1887

Chapter 9 : an Opportunistic Human Food-Borne Pathogen?

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

an Opportunistic Human Food-Borne Pathogen?, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816803/9781555815257_Chap09-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816803/9781555815257_Chap09-2.gif

Abstract:

Two recent European surveys of patient stool samples ranked as the fourth most frequently recovered -like microbe. Aerotolerant campylobacteria ( spp.) were first described as occurring in aborted porcine and bovine fetuses. Handling and consuming raw or contaminated poultry meat are acknowledged potential sources of human infection. Due to the phylogenetic relationship between and , it is logical to assume that animal models, virulence factors (including adherence), invasion, cytotoxicity, and toxin production of the two organisms would be similar. Classification of arcobacters as free-living, environmental organisms should be reflected in the gene content of the genomes. The genomes of some species would be predicted to contain niche-related genes, e.g., osmoprotectant genes in and nitrogen fixation genes in . An multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method that could be used to type five species was recently designed. Future MLST and DNA microarray analyses will provide further insights into divergence. MLST analysis has identified putative horizontal gene transfer (HGT) events in . Members of the genus can be generalized as free-living organisms found predominantly in aqueous environments, occasionally associated with food animals, and infrequently associated with humans. The publication of the complete 2.341-Mb genome sequence has facilitated identification of unique virulence factors and genetic markers to monitor its transmission through the food chain and which underlie its distinctive epidemiology.

Citation: Wesley I, Miller W. 2010. an Opportunistic Human Food-Borne Pathogen?, p 185-212. In Scheld W, Grayson M, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 9. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816803.ch9

Key Concept Ranking

Cytolethal Distending Toxin
0.5034965
Arcobacter butzleri
0.4534504
0.5034965
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. 16S sequences were aligned using CLUSTAL X (version 2.09.5). The condensed dendrogram was constructed using the neighbor-joining algorithm and the Kimura two-parameter distance estimation method. Bootstrap values of >75%, generated from 500 replicates, are shown at the nodes. The scale bar represents substitutions per site. and 16S sequences are included for comparison.

Citation: Wesley I, Miller W. 2010. an Opportunistic Human Food-Borne Pathogen?, p 185-212. In Scheld W, Grayson M, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 9. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816803.ch9
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Condensed dendrogram of unique sequence types (STs). For each unique sequence type, the profile allele sequences were extracted and concatenated. The concatenated allele sequences were aligned using CLUSTAL X (version 2.09.5). The dendrogram was constructed using the neighbor-joining algorithm and the Kimura two-parameter distance estimation method. Bootstrap values of >75%, generated from 500 replicates, are shown at the nodes. The scale bar represents substitutions per site. The tree is rooted to strain NCTC 11168. The strain LA31B concatenated sequence was extracted from the draft genome. The group 1 sequence types include ST-209, ST-220, ST-221, ST-231, ST-232, and ST-270. Figure adopted from reference .

Citation: Wesley I, Miller W. 2010. an Opportunistic Human Food-Borne Pathogen?, p 185-212. In Scheld W, Grayson M, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 9. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816803.ch9
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555816803.ch09
1. Abdelbaqi, K.,, A. Buissonniere,, V. Prouzet-Mauleon,, J. Gresser,, I. Wesley,, F. Megraud, and, A. Me-nard. 2007. Development of a real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer PCR to detect Arcobacter species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45:30153021.
2. Andersen, M. E.,, I. V. Wesley,, E. Nestor, and, D. W. Trampel. 2007. Prevalence of Arcobacter species in market-weight commercial turkeys. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 92:309317.
3. Anderson, K.,, J. A. Kiehlbauch,, D. C. Anderson,, H. McClure, and, K. Wachsmuth. 1993. Arcobacter (Campylobacter butzleri)-associated diarrheal illness in a nonhuman primate population. Infect. Immun. 61:22202223.
4. Atabay, H. I.,, and J. E. L. Corry. 1997. The prevalence of campylobacters and arcobacters in broiler chickens. J. Appl. Microbiol. 83:619626.
5. Atabay, H. I.,, and J. E. L. Corry. 1998. Evaluation of a new arcobacter enrichment medium and comparison with two media developed for enrichment of Campylobacter spp. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 41:523558.
6. Atabay, H. I.,, J. E. L. Corry, and, S. L. W. On. 1998. Diversity and prevalence of Arcobacter spp. in broiler chickens. J. Appl. Microbiol. 84:10071016.
7. Atabay, H. I.,, M. Waino, and, M. Madsen. 2006. Detection and diversity of various Arcobacter species in Danish poultry. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 109:139145.
8. Atabay, H. I.,, A. Unver,, M. Sahin,, S. Otlu,, M. Elmali, and, H. Yaman. 2008. Isolation of various Arcobacter species from domestic geese (Anser anser). Vet. Microbiol. 30:400405.
9. Aydin, F.,, K. S. Gumussoy,, H. I. Atabay,, T. Ica, and, S. Abay. 2007. Prevalence and distribution of Arcobacter species in various sources in Turkey and molecular analysis of isolated strains by ERIC-PCR. J. Appl. Microbiol. 103:2735.
10. Aydin, S.,, M. Engin, and, R. Bircan. 2002. A comparative investigation of Arcobacter cryaerophilus infection among albino crosses and high- and low-body-weight rainbow trout. J. Aquat. Anim. Health 14:3944.
11. Aydin, S.,, H. Gure,, H. Cakici,, S. Colakoglu, and, R. Bircan. 2009. Gross pathology, blood chemistry, lipid and peroxide contents in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) affected by experimental Arcobacter cryaerophilus infection at low water temperature. Acta Vet. Hung. 57:305317.
12. Bastyns K.,, D. Cartuyvels,, S. Chapelle,, P. Vandamme,, H. Goossens, and, R. deWachter. 1995. A variable 23S rDNA region is a useful discriminating target for genus-specific and species-specific PCR amplification in Arcobacter species. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 18:353356.
13. Brightwell, G.,, E. Mowat,, R. Clemens,, J. Boerema,, D. J. Pulford, and, S. L. On. 2006. Development of a multiplex and real time PCR assay for the specific detection of Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacter cryaerophilus. J. Microbiol. Methods 68:23182325.
14. Bucker, R.,, H. Troeger,, J. Kleer,, M. Fromm, and, J. D. Schulzke. 2009. Arcobacter butzleri induces barrier dysfunction in intestinal HT-29/B6 cells. J. Infect. Dis. 200:756764.
15. Campbell, B. J.,, A. S. Engel,, M. L. Porter, and, K. Takai. 2006. The versatile epsilon-proteobacteria: key players in sulphidic habitats. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 4:458468.
16. Cardoen, S.,, X. Van Huffel,, D. Berkvens,, S. Quolin,, G. Ducoffre,, C. Saegerman,, N. Speybroeck,, H. Imberechts,, L. Herman,, R. Ducatelle, and, K. Dierick. 2009. Evidence-based semiquantitative methodology for prioritization of foodborne zoonoses. Foodborne Pathog. Dis. 6:10831095.
17. Carter, R. E. 1996. Enteropathogenicity of Arcobacter butzleri in Rabbit and Pig Ileal Loops. M.S. thesis. Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg.
18. Cervenka, L. 2007. Survival and inactivation of Arcobacter spp., a current status and future prospect. Crit. Rev. Microbiol. 33:101108.
19. Chen, M. L.,, Z. Ge,, J. G. Fox, and, D. B. Schauer. 2006. Disruption of tight junctions and induction of proinflammatory cytokine responses in colonic epithelial cells by Campylobacter jejuni. Infect. Immun. 74:65816589.
20. Chinivasagam, H. N.,, B. G. Corney,, L. L. Wright,, I. S. Diallo, and, P. J. Blackall. 2007. Detection of Arcobacter spp. in piggery effluent and effluent-irrigated soils in southeast Queensland. J. Appl. Microbiol. 103:418426.
21. Collado, L.,, I. Cleenwerck,, S. Van Trappen,, P. De Vos, and, M. J. Figueras. 2009. Arcobacter mytili sp. nov., an indoxyl acetate-hydrolysis-negative bacterium isolated from mussels. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 59:13911396.
22. Collado, L.,, J. Guarro, and, M. J. Figueras. 2009. Prevalence of Arcobacter in meat and shellfish. J. Food Prot. 72:11021106.
23. Collins, C. I.,, I. V. Wesley, and, E. A. Murano. 1996. Detection of Arcobacter sp. in ground pork by modified plating methods. J. Food Prot. 59:448452.
24. Corry, J. E. L.,, and H. I. Atabay. 2001. Poultry as a source of Campylobacter and related organisms. J. Appl. Microbiol. 90:96S114S.
25. De Boer, E.,, J. J. Tilburg,, D. L. Woodward,, H. Lior, and, W. M. Johnson. 1996. A selective medium for the isolation of Arcobacter from meats. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 23:6466.
26. Debruyne, L.,, K. Houf,, L. Douidah,, S. DeSmet, and, P. Vandamme. 2010. Reassessment of the taxonomy of Arcobacter cryaerophilus. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 33:714.
27. Dediste, A.,, A. Aeby,, A. Ebraert,, L. Vlaes,, R. Tridiani,, O. Vandenberg,, J.-M. Devaster,, P. Vandamme, and, J.-P. Butzler. 1998. Arcobacter in stools: clinical features, diagnosis and antibiotic susceptibility, p. 436–439. In A. J. Lastovica et al. (ed.), Campylobacter, Helicobacter and Related Organisms. Institute of Child Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
28. De Oliveira, S. J.,, A. L. Baetz,, I. V. Wesley, and, K. M. Harmon. 1997. Classification of Arcobacter species isolated from aborted pig fetuses and sows with reproductive problems in Brazil. Vet. Microbiol. 57:347354.
29. De Oliveira, S. J.,, I. V. Wesley,, A. L. Baetz,, K. M. Harmon,, I. I. Kader, and, M. de Uzeda. 1999. Arcobacter cryaereophilus and Arcobacter butzleri isolated from preputial fluid of boars and fattening pigs in Brazil. J. Vet. Diagn. Investig. 11:462464.
30. De Smet, S.,, L. De Zutter,, J. Van Hende, and, K. Houf. 2010. Arcobacter contamination on pre- and post-chilled bovine carcasses and in minced beef at retail. J. Appl. Microbiol. 108:299305.
31. De Smet, S.,, P. Vandamme,, L. De Zutter,, S. L. W. On,, L. Douidah, and, K. Houf. Arcobacter trophiarum sp. nov. isolated from fattening pigs. Int. J. Syst. Evol Microbiolo., in press.
32. Dhamabutra, N.,, P. Kamol-Rathanakul, and, K. Pienthaweechai. 1992. Isolation of campylobacters from the canals of Bangkok metropolitan area. J. Med. Assoc. Thailand 75:350363.
33. Dingle, K. E.,, F. M. Colles,, D. R. A. Wareing,, R. Ure,, A. J. Fox,, F. E. Bolton,, H. J. Bootsma,, R. J. L. Willems,, R. Urwin, and, M. C. J. Maiden. 2001. Multilocus sequence typing system for Campylobacter jejuni. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:1423.
34. Donachie, S. P.,, J. P. Bowman,, S. L. On, and, M. Alam. 2005. Arcobacter halophilus sp. nov., the first obligate halophile in the genus Arcobacter. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 55:12711277.
35. Eifert, J. D.,, R. M. Castle,, F. W. Pierson,, C. T. Larsen, and, C. R. Hackney. 2003. Comparison of sampling techniques for detection of Arcobacter butzleri from chickens. Poult. Sci. 82:18981902.
36. Ellis, W. A.,, S. D. Neill,, J. J. O’Brien,, H. W. Ferguson, and, J. Hanna. 1977. Isolation of Spirillum/Vibrio-like organisms from bovine fetuses. Vet. Rec. 100:451452.
37. Engberg, J.,, S. L. On,, C. S. Harrington, and, P. Gerner-Smidt. 2000. Prevalence of Arcobacter, Helicobacter, and Sutterella spp. in human fecal samples as estimated by a reevaluation of isolation methods for Campylobacters. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:286291.
38. Fedorovich, V.,, M. C. Knighton,, E. Pagaling,, F. B. Ward,, A. Free, and, I. Goryanin. 2009. Novel electrochemically active bacterium phylogenetically related to Arcobacter butzleri, isolated from a microbial fuel cell. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 75:73267334.
39. Fera, M. T.,, T. L. Maugeri,, C. Gugliandolo,, C. Beninati,, M. Giannone,, E. La Camera, and, M. Carbone. 2004. Detection of Arcobacter spp. in the coastal environment of the Mediterranean Sea. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:12711276.
40. Fernandez, H.,, G. Eller,, J. Paillacar,, T. Gajardo, and, A. Riquelme. 1995. Toxigenic and invasive capacities: possible pathogenic mechanisms in Arcobacter cryaerophilus. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 90:633634.
41. Fernandez, H.,, X. Rojas, and, T. Gajaardo. 1995. Primer aislamiento de Arcobacter cryaerophilus a partir de un aborto bovino en Chile. Arch. Med. Vet. 95:111114.
42. Festy, S.,, F. Squinazi,, M. Marin,, R. Derimay, and, H. Lior. 1993. Poultry meat and waters as the possible sources of Arcobacter butzleri associated human disease in Paris, France. Acta Gastroenterol. Belg. 56:35.
43. Fong, T.,, L. S. A. Mansfield,, D. L. Wilson,, D. J. Schwab,, S. L. Molloy, and, J. B. Rose. 2007. Massive microbiological groundwater contamination associated with waterborne outbreak in Lake Erie, South Bass Island, Ohio. Environ. Health Perspect. 115:856864.
44. Gevertz, D.,, A. J. Telang,, G. Voordouw, and, G. E. Jenneman. 2000. Isolation and characterization of strains CVO and FWKO B, two novel nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria isolated from oil field brine. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66:24912501.
45. Gill, K. P. W. 1983. Aerotolerant campylobacter strain isolated from a bovine preputial sheath washing. Vet. Rec. 112:459.
46. Golla, S. C.,, E. A. Murano,, L. G. Johnson,, N. C. Tipton,, E. A. Cureington, and, J. W. Savell. 2002. Determination of the occurrence of Arcobacter butzleri in beef and dairy cattle from Texas by various isolation methods. J. Food Prot. 65:18491853.
47. Gonzalez, A.,, S. Botella,, R. M. Montes,, Y. Moreno, and, M. A. Ferrus. 2007. Direct detection and identification of Arcobacter species by multiplex PCR in chicken and wastewater samples from Spain. J. FoodProt. 70:341347.
48. González, A.,, J. Suski, and, M. A. Ferrús. 2010. Rapid and accurate detection of Arcobacter contamination in commercial chicken products and wastewater samples by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Foodborne Pathog. Dis. 7:327338.
49. Gonzalez, I.,, T. Garcia,, A. Antolin,, P. E. Hernandez, and, R. Martin. 2000. Development of a combined PCR-culture technique for the rapid detection of Arcobacter spp. in chicken meat. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 30:207212.
50. Gude, A.,, T. J. Hillman,, C. R. Helps,, V. M. Allen, and, J. E. L. Corry. 2005. Ecology of Arcobacter species in chicken rearing and processing. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 41:8287.
51. Guerry, P.,, C. M. Szymanski,, M. M. Prendergast,, T. E. Hickey,, C. P. Ewing,, D. L. Pattarini, and, A. P. Moran. 2002. Phase variation of Campylobacter jejuni 81–176 lipooligosaccharide affects ganglioside mimicry and invasiveness in vitro. Infect. Immun. 70:787793.
52. Gugliandolo, C.,, G. P. Irrera,, V. Lentini, and, T. L. Maugeri. 2008. Pathogenic Vibrio, Aeromonas and Arcobacter spp. associated with copepods in the Straits of Messina (Italy). Mar. Pollut. Bull. 56:580586.
53. Hamir, A. N.,, R. J. Sonn,, S. Franklin, and, I. V. Wesley. 2004. Campylobacter jejuni and Arcobacter species associated with intussusception in a raccoon (Procyon lotor). Vet. Rec. 155:338340.
54. Harmon, K. M.,, and I. V. Wesley. 1997. Multiplex PCR for the identification of Arcobacter and differentiation of Arcobacter butzleri from other arcobacters. Vet. Microbiol. 58:215227.
55. Harrass, B.,, S. Schwarz, and, S. Wenzel. 1998. Identification and characterization of Arcobacter isolates from broilers by biochemical tests, antimicrobial resistance patterns and plasmid analysis. Zentralbl. Vet-erinarmed. B 45:8794.
56. Harvey, R. B.,, R. C. Anderson,, C. R. Young,, M. E. Hume,, K. K. J. Genovese,, R. L. Ziprin,, L. A. Farrington,, L. H. Stanker, and, D. J. Nisbet. 1999. Prevalence of Campylobacter, Salmonella and Arcobacter species at slaughter in market age pigs. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 473:237239.
57. Higgins, R.,, S. Messier,, D. Daignault, and, M. Lorange. 1998. Arcobacter butzleri isolated from a diarrhoeic non-human primate. Lab. Anim. 33:8790.
58. Ho, H. T.,, L. J. Lipman,, M. M. Wosten,, A. J. van Asten, and, W. Gaastra. 2008. Arcobacter spp. possess two very short flagellins of which FlaA is essential for motility. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 53:8595.
59. Ho, H. T. K.,, L. J. A. Lipman, and, W. Gaastra. 2006. Arcobacter, what is known and unknown about a potential foodborne zoonotic agent! Vet. Microbiol. 115:113.
60. Ho, H. T. K.,, L. J. A. Lipman,, H. G. C. J. M. Hendriks,, P. C. J. Tooten,, T. Ultee, and, W. Gaastra. 2007. Interaction of Arcobacter spp. with human and porcine intestinal epithelial cells. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 50:5158.
61. Houf, K.,, L. DeZutter,, J. Van Hoof, and, P. Vandamme. 2002. Occurrence and distribution of Arcobacter species in poultry processing. J. Food Prot. 65:12331239.
62. Houf, K.,, L. DeZutter,, L. Verbeke,, J. Van Hoof, and, P. Vandamme. 2003. Molecular characterization of Arcobacter isolates collected in a poultry slaughterhouse. J. Food Prot. 66:364369.
63. Houf, K.,, L. A. Devriese,, L. DeZutter,, J. Van Hoof, and, P. Vandamme. 2001. Susceptibility of Arcobacter butzleri, Arcobacter cryaerophilus, and Arcobacter skirrowii to antimicrobial agents used in selective media. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:16541656.
64. Houf, K.,, L. A. Devriese,, L. DeZutter,, J. Van Hoof, and, P. Vandamme. 2001. Development of a new protocol for the isolation and quantification of Arcobacter species from poultry products. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 71:189196.
65. Houf, K.,, S. L. On,, T. Coenye,, L. Debruyne,, S. deSmet, and, P. Vandamme. 2009. Arcobacter thereius sp. nov., isolated from pigs and ducks. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 59:25992604.
66. Houf, K.,, S. L. On,, T. Coenye,, J. Mast,, J. Van Hoof, and, P. Vandamme. 2005. Arcobacter cibarius sp. nov., isolated from broiler carcasses. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 55:713717.
67. Houf, K.,, and R. Stephan. 2007. Isolation and characterization of the emerging foodborne pathogen Arcobacter from human stool. J. Microbiol. Methods 68:408413.
68. Houf, K.,, A. Tutenel,, L. De Zutter,, J. Van Hoof, and, P. Vandamme. 2000. Development of a multiplex PCR assay for the simultaneous detection and identification of Arcobacter butzleri, Arcobacter cryaerophilus and Arcobacter skirrowii. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 193:8994.
69. Hsueh, P. R.,, L. J. Teng,, P. C. Yang,, S. K. Wang,, S. C. Chang,, S. W. Ho,, W. C. Hsieh, and, K. T. Luh. 1997. Bacteremia caused by Arcobacter cryaerophilus 1B. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:489491.
70. Hume, M. E.,, R. B. Harvey,, L. H. Stanker,, R. E. Droleskey,, T. L. Poole, and, H. B. Zhang. 2001. Genotypic variation among arcobacter isolates from a farrow-to-finish swine facility. J. Food Prot. 64:645651.
71. International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods. 2002. Microorganisms in Foods: Microbiological Testing in Food Safety Management, p. 171. Kluwer/Plenum, New York, NY.
72. Jacob, J.,, H. Lior, and, I. Feuerpfeil. 1993. Isolation of Arcobacter butzleri from a drinking water reservoir in Eastern Germany. Zentralbl. Hyg. 193:557562.
73. Jacob, J.,, D. Woodward,, I. Feuerpfeil, and, W. M. Johnson. 1998. Isolation of Arcobacter butzleri in raw water and drinking water treatment plants in Germany. Zentralbl. Hyg. Umweltmed. 201:189198.
74. Johnson, L. G.,, and E. A. Murano. 1999. Comparison of three protocols for the isolation of Arcobacter from poultry. J. Food Prot. 62:610614.
75. Johnson, L. G.,, and E. A. Murano. 2002. Lack of a cytolethal distending toxin among Arcobacter isolates from various sources. J. Food Prot. 65:17891795.
76. Kabeya, H.,, S. Maruyama,, Y. Morita,, M. Kubo,, K. Yamamoto,, S. Arai,, T. Izumi,, Y. Kobayashi,, Y. Katsube, and, T. Mikama. 2003. Distribution of Arcobacter species among livestock in Japan. Vet. Microbiol. 93:153158.
77. Kabeya, H.,, S. Maruyama,, Y. Morita,, T. Ohsuga,, S. Ozawa,, Y. Kobayashi,, M. Abe,, Y. Katsube, and, T. Mikami. 2004. Prevalence of Arcobacter species in retail meats and antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates in Japan. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 90:303308.
78. Karlyshev, A. V.,, O. L. Champion,, C. Churcher,, J. R. Brisson,, H. C. Jarrell,, M. Gilbert,, D. Brochu,, F. St. Michael,, J. Li,, W. W. Wakarchuk,, I. Goodhead,, M. Sanders,, K. Stevens,, B. White,, J. Parkhill,, B. W. Wren, and, C. M. Szymanski. 2005. Analysis of Campylobacter jejuni capsular loci reveals multiple mechanisms for the generation of structural diversity and the ability to form complex heptoses. Mol. Microbiol. 55:90103.
79. Kiehlbauch, J. A.,, D. J. Brenner,, M. A. Nicholson,, C. N. Baker,, C. M. Patton,, A. G. Steigerwalt, and, I. K. Wachsmuth. 1991. Campylobacter butzleri sp. nov. isolated from humans and animals with diarrheal illness. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29:376385.
80. Kiehlbauch, J. A.,, D. Cameron, and, I. K. Wachsmuth. 1994. Evaluation of ribotyping techniques as applied to Arcobacter, Campylobacter and Helicobacter. Mol. Cell. Probes 8:109116.
81. Kim, H. M.,, C. Y. Hwang, and, B. C. Cho. 2010. Arcobacter marinus sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 60:531536.
82. Lammerding, A. M. 1996. Isolation method for recovery of Arcobacter butzleri from fresh poultry and poultry products, p. 329–333. In D. G. Newell and, J. Ketley (ed.), Campylobacters, Helicobacters, and Related Organisms. Plenum Publishing Corp., New York, NY.
83. Lastovica, A. J.,, M. E. Engel, and, M. J. Blaser. 2003. Atypical campylobacters and related organisms, p. 741–761. In M. J. Blaser,, P. D. Smith,, J. I. Ravdin,, H. B. Greenberg, and, R. Guerrant (ed.), Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract, 2nd ed. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
84. Lastovica, A. J.,, and M. B. Skirrow. 2000. Clinical significance of Campylobacter and related species other than Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli, p. 89–120. In I. Nachamkin and, M. Blaser (ed.), Campylobacter. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
85. Lau, S. K. P.,, P. C. Y. Woo,, W. Hui,, M. W. S. Li,, J. L. L. Teng,, T. Que,, W. Luk,, R. W. M. Lai,, R. W. H. Yung, and, K. Yuen. 2003. Use of cefoperazone MacConkey agar for selective isolation of Laribacter hongkongensis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:48394841.
86. Lau, S. K. P.,, P. C. Y. Woo,, J. L. Teng,, K. W. Leung, and, K. Y. Yuen. 2002. Identification by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing of Arcobacter butzleri bacteraemia in a patient with acute gangrenous appendicitis. Mol. Pathol. 55:182185.
87. Lehner, A.,, T. Tasara, and, R. Stephan. 2005. Relevant aspects of Arcobacter spp. as potential foodborne pathogen. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 102:127135.
88. Lerner, J.,, V. Brumberger, and, V. Preac-Mursic. 1994. Severe diarrhea associated with Arcobacter butzleri. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 23:660662.
89. Lior, H.,, and D. Woodward. 1991. A serotyping scheme for Campylobacter butzleri. Microbiol. Ecol. Health Dis. 4:S93.
90. Lipman, L.,, H. Ho., and, W. Gaastra. 2008. Presence of Arcobacter species in breeding hens and eggs from these hens. Poult. Sci. 87:24042407.
91. Logan, E. F.,, S. D. Neill, and, D. P. Mackie. 1982. Mastitis in dairy cows associated with an aerotolerant campylobacter. Vet. Rec. 110:229230.
92. Logan, S. M.,, I. C. Schoenhofen, and, P. Guerry. 2008. O-linked flagellar glycosylation in Campylobacter, p. 471–481. In I. Nachamkin,, C. M. Szymanski, and, M. J. Blaser (ed.), Campylobacter, 3rd ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
93. Manke, T. R.,, I. V. Wesley,, J. S. Dickson, and, K. M. Harmon. 1998. Prevalence and genetic variability of Arcobacter species in mechanically separated turkey. J. Food Prot. 61:16231628.
94. Marinescu, M.,, A. Collignon,, F. Squinazi,, D. Woodward, and, H. Lior. 1996. Biotypes and serogroups of poultry strains of Arcobacter sp. isolated in France, p. 519–520. In D. G. Newell and, J. Ketley (ed.), Campylobacters, Helicobacters, and Related Organisms. Plenum Publishing Corp., New York, NY.
95. Maugeri, T. L.,, D. Caccamo, and, C. Gugliandolo. 2000. Potentially pathogenic vibrios in brackish waters and mussels. J. Appl. Microbiol. 89:261266.
96. Maugeri, T. L.,, M. Carbone,, M. T. Fera,, G. P. Irrera, and, C. Gugliandolo. 2004. Distribution of potentially pathogenic bacteria as free living and plankton associated in a marine coastal zone. J. Appl. Microbiol. 97:354361.
97. Maugeri, T. L.,, G. P. Irrera,, V. Lentini,, M. Carbone,, M. T. Fera, and, C. Gugliandolo. 2005. Detection and enumeration of Arcobacter spp. in the coastal environments of the Straits of Messina (Italy). New Microbiol. 28:177182.
98. McClung, C. R.,, D. G. Patriquin, and, R. E. Davis. 1983. Campylobacter nitrofigilis sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing bacterium associated with roots of Spartina alterniflora Loisel. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 33:605612.
99. Mead, P. S.,, L. Slutsker,, V. Dietz,, L. F. McCaig,, J. S. Bresee,, C. Shapiro,, P. M. Griffin, and, R. V. Tauxe. 1991. Food-related illness and deaths in the United States. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5:607625.
100. Meng, J.,, and M. P. Doyle. 1997. Emerging issues in microbiological food safety. Annu. Rev. Nutr. 17:255275.
101. Michaud, S.,, S. Menard, and, R. D. Arbeit. 2004. Campylobacteriosis, Eastern Townships, Quebec. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10:18441847.
102. Miller, W. G. 2008. Comparative genomics of Campylobacter species other than Campylobacter jejuni, p. 73–98. In I. Nachamkin,, C. Szymanski, and, M. J. Blaser (ed.), Campylobacter, 3rd ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
103. Miller, W. G.,, M. D. Englen,, S. Kathariou,, I. V. Wesley,, G. Wang,, L. Pittenger-Alley,, R. M. Siletz,, W. Muraoka,, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, and, R. E. Mandrell. 2006. Identification of host-associated alleles by multilocus sequence typing of Campylobacter coli strains from food animals. Microbiology 152:245255.
104. Miller, W. G.,, S. L. On,, G. Wang,, S. Fontanoz,, A. J. Lastovica, and, R. E. Mandrell. 2005. Extended multilocus sequence typing system for Campylobacter coli, C. lari, C. upsaliensis, and C. helveticus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:23152329.
105. Miller, W. G.,, C. T. Parker,, M. Rubenfield,, G. L. Mendz,, M. M. Wosten,, D. W. Ussery,, J. F. Stolz,, T. T. Binnewies,, P. F. Hallin,, G. Wang,, J. A. Malek,, A. Rogosin,, L. H. Stanker, and, R. E. Mandrell. 2007. The complete genome sequence and analysis of the epsilonproteobacterium Arcobacter butzleri. PLoS One 2:e1358.
106. Miller, W. G.,, I. V. Wesley,, S. L. On,, K. Houf,, F. Megraud,, G. Wang,, E. Yee,, A. Srijan, and, C. J. Mason. 2009. First multi-locus sequence typing scheme for Arcobacter spp. BMC Microbiol. 9:196.
107. Moreno, Y.,, S. Botella,, J. L. Alonso,, M. A. Ferrus,, M. Hernandez, and, J. Hernandez. 2003. Specific detection of Arcobacter and Campylobacter strains in water and sewage by PCR and fluorescent in situ hybridization. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:11811186.
108. Morita, Y.,, S. Maruyama,, H. Kabeya,, S. Boonmar,, B. Nimsuphan,, N. Kozawa,, T. Nakajima,, T. Mikami, and, H. Kimura. 2004. Isolation and phylogenetic analysis of Arcobacter spp. in ground chicken meat and environmental water in Japan and Thailand. Microbiol. Immunol. 48:517533.
109. Musmanno, S. A.,, M. Russi,, H. Lior, and, N. Figura. 1997. In vitro virulence factors of Arcobacter butzleri strains isolated from superficial water samples. New Microbiol. 20:6368.
110. Nakagawa, S.,, Y. Takaki,, S. Shimamura,, A. L. Reysenbach,, K. Takai, and, K. Horikoshi. 2007. Deep-sea vent epsilon-proteobacterial genomes provide insights into emergence of pathogens. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104:1214612150.
111. Neill, S. D.,, J. M. Campbell,, J. J. O’Brien,, S. T. C. Weatherup, and, W. A. Ellis. 1985. Taxonomic position of Campylobacter cryaerophila sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 35:342356.
112. Neill, S. D.,, W. A. Ellis, and, J. J. O’Brien. 1978. The biochemical characteristics of Campylobacter-like organisms from cattle and pigs. Res. Vet. Sci. 256:368372.
113. Neill, S. D.,, W. A. Ellis, and, J. J. O’Brien. 1979. Designation of aerotolerant Campylobacter-like organisms from porcine and bovine abortions to the genus Campylobacter. Res. Vet. Sci. 27:180186.
114. Neill, S. D.,, W. A. Ellis, and, J. J. O’Brien. 1980. The isolation of aerotolerant campylobacter. Vet. Rec. 106:152153.
115. Neubauer, C.,, and M. Hess. 2006. Detection and identification of food-borne pathogens of the genera Campylobacter, Arcobacter and Helicobacter by multiplex PCR in poultry and poultry products. J. Vet. Med. B 53:376381.
116. Ohlendorf, D. S.,, and E. A. Murano. 2002. Prevalence of Arcobacter spp. in raw ground pork from several geographical regions according to various isolation methods. J. Food Prot. 65:17001705.
117. On, S. L. W.,, C. S. Harrington, and, H. I. Atabay. 2003. Differentiation of Arcobacter species by numerical analysis of AFLP profiles and description of a novel Arcobacter from pig abortions and turkey faeces. J. Appl. Microbiol. 95:10961105.
118. On, S. L. W.,, T. K. Jensen,, V. Bille-Hansen,, S. E. Jorsal, and, P. Vandamme. 2002. Prevalence and diversity of Arcobacter spp. isolated from the internal organs of spontaneous porcine abortions in Denmark. Vet. Microbiol. 85:159167.
119. On, S. L. W.,, A. Stacey, and, J. Smyth. 1995. Isolation of Arcobacter butzleri from a neonate with bacteraemia. J. Infect. 31:225227.
120. Ongor, H.,, B. Cetinkaya,, M. N. Acik, and, H. I. Atabay. 2004. Investigation of arcobacters in meat and faecal samples of clinically healthy cattle in Turkey. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 38:339344.
121. O’Reilly, C. E.,, A. B. Bowen,, N. E. Perez,, J. P. Sarisky,, C. A. Shepherd,, M. D. Miller,, B. C. Hubbard,, M. Herring,, S. D. Buchanan,, C. C. Fitzerald,, V. Hill,, M. J. Arrowood,, L. X. Xiao,, R. M. Hoekstra,, E. D. Mintz, and, M. F. Lynch. 2007. A waterborne outbreak of gastroenteritis with multiple etiologies among resort island visitors and residents: Ohio, 2004. Clin. Infect. Dis. 44:506512.
122. Pejchalova, M.,, E. Dostalikova,, M. Siamova,, I. Brozkova, and, J. Vytrasova. 2008. Prevalence and diversity of Arcobacter spp. in the Czech Republic. J. Food Prot. 71:719722.
123. Pentimalli, D.,, N. Pegels,, T. Garcia,, R. Martin, and, I. Gonzalez. 2009. Specific PCR detection of Arcobacter butzleri, Arcobacter cryaerophilus, Arcobacter skirrowii, and Arcobacter cibarius in chicken meat. J. Food Prot. 72:14911495.
124. Petersen, R. F.,, C. S. Harrington,, H. E. Kortegaard, and, S. L. On. 2007. A PCR-DGGE method for detection and identification of Campylobacter, Helicobacter, Arcobacter and related Epsilobacteria and its application to saliva samples from humans and domestic pets. J. Appl. Microbiol. 103:26012615.
125. Phillips, C. A. 2001. Arcobacter spp. in food: isolation, identification and control. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 12:263275.
126. Pickett, C. L.,, and R. B. Lee. 2005. Cytolethal distending toxin, p. 385–396. In J. M. Ketley and, M. E. Konkel (ed.), Campylobacter: Molecular and Cellular Biology. Horizon Bioscience, Norfolk, United Kingdom.
127. Prouzet-Mauleon, V.,, L. Labadi,, N. Bouges,, A. Menard, and, F. Megraud. 2006. Arcobacter butzleri: underestimated enteropathogen. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12:307309.
128. Rice, E. W.,, M. R. Rodgers,, I. V. Wesley,, C. H. Johnson, and, S. A. Tanner. 1999. Isolation of Arcobacter butzleri from ground water. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 28:3135.
129. Ridsdale, J. A.,, H. I. Atabay, and, J. E. L. Corry. 1998. Prevalence of campylobacters and arcobacters in ducks at the abattoir. J. Appl. Microbiol. 85:567573.
130. Rivas, L.,, N. Fegan, and, P. Vanderlinde. 2004. Isolation and characteristics of Arcobacter butzleri from meat. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 91:3141.
131. Romero, J.,, M. Garcia-Varela,, J. P. Laclette, and, R. T. Espejo. 2002. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed that bacteria related to Arcobacter spp. constitute an abundant and common component of the oyster microbiota (Tiostrea chilensis). Microb. Ecol. 44:365371.
132. Russell, R. G.,, J. A. Kiehlbauch,, C. J. Gebhart, and, L. H. J. DeTolla. 1992. Uncommon Campylobacter species in infant Macaca nemestrina monkeys housed in a nursery. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:30243027.
133. Samie, A.,, C. L. Obi,, L. J. Barrett,, S. M. Powell, and, R. L. Guerrant. 2007. Prevalence of Campylobacter species, Helicobacter pylori and Arcobacter species in stool samples from the Venda region, Limpopo, South Africa: studies using molecular diagnostic methods. J. Infect. 54:558566.
134. Schroeder-Tucker, L.,, I. V. Wesley,, J. Kiehlbauch,, G. A. Erickson,, L. A. Thomas, and, D. J. Larson. 1996. Phenotypic and ribosomal RNA characterization of Arcobacter species isolated from porcine aborted fetuses. J. Vet. Diagn. Investig. 8:142148.
135. Scullion, R.,, C. S. Harrington, and, R. H. Madden. 2006. Prevalence of Arcobacter spp. in raw milk and retail raw meats in Northern Ireland. J. Food Prot. 69:19861990.
136. Snelling, W. J.,, M. Matsuda,, J. E. Moore, and, J. S. Dooley. 2006. Under the microscope: Arcobacter. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 42:714.
137. Son, I.,, M. D. Englen,, M. E. Berrang,, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, and, M. A. Harrison. 2007. Prevalence of Arcobacter and Campylobacter on broiler carcasses during processing. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 113:1622.
138. Stampi, S.,, O. Varoli,, F. Zanetti, and, G. De Luca. 1993. Arcobacter cryaerophilus and thermophilic campylobacters in a sewage treatment plant in Italy: two secondary treatments compared. Epidemiol. Infect. 110:633639.
139. Stinzi, A.,, D. Malow,, K. Palyada,, H. Naikare,, R. Panciera,, L. Whitworth, and, C. Clarke. 2005. Use of genome-wide expression profiling and mutagenesis to study the intestinal lifestyle of Campylobacter jejuni. Infect. Immun. 73:17971810.
140. Stirling, J.,, M. Griffith,, I. Blair,, M. Cormican,, J. S. G. Dooley,, C. E. Goldsmith,, S. G. Glover,, A. Loughrey,, C. J. Lowery,, M. Matsuda,, R. McClurg,, K. McCorry,, D. McDowell,, A. McMahon,, B. C. Millar,, Y. Nagano,, J. R. Rao,, P. J. Rooney,, M. Smyth,, W. J. Sneling,, J. Xu, and, J. E. Moore. 2008. Prevalence of gastrointestinal bacteria pathogens in a population of zoo animals. Zoonoses Public Health 55:166172.
141. Suarez, D. L.,, I. V. Wesley, and, D. Larson. 1997. Detection of Arcobacter species in gastric samples from swine. Vet. Microbiol. 57:325336.
142. Taylor, D. N.,, J. A Kiehlbauch,, W. Tee,, C. Pitarangsi, and, P. Echeverría. 1991. Isolation of group 2 aerotolerant Campylobacter species from Thai children with diarrhea. J. Infect. Dis. 163:10621067.
143. Tee, W.,, R. Baird,, M. Dyall-Smith, and, B. Dwyer. 1988. Campylobacter cryaerophila isolated from a human. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26:24692473.
144. Van Bergen, M. A.,, K. E. Dingle,, M. C. Maiden,, D. G. Newell,, L. van der Graaf-Van Bloois,, J. P. van Putten, and, J. A. Wagenaar. 2005. Clonal nature of Campylobacter fetus as defined by multilocus sequence typing. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:58885898.
145. Vandamme, P.,, E. Falsen,, R. Rassau,, B. Hoste,, P. Segers,, R. Tytgat, and, J. De Ley. 1991. Revision of Campylobacter, Helicobacter, and Wolinella taxonomy: emendation of generic descriptions and proposal of Arcobacter gen. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 41:88103.
146. Vandamme, P.,, P. Pugina,, G. Benzi,, R. Van Etterijck,, L. Vlaes,, K. Kersters,, J. P. Butzler,, H. Lior, and, S. Lauwers. 1992. Outbreak of recurrent abdominal cramps associated with Arcobacter butzleri in an Italian school. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:23352337.
147. Vandamme, P.,, M. Vancanneyt,, B. Pot,, L. Mels,, B. Hoste,, D. Dewettinck,, L. Vlaes,, C. van den Borre,, R. Higgins,, J. Hommez,, K. Kersters,, J.-P. Butzler, and, H. Goossenset. 1992. Polyphasic taxonomic study of the emended genus Arcobacter with Arcobacter butzleri comb. nov. and Arcobacter skirrowii sp. nov., an aerotolerant bacterium isolated from veterinary specimens. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 42:344356.
148. Vandenberg, O.,, A. Dediste,, K. Houf,, S. Ibekwem,, H. Souayah,, S. Cadranel,, N. Douat,, G. Zissis,, J.-P. Butzler, and, P. Vandamme. 2004. Arcobacter species in humans. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10:18631867.
149. Vandenberg, O.,, K. Houf,, N. Douat,, L. Vlaes,, P. Retore,, J.-P. Butzler, and, A. Dediste. 2006. Antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical isolates of non -jejuni/coli campylobacters and arcobacters from Belgium. J. Antimicrob. Chem. 57:908913.
150. Van Driessche, E.,, and K. Houf. 2007. Discrepancy between the occurrence of Arcobacter in chickens and broiler carcass contamination. Poult. Sci. 86:744751.
151. Van Driessche, E.,, and K. Houf. 2008. Survival capacity in water of Arcobacter species under different temperature conditions. J. Appl. Microbiol. 105:443451.
152. Van Driessche, E.,, K. Houf,, J. Van Hoof,, L. De Zutter, and, P. Vandamme. 2003. Isolation of Arcobacter species from animal feces. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 229:243248.
153. Van Driessche, E.,, K. Houf,, F. Vangroenweghe,, N. Nollett,, L. De Zutter,, P. Vandamme, and, J. Van Hoof. 2004. Occurrence and strain diversity of Arcobacter species isolated from healthy Belgian pigs. Res. Microbiol. 155:662666.
154. Van Driessche, E.,, K. Houf,, F. Vangroenweghe,, L. De Zutter, and, J. Van Hoof. 2005. Prevalence, enumeration and strain variation of Arcobacter species in the faeces of healthy cattle in Belgium. Vet. Microbiol. 105:149154.
155. Villarruel-López, A.,, M. Márquez-González,, L. E. Garay-Martinez,, H. Zepeda,, A. Castillo,, L. Mota de la Garza,, E. A. Murano, and, R. Torres-Vitela. 2003. Isolation of Arcobacter spp. from retail meats and cytotoxic effects of isolates against Vero cells. J. Food Prot. 66:13741378.
156. Vindigni, S. M.,, A. Srijan,, B. Wongstitwilairoong,, R. Marcus,, J. Meek,, P. L. Riley, and, C. Mason. 2007. Prevalence of foodborne microorganisms in retail foods in Thailand. Foodborne Pathog. Dis. 4:208215.
157. Vytrasova, J.,, M. Pejchalova,, K. Harsova, and, S. Binova. 2003. Isolation of Arcobacter butzleri and A. cryaerophilus in samples of meats and from meat-processing plants by a culture technique and detection by PCR. Folia Microbiol. 48:227232.
158. Wesley, I. V.,, and A. L. Baetz. 1999. Natural and experimental infections of Arcobacter in poultry. Poult. Sci. 78:536545.
159. Wesley, I. V.,, A. L. Baetz, and, D. J. Larson. 1996. Infection of cesarean-derived colostrum-deprived 1-day old piglets with Arcobacter butzleri, Arcobacter cryaerophilus, and Arcobacter skirrowii. Infect. Immun. 64:22952299.
160. Wesley, I. V.,, W. T. Muraoka,, D. W. Trampel, and, H. S. Hurd. 2005. Effect of preslaughter events on prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in market-weight turkeys. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71:28242831.
161. Wesley, I. V.,, and L. Schroeder-Tucker. Recovery of Arcobacter spp. from exotic animal species J. Vet. Diagn. Investig., in press.
162. Wesley, I. V.,, S. J. Wells,, K. M. Harmon,, A. Green,, L. Schroeder-Tucker,, M. Glover, and, I. Siddique. 2000. Fecal shedding of Campylobacter and Arcobacter spp. in dairy cattle. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66:19942000.
163. Wirsen, C. O.,, S. M. Sievert,, C. M. Cavanaugh,, S. J. Molyneaux,, A. Ahmad,, L. T. Taylor,, E. F. DeLong, and, C. D. Taylor. 2002. Characterization of an autotrophic sulfide-oxidizing marine Arcobacter sp. that produces filamentous sulfur. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68:316325.
164. Woo, P. C.,, K. T. Chong,, K. Leung,, T. Que, and, K. Yuen. 2001. Identification of Arcobacter cryaerophilus isolated from a traffic accident victim with bacteremia by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 40:125127.
165. Wybo, I.,, J. Breynaert,, S. Lauwers,, F. Lindenburg, and, K. Houf. 2004. Isolation of Arcobacter skirrowii from a patient with chronic diarrhea. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:18511852.
166. Yan, J.-J.,, W.-C. Ko,, A. Huang,, H. J. Chen,, Y. Jin, and, J. Wu. 2000. Arcobacter butzleri bacteremia in a patient with liver cirrhosis. J. Formos. Med. Assoc. 99:166169.
167. Yildiz, H.,, and S. Aydin. 2006. Pathological effects of Arcobacter cryaerophilus infection in rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss Walbaum). Acta Vet. Hung. 54:191199.
168. Young, K. T.,, L. M. Davis, and, V. J. Dirita. 2007. Campylobacter jejuni: molecular biology and pathogenesis. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 5:665679.
169. Zanetti, F.,, P. O. Varoli,, S. Stampi, and, G. De Luca. 1996. Prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter and Arcobacter butzleri in food of animal origin. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 33:315321.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1.

Distinguishing features of and

Citation: Wesley I, Miller W. 2010. an Opportunistic Human Food-Borne Pathogen?, p 185-212. In Scheld W, Grayson M, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 9. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816803.ch9
Generic image for table
Table 2.

Number of publications cited in , and

Citation: Wesley I, Miller W. 2010. an Opportunistic Human Food-Borne Pathogen?, p 185-212. In Scheld W, Grayson M, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 9. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816803.ch9
Generic image for table
Table 3.

Initial descriptions of species

Citation: Wesley I, Miller W. 2010. an Opportunistic Human Food-Borne Pathogen?, p 185-212. In Scheld W, Grayson M, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 9. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816803.ch9
Generic image for table
Table 4.

Chronological listing of human cases of

Citation: Wesley I, Miller W. 2010. an Opportunistic Human Food-Borne Pathogen?, p 185-212. In Scheld W, Grayson M, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 9. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816803.ch9
Generic image for table
Table 5.

Recovery of spp. from exotic animals

Citation: Wesley I, Miller W. 2010. an Opportunistic Human Food-Borne Pathogen?, p 185-212. In Scheld W, Grayson M, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 9. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816803.ch9
Generic image for table
Table 6.

Distribution of in shellfish and fish

Citation: Wesley I, Miller W. 2010. an Opportunistic Human Food-Borne Pathogen?, p 185-212. In Scheld W, Grayson M, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 9. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816803.ch9
Generic image for table
Table 7.

Distribution of in healthy live birds, poultry carcasses, and meat

Citation: Wesley I, Miller W. 2010. an Opportunistic Human Food-Borne Pathogen?, p 185-212. In Scheld W, Grayson M, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 9. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816803.ch9
Generic image for table
Table 8.

Distribution of in feces of healthy dairy and beef cattle, raw beef, and raw milk

Citation: Wesley I, Miller W. 2010. an Opportunistic Human Food-Borne Pathogen?, p 185-212. In Scheld W, Grayson M, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 9. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816803.ch9
Generic image for table
Table 9.

Distribution of in live hogs and pork meat

Citation: Wesley I, Miller W. 2010. an Opportunistic Human Food-Borne Pathogen?, p 185-212. In Scheld W, Grayson M, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 9. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816803.ch9

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error