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Chapter 1 : Lessons from the Southern Hemisphere: the First Wave of the 2009 Influenza Pandemic in Australia

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Lessons from the Southern Hemisphere: the First Wave of the 2009 Influenza Pandemic in Australia, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

Like most countries, Australia developed plans to manage a possible influenza pandemic, stimulated by the emergence in Asia of severe acute respiratory syndrome in 2003 and zoonotic human infections with influenza A H5N1 (avian influenza). During the first wave of the 2009 pandemic, it was quickly realized that the disease was relatively mild in contrast to projected pandemic scenarios, so the Australian Health Management Plan for Pandemic Influenza (AHMPPI) was adjusted to include a “Protect” phase, where efforts were focused on protecting the vulnerable. A quarter of female hospitalized patients were either pregnant or in the postpartum period, highlighting the concerns about the severity of influenza in pregnancy. In contrast to the first pandemic wave in the Northern Hemisphere, other respiratory viruses were circulating during the Southern Hemisphere winter. Another feature of the pandemic in Australia that was different from initial Northern Hemisphere activity was that it occurred in the context of usual circulation of seasonal influenza and other respiratory viruses. A number of clinical trials of monovalent vaccines containing various doses of influenza A/California/2009 (H1N1) antigen in both adjuvanted and nonadjuvanted forms were performed in Australia and elsewhere, initially in healthy adults and children. In contrast to the early Northern Hemisphere activity, first wave occurred in the context of the usual circulation of seasonal influenza virus and respiratory viruses.

Citation: Dwyer D. 2010. Lessons from the Southern Hemisphere: the First Wave of the 2009 Influenza Pandemic in Australia, p 1-16. In Scheld W, Grayson M, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 9. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816803.ch1

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Clinical and Public Health
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Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
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Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
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Influenza B virus
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Figure 1.

The week of peak activity of influenza-like illness measured in general practices in the different states of Australia. A.C.T., Australian Capital Territory.

Citation: Dwyer D. 2010. Lessons from the Southern Hemisphere: the First Wave of the 2009 Influenza Pandemic in Australia, p 1-16. In Scheld W, Grayson M, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 9. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816803.ch1
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References

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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1.

Notable issues during the 2009 influenza pandemic in the Australian winter

Citation: Dwyer D. 2010. Lessons from the Southern Hemisphere: the First Wave of the 2009 Influenza Pandemic in Australia, p 1-16. In Scheld W, Grayson M, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 9. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816803.ch1
Generic image for table
Table 2.

Indicators of severity of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 infection (to 20 November 2009)

Citation: Dwyer D. 2010. Lessons from the Southern Hemisphere: the First Wave of the 2009 Influenza Pandemic in Australia, p 1-16. In Scheld W, Grayson M, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 9. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816803.ch1

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