1887

Chapter 13 : : the Fifth Human Malarial Parasite

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

: the Fifth Human Malarial Parasite, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816803/9781555815257_Chap13-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816803/9781555815257_Chap13-2.gif

Abstract:

parasitizes Old World monkeys, typically the long- and pig-tailed macaques of Southeast Asia. A study in Thailand reported species in long-tailed macaques from three geographically distinct areas. Therefore, to provide comprehensive information on epidemiology, patients of Southeast Asia should be included in molecular studies. The study concluded that zoonotic malaria was rare and not a threat to malaria eradication programs initiated by the WHO in a previous era. At the time when atypical was noticed, sensitive and specific PCR-based tools and comparative genetics were well-established methods, particularly useful when investigating new or atypical infections. Knowlesi-specific PCR was developed for inclusion in molecular screening assays for malaria and may be used on DNA extracted from blood collected onto filter papers from even the most remote communities in the region. Therefore, for accurate epidemiology, it is possible to distinguish from using PCR-based assays. Patients reporting to health care facilities with symptomatic suspected on microscopy are the most likely group to be infected with . The definition of what constitutes hyperparasitemia, based on our current experience, should be as for nonimmune falciparum patients. Therefore, one of the most exciting opportunities in the study of pathophysiology in humans is the ability to test correlates of pathophysiology in representative animal models. The first large focus of human cases of knowlesi malaria was identified in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo.

Citation: Cox-Singh J, Singh B, Krishna S. 2010. : the Fifth Human Malarial Parasite, p 261-271. In Scheld W, Grayson M, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 9. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816803.ch13

Key Concept Ranking

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
0.4653156
0.4653156
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

transmission. The range of the group of mosquitoes in Southeast Asia falls within the area outlined by the solid gray line. The northern border of the natural hosts of , long- and pig-tailed macaques, is shown as a hatched line, with two smaller foci of pig-tailed macaques further north (areas within white circles). Nonhuman primates are not found beyond the Wallace line, the lower hatched line. Adapted from reference .

Citation: Cox-Singh J, Singh B, Krishna S. 2010. : the Fifth Human Malarial Parasite, p 261-271. In Scheld W, Grayson M, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 9. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816803.ch13
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Parasitemias from knowlesi malaria patients with well-characterized disease outcomes (uncomplicated, = 95; complicated, = 8; fatal, = 9) were compared. The geometric mean parasitemias (horizontal black lines) were significantly different between the 3 groups ( = <0.0001) using the Kruskal-Wallis test.

Citation: Cox-Singh J, Singh B, Krishna S. 2010. : the Fifth Human Malarial Parasite, p 261-271. In Scheld W, Grayson M, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 9. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816803.ch13
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555816803.ch13
1. Balter, M. 2007. In search of the world’s most ancient mariners. Science 318:388389.
2. Barnwell, J. W.,, M. R. Galinski,, S. G. DeSimone,, F. Perler, and, P. Ingravallo. 1999. Plasmodium vivax, P. cynomolgi, and P. knowlesi: identification of homologue proteins associated with the surface of merozoites. Exp. Parasitol. 91:238249.
3. Chin, W.,, P. G. Contacos,, G. R. Coatney, and, H. R. Kimball. 1965. A naturally acquired quotidian-type malaria in man transferable to monkeys. Science 149:865.
4. Chin, W.,, P. G. Contacos,, W. E. Collins,, M. H. Jeter, and, E. Alpert. 1968. Experimental mosquito-transmission of Plasmodium knowlesi to man and monkey. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 17:355358.
5. Chopra, R. N.,, and D. Gupta. 1936. A preliminary note on the treatment of neuro-syphilis with monkey malaria. Ind. Med. Gaz. 71:187189.
6. Coatney, R. G.,, W. E. Collins,, M. Warren, and, P. G. Contacos. 1971. The primate malarias. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.
7. Corredor, V.,, E. V. Meyer,, S. Lapp,, C. Corredor-Medina,, C. S. Huber,, A. G. Evans,, J. W. Barnwell, and, M. R. Galinski. 2004. A SICAvar switching event in Plasmodium knowlesi is associated with the DNA rearrangement of conserved 3’ non-coding sequences. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 138:3749.
8. Cox-Singh, J.,, T. M. Davis,, K. S. Lee,, S. S. Shamsul,, A. Matusop,, S. Ratnam,, H. A. Rahman,, D. J. Conway, and, B. Singh. 2008. Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in humans is widely distributed and potentially life threatening. Clin. Infect. Dis. 46:165171.
9. Cox-Singh, J.,, J. Hiu,, S. B. Lucas,, P. C. Divis,, M. Zulkarnaen,, P. Chandran,, K. T. Wong,, P. Adem,, S. R. Zaki,, B. Singh, and, S. Krishna. 2010. Severe malaria—a case of fatal Plasmodium knowlesi infection with post-mortem findings: a case report. Malar. J. 9:10.
10. Cox-Singh, J.,, and B. Singh. 2008. Knowlesi malaria: newly emergent and of public health importance? Trends Parasitol. 24:406410.
11. Daneshvar, C.,, C. Davis,, J. Cox-Singh,, M. Rafa’ee,, S. Zakaria,, P. Divis, and, B. Singh. 2009. Clinical and laboratory features of human Plasmodium knowlesi infections. Clin. Infect. Dis. 49:852860.
12. Escalante, A. A.,, O. E. Cornejo,, D. E. Freeland,, A. C. Poe,, E. Durrego,, W. E. Collins, and, A. A. Lal. 2005. A monkey’s tale: the origin of Plasmodium vivax as a human malaria parasite. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102:19801985.
13. Fong, Y. L.,, F. C. Cadigan, and, G. R. Coatney. 1971. A presumptive case of naturally occurring Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in man in Malaysia. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 65:839840.
14. Garnham, P. C. C. 1966. Malaria Parasites and Other Haemosporidia. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, United Kingdom.
15. Hay, S. I.,, C. A. Guerra,, A. J. Tatem,, A. M. Noor, and, R. W. Snow. 2004. The global distribution and population at risk of malaria: past, present, and future. Lancet Infect. Dis. 4:327336.
16. Jongwutiwes, S.,, C. Putaporntip,, T. Iwasaki,, T. Sata, and, H. Kabara. 2004. Naturally acquired Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in human, Thailand. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10:22112213.
17. Kawai, S.,, M. Hirai,, K. Haruki,, K. Tanabe, and, Y. Chigusa. 2009. Cross-reactivity in rapid diagnostic tests between human malaria and zoonotic simian malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi infections. Parasitol. Int. 58:300302.
18. Knowles, R. 1935. Monkey malaria. Br. Med. J. ii:1020.
19. Knowles, R.,, and B. M. Das Gupta. 1932. A study of monkey-malaria and its experimental transmission to man. Ind. Med. Gaz. 67:301321.
20. Kocken, C. H.,, H. Ozwara,, A. van der Wel,, A. L. Beetsma,, J. M. Mwenda, and, A. W. Thomas. 2002. Plasmodium knowlesi provides a rapid in vitro and in vivo transfection system that enables double-crossover gene knockout studies. Infect. Immun. 70:655660.
21. Korir, C. C.,, and M. R. Galinski. 2006. Proteomic studies of Plasmodium knowlesi SICA variant antigens demonstrate their relationship with P. falciparum EMP1. Infect. Genet. Evol. 6:7579.
22. Lalloo, D. G.,, D. Shingadia,, G. Pasvol,, P. L. Chiodini,, C. J. Whitty,, N. J. Beeching,, D. R. Hill,, D. A. Warrell, and, B. A. Bannister. 2007. UK malaria treatment guidelines. J. Infect. 54:111121.
23. Langhorne, J.,, and S. Cohen. 1979. Plasmodium knowlesi in the marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). Parasitology 78:6776.
24. Lee, K. S.,, J. Cox-Singh,, G. Brooke,, A. Matusop, and, B. Singh. 2009. Plasmodium knowlesi from archival blood films: further evidence that human infections are widely distributed and not newly emergent in Malaysian Borneo. Int. J. Parasitol. 39:11251128.
25. Lee, K. S.,, J. Cox-Singh, and, B. Singh. 2009. Morphological features and differential counts of Plasmodium knowlesi parasites in naturally acquired human infections. Malar. J. 8:73.
26. Luchavez, J.,, F. E. Espino,, P. Curameg,, R. Espina,, D. Bell,, P. Chiodini,, D. Nolder,, C. Sutherland,, K. S. Lee, and, B. Singh. 2008. Human infections with Plasmodium knowlesi, the Philippines. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14:811813.
27. Macaulay, V.,, C. Hill,, A. Achilli,, C. Rengo,, D. Clarke,, W. Meehan,, J. Blackburn,, O. Semino,, R. Scoz-zari,, F. Cruciani,, A. Taha,, N. K. Shaari,, J. M. Raja,, P. Ismail,, Z. Zainuddin,, W. Goodwin,, D. Bulbeck,, H. J. Bandelt,, S. Oppenheimer,, A. Torroni, and, M. Richards. 2005. Single, rapid coastal settlement of Asia revealed by analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes. Science 308:10341036.
28. McCutchan, T. F.,, R. C. Piper, and, M. T. Makler. 2008. Use of malaria rapid diagnostic test to identify Plasmodium knowlesi infection. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14:17501752.
29. Miller, L. H.,, D. I. Baruch,, K. Marsh, and, O. K. Doumbo. 2002. The pathogenic basis of malaria. Nature 415:673679.
30. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. 2009. Life Cycle of the Malaria Parasite. National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.
31. Newton, C. R.,, and S. Krishna. 1998. Severe falciparum malaria in children: current understanding of pathophysiology and supportive treatment. Pharmacol. Ther. 79:153.
32. Ng, O. T.,, E. E. Ooi,, C. C. Lee,, P. J. Lee,, L. C. Ng,, S. W. Pei,, T. M. Tu,, J. P. Loh, and, Y. S. Leo. 2008. Naturally acquired human Plasmodium knowlesi infections, Singapore. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14:814816.
33. Ozwara, H.,, J. A. Langermans,, C. H. Kocken,, A. van der Wel,, P. H. van der Meide,, R. A. Vervenne,, J. M. Mwenda, and, A. W. Thomas. 2003. Transfected Plasmodium knowlesi produces bioactive host gamma interferon: a new perspective for modulating immune responses to malaria parasites. Infect. Immun. 71:43754381.
34. Ozwara, H.,, J. A. Langermans,, J. Maamun,, I. O. Farah,, D. S. Yole,, J. M. Mwenda,, H. Weiler, and, A. W. Thomas. 2003. Experimental infection of the olive baboon (Papio anubis) with Plasmodium knowlesi: severe disease accompanied by cerebral involvement. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 69:188194.
35. Pain, A.,, U. Bohme,, A. E. Berry,, K. Mungall,, R. D. Finn,, A. P. Jackson,, T. Mourier,, J. Mistry,, E. M. Pasini,, M. A. Aslett,, S. Balasubrammaniam,, K. Borgwardt,, K. Brooks,, C. Carret,, T. J. Carver,, I. Cherevach,, T. Chillingworth,, T. G. Clark,, M. R. Galinski,, N. Hall,, D. Harper,, D. Harris,, H. Hauser,, A. Ivens,, C. S. Janssen,, T. Keane,, N. Larke,, S. Lapp,, M. Marti,, S. Moule,, I. M. Meyer,, D. Ormond,, N. Peters,, M. Sanders,, S. Sanders,, T. J. Sargeant,, M. Simmonds,, F. Smith,, R. Squares,, S. Thurston,, A. R. Tivey,, D. Walker,, B. White,, E. Zuiderwijk,, C. Churcher,, M. A. Quail,, A. F. Cowman,, C. M. Turner,, M. A. Rajandream,, C. H. Kocken,, A. W. Thomas,, C. I. Newbold,, B. G. Barrell, and, M. Berriman. 2008. The genome of the simian and human malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi. Nature 455:799803.
36. Putaporntip, C.,, S. Jongwutiwes,, T. Iwasaki,, H. Kanbara, and, A. L. Hughes. 2006. Ancient common ancestry of the merozoite surface protein 1 of Plasmodium vivax as inferred from its homologue in Plasmodium knowlesi. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 146:105108.
37. Rogers, W. O.,, J. K. Baird,, A. Kumar,, J. A. Tine,, W. Weiss,, J. C. Aguiar,, K. Gowda,, R. Gwadz,, S. Kumar,, M. Gold, and, S. L. Hoffman. 2001. Multistage multiantigen heterologous prime boost vaccine for Plasmodium knowlesi malaria provides partial protection in rhesus macaques. Infect. Immun. 69:55655572.
38. Rogers, W. O.,, W. R. Weiss,, A. Kumar,, J. C. Aguiar,, J. A. Tine,, R. Gwadz,, J. G. Harre,, K. Gowda,, D. Rathore,, S. Kumar, and, S. L. Hoffman. 2002. Protection of rhesus macaques against lethal Plasmodium knowlesi malaria by a heterologous DNA priming and poxvirus boosting immunization regimen. Infect. Immun. 70:43294335.
39. Sallum, M. A. M.,, E. L. Peyton,, B. A. Harrison, and, R. C. Wilkerson. 2005. Revision of the Leucosphyrus group of Anopheles (Cellia) (Diptera Culicidae). Rev. Bras. 49:152.
40. Seethamchai, S.,, C. Putaporntip,, S. Malaivijitnond,, L. Cui, and, S. Jongwutiwes. 2008. Malaria and Hepatocystis species in wild macaques, southern Thailand. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 78:646653.
41. Sherman, I. W. 1998. History of malaria, p 3–10. In I. W. Sherman (ed.), Malaria: Parasite Biology, Pathogenesis, and Protection. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
42. Shillcutt, S.,, C. Morel,, C. Goodman,, P. Coleman,, D. Bell,, C. J. Whitty, and, A. Mills. 2008. Cost-effectiveness of malaria diagnostic methods in sub-Saharan Africa in an era of combination therapy. Bull. W. H. O. 86:101110.
43. Singh, A. P.,, H. Ozwara,, C. H. Kocken,, S. K. Puri,, A. W. Thomas, and, C. E. Chitnis. 2005. Targeted deletion of Plasmodium knowlesi Duffy binding protein confirms its role in junction formation during invasion. Mol. Microbiol. 55:19251934.
44. Singh, B.,, L. Kim Sung,, A. Matusop,, A. Radhakrishnan,, S. S. Shamsul,, J. Cox-Singh,, A. Thomas, and, D. J. Conway. 2004. A large focus of naturally acquired Plasmodium knowlesi infections in human beings. Lancet 363:10171024.
45. Spangler, W. L.,, D. Gribble,, C. Abildgaard, and, J. Harrison. 1978. Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in the Rhesus monkey. Vet. Pathol. 15:8391.
46. Tanner, M.,, and D. de Savigny. 2008. Malaria eradication back on the table. Bull. W. H. O. 86:82.
47. Tosi, A. J.,, and C. S. Coke. 2007. Comparative phylogenetics offer new insights into the biogeographic history of Macaca fascicularis and the origin of the Mauritian macaques. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 42:498504.
48. Van Oosterzee, P. 1997. Where Worlds Collide: the Wallace Line. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.
49. Vythilingam, I.,, C. H. Tan,, M. Asmad,, S. T. Chan,, K. S. Lee, and, B. Singh. 2006. Natural transmission of Plasmodium knowlesi to humans by Anopheles latens in Sarawak, Malaysia. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 100:10871088.
50. Warhurst, D. C.,, B. L. Robinson, and, W. Peters. 1983. The blood schizontocidal action of erythromycin against Plasmodium knowlesi infections in Macaca mulatta. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 77:231237.
51. Warren, M.,, W. H. Cheong,, H. K. Fredericks, and, G. R. Coatney. 1970. Cycles of jungle malaria in West Malaysia. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 19:383393.
52. Weiss, W. R.,, A. Kumar,, G. Jiang,, J. Williams,, A. Bostick,, S. Conteh,, D. Fryauff,, J. Aguiar,, M. Singh,, D. T. O’Hagan,, J. B. Ulmer, and, T. L. Richie. 2007. Protection of rhesus monkeys by a DNA prime/poxvirus boost malaria vaccine depends on optimal DNA priming and inclusion of blood stage antigens. PLoS One 2:e1063.
53. Wharton, R. H.,, D. E. Eyles,, M. Warren, and, D. E. Moorhouse. 1962. Anopheles leucosphyrus identified as a vector of monkey malaria in Malaya. Science 137:758.
54. Wheatley, B. P. 1980. Malaria as a possible selective factor in the speciation of macaques. J. Mammal. 61:307311.
55. World Health Organization. 2000. Severe falciparum malaria. World Health Organization, Communicable Diseases Cluster. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 94(Suppl. 1):S1S90.
56. World Health Organization. 2009. Malaria, Fact Sheet no. 94. World Health Organization. Geneva, Switzerland.
57. World Health Organization. 2008. Management of Severe Malaria: a Practical Handbook. World Health Organization. Geneva, Switzerland.
58. Yokoyama, Y.,, K. Lambeck,, P. De Deckker,, P. Johnston, and, L. K. Fifield. 2000. Timing of the Last Glacial Maximum from observed sea-level minima. Nature 406:713716.
59. Zhu, H. M.,, J. Li, and, H. Zheng. 2006. Human natural infection of Plasmodium knowlesi. Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi 24:7071.
60. Ziegler, T.,, C. Abegg,, E. Meijaard,, D. Perwitasari-Farajallah,, L. Walter,, J. K. Hodges, and, C. Roos. 2007. Molecular phylogeny and evolutionary history of Southeast Asian macaques forming the M. silenus group. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 42:807816.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error