. J.,, F. Scinicariello,, and J. K. Hilliard. 1995. Risk of venereal B virus (cercopithecine herpesvirus 1) transmission in rhesus monkeys using molecular epidemiology. J. Infect. Dis. 171: 1139 1143.
172. Weinberg, A.,, J. J. Leary,, R. T. Sarisky,, and M. J. Levin. 2007. Factors that affect in vitro measurement of the susceptibility of herpes simplex virus to nucleoside analogues. J. Clin. Virol. 38: 139 145.
173. Whitley, R.,, A. Arvin,, C. Prober,, S. Burchett,, L. Corey,, D. Powell,, S. Plotkin,, S. Starr,, C. Alford,, J. Connor, et al. 1991. A controlled trial comparing vidarabine with acyclovir in neonatal herpes simplex virus infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 324: 444 449.
174. Whitley, R. J. 2006. Herpes simplex encephalitis: adolescents and adults. Antivir. Res. 71: 141 148.
175. Whitley, R. J.,, and A. M. Arvin,. 1995. Herpes simplex virus infection, p. 354 378. In J. Remingon, and J. Klein (ed.), Infectious Diseases of the Fetus and Newborn, 4th ed. The W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA.
176. Whitley, R. J.,, and D. W. Kimberlin. 1997. Treatment of viral infections during pregnancy and the neonatal period. Clin. Perinatol. 24: 267 283.
177. Wildemann, B.,, K. Ehrhart,, B. Storch-Hagenlocher,, U. Meyding-Lamade,, S. Steinvorth,, W. Hacke,, and J. Haas. 1997. Quantitation of herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA in cells of cerebrospinal fluid of patients with herpes simplex virus encephalitis. Neurology 48: 1341 1346.
178. Woods, G. L.,, and R. D. Mills. 1988. Effect of dexamethasone on detection of herpes simplex virus in clinical specimens by conventional cell culture and rapid 24-well plate centrifugation. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26: 1233 1235.
179. Xu, F.,, M. R. Sternberg,, B. J. Kottiri,, G. M. McQuillan,, F. K. Lee,, A. J. Nahmias,, S. M. Berman,, and L. E. Markowitz. 2006. Trends in herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 seroprevalence in the United States. JAMA 296: 964 973.
180. Yamamoto, L. J.,, D. G. Tedder,, R. Ashley,, and M. J. Levin. 1991. Herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA in cerebrospinal fluid of a patient with Mollaret’s meningitis. N. Engl. J. Med. 325: 1082 1085.
181. Zhao, L. S.,, M. L. Landry,, E. S. Balkovic,, and G. D. Hsiung. 1987. Impact of cell culture sensitivity and virus concentration on rapid detection of herpes simplex virus by cytopathic effects and immunoperoxidase staining. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25: 1401 1405.
182. Zhu, J.,, D. M. Koelle,, J. Cao,, J. Vazquez,, M. L. Huang,, F. Hladik,, A. Wald,, and L. Corey. 2007. Virus-specific CD81 T cells accumulate near sensory nerve endings in genital skin during subclinical HSV-2 reactivation. J. Exp. Med. 204: 595 603.
183. Zwartouw, H. T.,, C. R. Humphreys,, and P. Collins. 1989. Oral chemotherapy of fatal B virus (herpesvirus simiae) infection. Antivir. Res. 11: 275 283.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Monoclonal antibodies for HSV-1 and HSV-2 detection, confirmation, and typing by immunofluorescence

Citation: Jerome K, Morrow R. 2011. Herpes Simplex Viruses and Herpes B Virus, p 1530-1544. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch96
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Selected diagnostic tests for HSV

Citation: Jerome K, Morrow R. 2011. Herpes Simplex Viruses and Herpes B Virus, p 1530-1544. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch96

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error